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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2016 year, number 6

1.
Natural Zonality in the Distribution of Arthropods, Birds and Vascular Plants in Lower Circum-Ob Area and on the Yamal Peninsula

V. N. RYZHANOVSKY, A. V. GILEV, V. N. OLSHVANG
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: зональность, членистоногие, птицы, сосудистые растения, число видов, обилие, полуостров Ямал, zonal distribution, arthropods, birds, vascular plants, number of species, abundance, the Yamal Peninsula

Abstract >>
The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the pattern of zonal distribution of mesofauna arthropods, birds, and vascular plants in the area from the northern boreal forest to arctic tundra of the Yamal Peninsula by the gradient of summer temperatures. Dynamics of northern ecosystems in latitude determines distinctions in plant species number which directly affects abundance of species and that of invertebrates, and indirectly, through the invertebrates - the same indices of birds. Breaks in continuity marking natural boundaries, where the components of arctic communities are changed to the boreal ones are followed with variations in species diversity.
																								



2.
Forest Cover Classification and Geoinformation Modelling of Forest Regeneration Dynamics (Based on the Example of Southern Circum Part of Near-Yenisei Siberia)

V. A. RYZHKOVA, I. V. DANILOVA, M. A. KORETS
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok 50/28
Keywords: лесной покров, потенциальные лесорастительные условия, цифровая модель рельефа (ЦМР), географическая информационная система (ГИС), данные дистанционного зондирования (ДДЗ), карта восстановительной динамики лесного покрова, forest cover, potential forest growing conditions, digital elevation model (DEM), Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing data, forest regeneration dynamics map

Abstract >>
The GIS-based approach for classification and mapping of forest vegetation and forest growing conditions was developed. The combined analysis of Lands at satellite imagery and digital elevation model were applied to produce the digital maps of potential forest growing conditions and forest regeneration dynamics of southern CircumYenisei Siberia. This automated approach allows creating and quickly updating the forest cover maps that is very urgent for the large Siberian forest areas.
																								



3.
Satellite Monitoring of Forest Vegetation State After the Fire Impacts in the Zabaikal Krai

E. G. SHVETSOV1, E. A. KUKAVSKAYA1, L. V. BURYAK2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorogok, 50/28
2Siberian State Technological University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Mira ave., 82
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, лесные пожары, вегетационные индексы, лесовозобновление, remote sensing, forest fires, vegetation indices, reforestation

Abstract >>
In the presented paper we used MODIS data to estimate disturbance of forest covered lands in the south-western areas of the Zabaikal Krai caused by fires. Joint analysis of vegetative indices calculated by measurements of the reflected radiation in the near and mid-infrared wave range and data of the on-ground studies allowed to identify areas of successful and poor reforestation on the fire disturbed territories. Based on instrumental data it was found that repeated fires prevented successful reforestation. The analysis of seasonal dynamics indicates that summer fires result in greater damages of forest vegetation as compared to spring fires. Larch stands prevailing in the region account for a major proportion of the fire disturbed lands (including the largest area where the reforestation processes are hampered) while the pine and deciduous stands are characterized by a higher frequency of fires.
																								



4.
Siberian Silk Moth Outbreak Dynamics in Dark-Coniferous Forests of the Altai

V. I. KHARUK1,2, M. L. DVINSKAYA1, D. A. DEMIDKO1, E. V. FEDOTOVA1,2, U. A. BUDNIK2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
Keywords: сибирский шелкопряд, вспышки размножения насекомых, ксилофаги, мониторинг лесов, изменения климата, темнохвойная тайга, усыхание хвойных, Siberian silkmoth, insect outbreaks, xylophagous insects, pest monitoring, climate change, dark-conifer taiga, conifer mortality

Abstract >>
Spatial and temporal dynamics of fir-dominant stand mortality in the Altai Mountains was studied based on remote sensing and GIS methods. Mortality was primarily caused by Siberian silkmoth ( Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv.). Spatial distribution of stands mortality was dissimilar with respect to relief features. Initially pest outbreak occurred on the south-west slopes (about 10 steepness) and elevation about 400 a.s.l. Then mortality spread uphill and downhill and to the steeper slopes and those of the eastern exposure. About 45 % of total (6 thousand ha) mortality was due to secondary pest (bark beetles) attacks. Based on remote sensing technique an initial phase of pest outbreak was determined with one-decade precision. Siberian silkmoth outbreak happened at increase in air temperature and decrease in precipitation and late frosts. Weakened by Siberian silkmoth and water stress trees became sensitive to secondary pest’s attacks. Observed and predicted warming and aridity increase will facilitate Siberian silkmoth outbreaks both within its range and northward of its current border.
																								



5.
Modelling of Сlimatic Limits of Lophodermium Needle Cast and their Shifts in a Changing Climate in Central Siberia

N. M. TCHEBAKOVA, N. A. KUZMINA, E. I. PARFENOVA, V. A. SENASHOVA, S. R. KUZMIN
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: обыкновенное шютте, сосна, изменение климата, Средняя Сибирь, needle cast, Scots pine, climate change, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The relationships between climate (January and July temperatures, annual precipitation and a relative moisture index) and the numbers and intensities of Lophodermium needle cast disease events in Pinus sylvestris L. nurseries and provenance trials across the Krasnoyarsk Krai have been studied using multiple regressions. The maximum number of the disease manifestations was found to be associated with warm and humid weather conditions. Climate-based biolclimatic models of Lophodermium needle cast have been built and used to predict a spatial dynamics of the disease for two climate change scenarios during the 21st century. Model experiments demonstrated that the needle cast range would shift northwards into new regions where this pathogen had not been registered in nurseries yet. The largest forest areas that may be damaged by disease outbreaks are predicted under moderate warming by 2020. Under substantial warming by 2080, forest areas of potential disease outbreaks would decrease because pine shifts into the permafrost zone would be limited by slow thawing of its active layer depth.
																								



6.
Environmental and Molecular Genetic Features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi Ticks in Southern West Siberia

N. N. LIVANOVA1,2, S. G. LIVANOV1, A. Yu. TIKUNOV2, N. V. FOMENKO2,3, N. V. TIKUNOVA2
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
2Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrent’eva ave., 8
3JSC Vector-Best, 630128, Novosibirsk, Pasechnаya str., 3
Keywords: 16S рРНК, COI, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, Алтае-Саянская горная страна, Западно-Сибирская равнина, обилие, расселение, 16S rRNA, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, the Altai-Sayan Mountain Area, nouthern forest-steppe, abundance, resettlement

Abstract >>
Ixodiae ticks were counted and sampled in six distant locations within the Altai-Sayan Mountain Area and nouthern forest-steppe in 2012. In total, 1829 individuals of I. persulcatus and 719 of I. pavlovskyi were trapped. I. persulcatus was found in all six examined locations and I. pavlovskyi - in the Western Altai, North-Eastern Altai, and Northern Altai, and the forest parks near Novosibirsk’s Academgorodok . In total, 16S rRNA and COI sequences were determined for 144 and 164 I. persulcatus individuals, and for 60 and 55 I. pavlovskyi . Selectively equivalent mutant forms were present in I. pavlovskyi populations of the North-Eastern Altai and Northern Altai. The hydrothermal regime in the forest parks near Novosibirsk is optimal for ticks I. pavlovskyi . These ticks have recently colonized the forest parks near Novosibirsk and therefore are genetically close to I. pavloskyi from the “Altai-Sayan Mountain Area” populations.
																								



7.
Features of Taxonomic Organization of Cyanobacterial-Algal Flora of Extreme Habitats as a Reflection of the Different Models of Successional Transformations

J. F. PIVOVAROVA, A. G. BLAGODATNOVA, Z. Z. BAGAUTDINOVA
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Novosibirsk, Viluiskaya str., 28
Keywords: цианобактериально-водорослевая флора, песок, скальные породы, северо-восток Азии, Западная Сибирь, cyanobacterial-algal flora, rock, sand, north-eastern Asia, West Siberia

Abstract >>
During the primary colonization of substrates by cyanobacterial-algal flora in obviously different regions of Russia (Yano-Oimyakon Highlands, Northeast of Asian Russia and West Siberia), 78 specific and intraspecific taxa of algae and cyanobacteria were found. The analysis of obtained data gives an indication of different nature of the development of substrates (rocks and sandy soils). It is quite possible to consider them as specific situ models throughout autogenous litho- and psamosuccessions.
																								



8.
Phytoplankton Structure in the White Sea after Summer Bloom: Spatial Heterogeneity in Relation to Hydrophysical Conditions

L. S. ZHITINA1, L. V. ILYASH1, T. A. BELEVICH1, A. A. KLYUVITKIN1, M. D. KRAVCHISHINA2, A. V. TOLSTIKOV3, A. L. TCHULTSOVA4
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1-12
2P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovskii ave., 36
3Northern Water Problems Institute of the Karelian Research Centre, RAS, 185030, Petrozavodsk, Alekxander Nevsky str., 50
4P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, 163061, Arkhangelsk, North Dvinа emb., 112
Keywords: фитопланктон, Белое море, пространственное распределение, структура фитопланктона, phytoplankton, the White Sea, spatial distribution, phytoplankton structure

Abstract >>
Species composition and phytoplankton biomass, concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl) and nutrients, as well as concurrent hydrophysical conditions were studied in the southern part of the White Sea in July 10-15, 2012 during chlorophyll a decrease after summer peak. The water column stability varied, the concentration of dissolved silicon in the upper mixed layer was closed to the range favorable for diatoms with the exception of areas of intensive tide mixing and areas influenced by waters of the Severnaya Dvina River. In the surface layer the dinoflagellates dominated except for areas with intensive tide mixing where diatoms prevailed. Diatoms provided major contribution to biomass in different stations above, in and under pycnocline and in deep waters out of the photic zone. The structural analysis revealed three phytoplankton communities that corresponded to different depths: communities of the photic zone, intermediate and deep layers. Extension of layers inhabited by different communities depended on water column stability and on genesis of water masses. Integrated values of phytoplankton biomass and Chl varied from 250 to 1188 mg С/m2, and from 22 to 51 mg/m2, respectively.
																								



9.
Spatial-Typological Structure and Organization of the Winter and Pre-spring Bird Communities of the Northern Macroslope of the Kyrgyz Range (Tien-Shan)

E. DAVRANOV
Institute of systematics and ecology of animals, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: орнитокомплексы, неоднородность, пространство, среда, факторы, связи, структура, классификация, bird communities, territorial heterogeneity, environmental factors, assessment of linkages, structure, classification

Abstract >>
Hierarchical classification was drafted and spatial-typological structure of the winter and pre-spring bird population was revealed for the northern macroslope of the Kyrgyz Range. Descriptiveness of obtained classification and structural representations, as well as evaluation of the variability of communities due to environmental factors were determined by linear approximation of quality, Structure and organization of the bird communities in these periods were compared. Overall, the heterogeneity of the bird communities of the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Range in winter and early spring periods is associated with variability in heat and humidity, and presence of built-up areas and mono-crop agriculture. In winter, the avifauna changes more gradually than in the early spring period.
																								



10.
Reproductive Success and Fitness of Male Common Voles (Microtus arvalis)

V. S. GROMOV
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, 119071, Moscow, Leninsky ave., 33
Keywords: Microtus arvalis, репродуктивный успех, темпы роста, индивидуальная приспособленность, Microtus arvalis, reproductive success, growth rate, fitness

Abstract >>
Pup survival and growth were monitored to determine whether paternal care potentially contributed to reproductive success. The subjects were 143 pups from 24 litters obtained from adult voles trapped in the wild. One group of litters ( n = 12, 72 pups) was raised by adult females without sires, and the other group of litters ( n = 12, 71 pups) was raised by both parents. Pup survival and growth rate were found to decrease in the presence of the sires especially those ones exhibiting a higher level of aggressiveness. These findings indicate a decrease of fitness of male common voles living in family groups.
																								



11.
Influence of Plants on the Methane Cycle in Sediments and Rhizosphere Soils

D. N. GAR’KUSHA, Yu. A. FEDOROV
Institute of Earth Sciences Southern Federal University, 344090, Rostov-on-Don, R. Zorge str., 40
Keywords: растения, филосфера, ризосфера, метан, образование, окисление, эмиссия, plants, philosphere, rhizosphere, methane formation, oxidation, emission

Abstract >>
The article analyzes and summarizes the literature data and own material regarding the influence of living plants on the formation, oxidation and concentration of methane in aquatic and wetland ecosystems, principally through the regulation of plants physical-chemical conditions of the rhizosphere soils and sediments, number and activity of microorganisms, as well as methane emissions into the atmosphere. In addition, the paper discusses the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the mechanism of aerobic, not microbiological formation of methane in plant filesphere.
																								



12.
Heavy metals in phytoplankton and zooplankton of Kenon Lake (Zabaikalsky Krai)

M. Ts. ITIGILOVA, N. A. TASHLYKOVA, E. Yu. AFONINA
Institute of Natural resources, ecology and kryology, SB RAS, 672014, Chita, Nedorezova str., 16a
Keywords: фитопланктон, зоопланктон, тяжелые металлы, коэффициент накопления, оз. Кенон, Забайкальский край, phytoplankton, zooplankton, heavy metals, accumulation coefficient, Kenon Lake, Zabaikalsky Krai

Abstract >>
The aim of the present study is to determine the accumulation of heavy metals in the plankton collected from Kenon Lake. The results of study of the concentration of some heavy metals in the phytoplankton and zooplankton of technogenic-transformed Kenon Lake (Chita, Zabaikalsky Krai) are given. For algae the concentrations of Zn and Sr were high. For zooplankton the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg were less or corresponded to the values obtained for other water bodies. It is shown that the distribution of heavy metals in the water area was varied. The greatest concentration of metals is noted in the plankton from technogenic contaminated sites.