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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2017 year, number 1

Brown carbon and black carbon in megacity smogs

G.I. Gorchakov1, A.V. Karpov1, A.V. Vasiliev2, I.A. Gorchakova1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: смоги мегаполисов, коричневый углерод, черный углерод, коэффициент преломления, аэрозольная оптическая толщина, альбедо однократного рассеяния, megacity smogs, brown carbon, black carbon, refraction coefficient, aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo

Abstract >>
Aerosol radiative characteristic variability stipulated by brown carbon and black carbon content variations in megacity smogs for Beijing, San-Paulu, Santiago, and Mexico have been analyzed by AERONET data. It is shown that the brown carbon contribution into the imaginary part of the refraction coefficient for a wavelength of 440 nm in smogs can exceed the black carbon contribution more than threefold. In megacity smogs the spectral dependencies of the aerosol optical depth absorption can be approximated by power function with satisfactory precision excluding some Beijing smogs at wavelength of 400 nm when relative concentration of the brown carbon is big. It is shown, that the coarse mode contribution into total aerosol optical depth extinction in smogs can constitute from 6 to 20% for wavelength of 440 and 1020 nm respectively and contribution into aerosol optical depth absorption - from 22% for wavelength of 440 nm to 38% for a wavelength of 1020 nm. The megacity smog aerosol distinguishes from the smoke aerosol formed during large-scale fires in the boreal forests of Russia by increased contribution of the coarse mode in total volume of the aerosol and high values of the imaginary part of the refraction coefficient and therefore by more greater values of aerosol absorbing ability.

Extremely low total ozone values over the northern Ural and Siberia in the end of January 2016

M.P. Nikiforova1, A.M. Zvyagintsev2, P.N. Vargin2, N.S. Ivanova2, A.N. Luk’yanov2, I.N. Kuznetsova3
1Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Crimean Federal University. Vernadsky”, ul. Astana Kesaev, 14J, Sevastopol, 299038, Russia
2Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
3Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: озоновая В«мини-дыраВ», изменения озонового слоя, стратосферный полярный вихрь, динамика средней атмосферы, ozone “mini-hole”, ozone layer changes, stratospheric polar vortex, middle atmosphere dynamics

Abstract >>
During the last week of January 2016 total ozone values ca. 200 DU was detected over the northern Ural and Siberia. Such phenomena was classified as ozone “mini-hole”. There was the first time during all the monitoring period since 1970 when ozone “mini-hole” formed here in the first half of the year. Possible causes and factors of extremely low ozone values initiation during the winter 2016 in comparison to other Arctic winters with sufficient ozone losses were analyzed. A primary role of dynamic processes in ozone anomaly formation in January 2016 was shown. The assumption was made that the greater negative ozone anomalies are likely to appear over Arctic in future.

Ozone over St. Petersburg: Experimental data and numerical modeling

Yu.M. Timofeyev1, Ya.A. Virolainen1, S.P. Smyshlyaev2, M.A. Motsakov2
1Saint-Petersburg State University, University Embankment, 7-9, St. Petersburg, 7/9, 199034
2Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Malookhtinskaya naberezhnaya, 98, St. Petersburg, 195196
Keywords: атмосферный озон, модели атмосферы, дистанционные методы измерений, atmospheric ozone, atmospheric models, remote sensing methods

Abstract >>
The comparison of results of ozone fields numerical modeling with various experimental data allows assessing the quality of models for using them in predicting the ozone layer development. We compare satellite (SBUV) and ground-based (IFS Bruker 125HR) measurements of ozone in two atmospheric layers (0-25 and 25-60 km) with numerical simulation data (Lower and Middle Atmosphere Model) over St. Petersburg for the period between 2011 and 2014. We analyze the differences between coincident data pairs for daily and monthly averaged values. In general, model describes the experimental ozone with good or satisfactory accuracy. However, we observed some systematic differences between measured and modeled ozone contents for some periods. Usually, model overestimates the ozone columns compared to satellite measurements in 0-25 km layer and underestimates them in 25-60 km layer for the autumn-winter period. The same features we observed for daily and monthly averages. In some cases, model describes high frequency fluctuations of ozone columns, which are not observed in experimental data.

The impact of ozone depletion to degradation processes of coniferous forests in the southern regions of Siberia

V.V. Zuev1,2, N.E. Zueva1, E.M. Korotkova1, A.V. Pavlinsky1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: усыхание хвойных лесов, общее содержание озона, вулканогенная депрессия озоносферы, коротковолновая ультрафиолетовая радиация, coniferous forests drying out, total ozone, ozone layer volcanic depletion, short-wave ultraviolet radiation

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The article analyzes the main factors leading to the rise in intensity of coniferous forests focal drying out on the territory of Southern Siberia, recorded during 1990-s. It has been shown that a significant factor weakening the resistance of coniferous trees, could be a long-term ozone depletion due to the constant presence of stratospheric volcanic aerosols caused by frequent Plinian eruptions of tropical belt volcanoes with VEI ≥ 4, which is why South Siberian region has been under continuous exposure to high doses of short-wave UV-B radiation since 1992 to 2012.

Linear trends in average seasonal surface air temperature and modern changes in the regional climate of Siberia

V.S. Komarov, S.N. Il’in, N.Ya. Lomakina, A.V. Lavrinenko
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: среднесезонная приземная температура воздуха, тренд, Сибирский регион, average seasonal surface air temperature, trend, Siberian region

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The work presents the results of the study of long-term changes in average seasonal surface air temperature in the Siberian region for the last 43 years (from 1973 to 2015), as well as for the periods from 1973 to 2005 (when there was the most intense global warming) and from 2006 to 2015 (the period of global warming slowdown or even a cooling in some regions). It is shown that winter and spring seasons have made major contribution to the rise in surface air temperature over the territory of Siberia during the period from 1973 to 2015. A cooling in the Arctic regions of Siberia in the winter season, as well as a cooling in the Western Siberia and in the south-western part of Eastern Siberia in the autumn season made the greatest contribution to reducing the intensity of the warming over the last decade.

Spatiotemporal variations in aerosol characteristics along the route of the Indian-Atlantic expedition onboard RV "Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov"

S.M. Sakerin1, L.P. Golobokova2, D.M. Kabanov1, V.V. Pol’kin1, Yu.S. Turchinovich1, T.V. Khodzher2, O.I. Khuriganova2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толща, концентрации аэрозоля и «сажи», химический состав, Индийский и Атлантический океан, aerosol optical depth, aerosol and “black carbon” concentrations, chemical composition, Indian and Atlantic Ocean

Abstract >>
We discuss the results of studying the physical-chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol during expedition onboard RV “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov” carried out during winter of 2015/2016 on the route from Colombo to Kaliningrad (via Suez Canal). In comparison with the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic (near Europe), the atmosphere of the Arabian and Red Seas was characterized by higher values of most aerosol characteristics: 3-5 times larger aerosol optical depth (AOD), 4 times larger aerosol number concentration, 1.5 times larger concentrations of continent- and sea-derived ions, as well as more abundant gaseous admixtures (SO2, HCl, HNO3, NH3). At the same time, two seas of the Indian basin show substantial differences in aerosol composition, caused by outflows of aerosols of different types from the continents. The largest concentrations of black carbon (2.14 µg · m-3, on the average), sea-derived ions (Na+, Cl-, Mg2+), and NH3 are observed over the Arabian Sea; and larger values of fine component of AOD and concentrations of “continental” ions (SO42-, Ca2+, NO3-, NH4+) and gaseous admixtures SO2, HCl, HNO3 are found over the Red Sea. With respect to ion composition of aerosol, most stable concentrations are noted in Ca2+ ions (less than 15% difference among the seas), and maximal spatial variations are found in NH4+ ions (a difference is up to a factor of 40).

Comparison of the ground concentration of the polluting substances calculated by means of xtm with data of measurements in the moscow region

I.Yu. Shalygina1, M.I. Nakhaev1, I.N. Kuznetsova1, E.V. Berezin2, I.B. Konovalov2, D.V. Blinov1, A.A. Kirsanov1
1Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul'yanov Street , 603950, Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
Keywords: прогноз загрязнения приземного воздуха, химическая транспортная модель CHIMERE, COSMO-RU7-ART, высота пограничного слоя, modeling of air pollution, chemistry-transport model CHIMERE, chemistry-transport model COSMO-RU7-ART, the height of the boundary layer

Abstract >>
Comparisons of model forecasts (XTM CHIMERE and COSMO-RU7-ART) air pollution with data of measurements in Moscow in 2015 are presented. Both HTM use predictive fields of meteorological sizes according to model of the atmosphere of COSMO-RU7. It is established that models underestimate average daily concentration of PM10 and predict with an error on the average of 0,01-0,02 mg of m-3. Concentration of dioxide of XTM COSMO-RU7-ART nitrogen is counted with a margin error on the average by 0,01-0,02 mg of m3, CHIMERE - 0,02-0,03 mg of m-3 (summer of 0,05-0,08 mg of m-3), systematically overestimating NO2. Most often COSMO-RU7-ART underestimates concentration of carbon monoxide (by 0,1-0,2 mg of m-3, a daily maximum on 0,4-0,6 mg of m-3); CHIMERE, on the contrary, systematically overestimates WITH (on 0,2-0,35 mg of m-3, it is frequent on 0,4-0,5 mg of m-3 in the summer). Some results of experiments about influence of a way of definition of height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on model calculations of concentration of CO are discussed. PBL paid off: a) directly in XTM CHIMERE, b) in COSMO-RU7.

Far transfer of trails, ejected by regional electric power stations to the South Baikal water area

V.A. Obolkin, V.L. Potemkin, V.L. Makukhin, T.V. Khodzher, E.V. Chipanina
Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферные загрязнения, диоксиды серы и азота, атмосферный перенос, atmospheric pollution, sulpfur and nitrogen dioxides, atmospheric transfer

Abstract >>
In the article, evidences of really observed regional transport of air pollutants onto Lake Baikal are compared with calculations with the use of mathematical model. According to observed data the highest air pollution over the lake is connected with atmospheric transport of sulphur and nitrogen dioxides from largest coal Power Plants situated around Irkutsk and Angarsk cities as well as from the side of Buryatia (Ulan-Ude and Gusinoozersk). Particularly strong transport of sulphur and nitrogen dioxides into Baikal atmosphere happens at a night time, due to inversed meteorological condition, with weakly dispersed plumes from high stacks of Power Plants. Data of automatic measurements of sulphur and nitrogen dioxides demonstrate that real mechanisms of pollutant’s transfer on the Lake Baikal are more complicated and varied as compared with simulated results. Simulated estimations of SO2 concentrations are close to month average observed concentrations, but they do not describe some special events of extremely high concentrations of pollutants in Baikal atmosphere.

Comparative estimate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in snow cover at the exhaust zone of aluminum manufactures

N.I. Ianchenko, L.I. Belykh
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Lermantova st., 83, Irkutsk, 664074, Russia
Keywords: полициклические ароматические углеводороды, снежный покров, производство алюминия, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, snow cover, aluminum production

Abstract >>
Snow samples are selected and the composition of PAHs in sediments of solid snow in the city of Bratsk is studied. A comparison with the industrial towns of Shelekhov, Novokuznetsk, and Syktyvkar. A close correlation between the quality (profile) of PAH in the snow cover near aluminum smelters, and emissions from sources of electrolytic shops of aluminium production technology with self-roasted anodes are found. The values of the relations of various PAHs in the gas and dust emissions from the electrolytic process of producing aluminum are found. The possibility of their use for identifying sources of pollution from aluminum plants is shown. It is found that the carcinogenic activity of PAH in the snow cover is formed mainly by the contribution of benzo(a)pyrene.

Vertical stratification of excited molecules by self-consistent electric field in the lower stratosphere

T.A. Belyi1, Yu.A. Zelenin2
1Institute of Geophysics National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Palladin av., 32, Kiev, Ukraine, Postcode 03680
2The International Foundation “Chronograph”, Odessa, Ukraine, 65080
Keywords: электрическая стратификация, метастабильные молекулы, тензор напряжений, electric stratification, metastable molecules, tensor of tensions

Abstract >>
Stratification of isotropic ultraviolet emission of atmosphere (λ = 1200-1270 Å) by vertical electric field has been considered as a static polarization of highly excited metastable molecules of ozone cycle (O(1D), O(3P), O2(a1Sg+)). Thermodynamic valuations and scalability of Van der Waals collective interactions have been obtained based on the concept of the Rydberg fluid of excited subsystem of atmosphere that plays an important role in stabilization of ionic layers. Additions to the classical tensor of electric field tension of atmosphere Tik have been considered within the limits of the model of average self-consistent electric field (nonlinear-Poisson equation). Polarization components of the tensor Tik stabilizing the system have been calculated. The model of dynamic field-adiabatic dielectric permeability ε(r) as a function of local potential has been proposed.

Bistatic optoelectronic communication systems. Field experiments in artificial and natural water reservoirs

V.V. Belov1,2, V.N. Abramochkin1, Yu.V. Gridnev1, A.N. Kudryavtsev1, M.V. Tarasenkov1,2, A.V. Fedosov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: NLOS системы связи, рассеяние лазерного излучения в воде и в атмосфере, вероятности ошибок, NLOS communication systems, laser radiation scattering in water and in the atmosphere, communication error probability

Abstract >>
Results of field experiments performed with bistatic optolectronic communication systems in artificial and natural water reservoirs in 2015 are discussed in the present paper. The experiments were aimed at estimation of the communication quality based on the control of communication error probabilities and their standard deviations. Results of experiments suggest that the OECS can be developed that effectively operate in water and complex media (water-atmosphere and atmosphere-water including ice interface) with communication path lengths from several ten to several hundred meters.

Observation of the mirror reflection of lighted underlying surface by a cloudy layer of ice plates

A.M. Morozov, V.P. Galileiskii, A.I. Elizarov, D.V. Kokarev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: облачность, горизонтально ориентированные ледяные пластинки, зеркальное отражение, освещенная подстилающая поверхность, overcast, horizontally oriented ice plates, mirror, illuminated underlying surface

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The observation of specular reflection of illuminated underlying surface cloud layer of horizontally oriented ice plates is reported. The conditions and means of observing this phenomenon are described. Certain evaluations of the characteristics of the reflecting layer clouds obtained on the basis of these observations, are presented as well as photographs, illustrating the phenomenon.

Adaptation problems in the space telescope of “Millimetron” observatory

V.V. Sychev1, A.I. Klem1,2
1Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., 5, 105005, Moscow, Russia
2Astro Space Center, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: система адаптивного управления, система автоматической стабилизации, космический телескоп, В«МиллиметронВ», составное главное зеркало телескопа, adaptive control system, the system of automatic stabilization, space telescope, Millimetron, composite main telescope mirror

Abstract >>
Created in Russian space observatory Millimetron with a 10-meter optical telescope has no analogues to solve scientific and technical tasks of research objects in the Universe. The amount of information that can be obtained at this observatory largely depends on the chosen concept and manufacturability of technical means that implement a high image quality in the telescope. The article, based on the analysis of distorting factors, examined ways of possible technical solutions and concepts, which can be the basis for the creation of systems of adaptive correction of the wavefront distortion (WF) of the received radiation. Variants of adaptive space telescope optical system are considered and analyzed. Following the results of analysis the adaptation at the entrance pupil of the telescope is selected and substantiated, are realized by a circuit of parallel information reading petals of the compound main telescope mirror.

On a variational method of retrieval the wavefront from Shack-Hartman sensor measurements

A.V. Razgulin, E.Zh. Kuzhmaliev, A.S. Goncharov, A.V. Larichev
MGU, Moscow
Keywords: восстановление волнового фронта, наклон волнового фронта, датчик Шака-Гартмана, функционал невязки, вариационный метод, пространственно-частотная характеристика, wavefront reconstruction, wavefront slope, Shack-Hartmann sensor, discrepancy functional, variational method, spatial-frequency response

Abstract >>
New method for wavefront reconstruction from measured gradients is proposed on the basis of the solution of variational problem. Spatial frequency transfer function is obtained for its reconstructor. Accuracy of the restoration is studied, by methods of numerical modeling, at different spatial spectra of wavefront distortions. Reconstructor sensitivity is analyzed in the case of data loss in some nodes of measuring grid.