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Region: Economics and Sociology

2016 year, number 3

Organizing statistical research and system monitoring of the development of macroregions

1Federal Research Center В«Informatics and Managament», Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt 60-let Octyabrya, 9, Moscow, 117312
2Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskiy av., 47, Moscow, 117418, Russia
Keywords: Арктическая зона РФ, макрорегион, мониторинг, статистическое наблюдение, стратегическое планирование, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, macroregion, monitoring, statistical surveillance, strategic planning

Abstract >>
Due to a certain practice to target territories incorporating one or several subjects of the Russian Federation as objects of state regulation, this article clarifies the definition of a «macroregion» and uses specific examples to show particular characteristics of a macroregion as an entity of statistical observation and monitoring. We analyze statutory enactments which govern the organization of public statistical systems and monitoring investigations. Through the example of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, we demonstrate the objectives and validate our recommendations on how to organize statistical surveillance and system monitoring of the current condition and development of macroregions.

Developing the Knowledge Economy: the Role of Innovation Projects in the Regional Reindustrialization Program

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Новосибирская область, инновации, наука, реиндустриализация, типология проектов, инфраструктурные проекты, государственная поддержка, риски, Novosibirsk Oblast, innovation, science, reindustrialization, project typology, infrastructural projects, state support, risks

Abstract >>
The article shows the reindustrialization program as a means for strategic planning and organizing cooperation between innovation project participants. Here we prove that this strategic maneuver of the reindustrialization program and its innovations thrust will help to establish cooperation between scientific institutes, universities, and innovative companies and to create a demand for innovation since large businesses are not yet interested in innovative development. We define a skill set for main innovation actors in Novosibirsk Oblast, who are able to carry out innovation projects in order to develop the knowledge economy. In this article, we propose a reindustrialization project typology from the standpoint of the level and significance of issues to solve and their impact on region's economy; we determine flagship and infrastructure projects, projects of national, inter-regional and regional levels. We mark out some risks related to project implementation and methods to damp them in the course of the reindustrialization program through a combination of federal and regional support measures.

The Relationship of Normal and Excessive Personal Income Inequality with Regional Economies Performance Indicators

National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Bolshaya Pokrovskaya st., 37, Nizhniy Novgorod, 603000, Russia
Keywords: регион, доходы населения, коэффициент Джини, нормальное и избыточное неравенство, показатели развития, функция Кобба - Дугласа, region, personal income, the Gini coefficient, normal and excessive inequality, development indicators, Cobb-Douglas function

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The article uses the following methods: A.Yu. Shevyakov's approach to the decomposition of the Gini coefficient on the normal and excessive inequality; the full deflation method for evaluation of the real income and real productivity; correlation and regression analysis, and construction of Cobb-Douglas type production functions. We proposed three levels to split the normal and excessive inequality: the poverty line, the social minimum boundary, and the social well-being boundary. There were obtained an inverse relationship between real per capita income and the excessive inequality Gini coefficient, as well as some sort of Kuznets curve for the relationship between real per capita income and the normal inequality Gini coefficient for Russian regions in 2013. The correlations of normal and excessive inequality with the general development indicators, as well as indicators of the population composition and dynamics, the structures of income and gross regional product, industrial structure of the economy, and the population's wealth were estimated. By incorporating the separated Gini coefficients in interregional five-factor Cobb-Douglas production function, we confirmed the positive correlation of normal inequality and negative correlation of excessive inequality with production in Russian regions. It was concluded that excessive inequality, on the one hand, is the result of low development, and, on the other hand, suppresses production incentives in regions. At the same time, the normal inequality promotes economic development, which is at first accompanied by growth in this type of inequality, and then by its decline.

The Dynamics of Demographic Risks in Siberia: a Multiregional Analysis

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: воспроизводство населения, депопуляция, старение населения, демографическая безопасность, индикаторы демографических угроз, интегральный показатель демографической безопасности, reproduction of the population, depopulation, ageing of the population, demographic security, demographic threat indicators, integrated index of demographic security

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The article discusses a methodological approach to analyzing the dynamics of the demographic situation with individual indicators from several territorial objects, which allow assessing each territory according to how tense its demographic situation is. To conduct this analysis, we have selected a few demographic threat factors showing the dynamics in all the regions of the Siberian Federal District against nationwide trends. An important part of the work is creating an integral index of demographic security (IIDS) based on the analyzed indicators, which may help to identify problem areas with low demographic security and relatively prosperous regions. Having compared the IIDS dynamics for all the subjects in the Siberian Federal District, we were the first to distinguish three groups of regions by their level of demographic security for the period of1990-2012. The article shows that almost all regions with a low level of demographic security are located along the state border. The IIDS can be used in demographic policy-making at both regional and federal levels in order to decide on managerial actions on demographic security.

Family and Children in the System of Life Values of the Yakut Population

North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk, Petrovsky st., 2, Yakutsk, 677891, Russia
Keywords: Якутия, жизненные ценности, семья, дети, семейный состав, опрос населения, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), life values, family, children, family composition, opinion poll

Abstract >>
This article analyses the changing place of family and children in life value priorities of the population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Our research hypothesis is that the persistent significance offamily in the scale of life values is determined by the evolving family structure and completeness and increasing child-centrism. The article is based on the six sociological surveys conducted between 1993 and 2011 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Such a long research period allowed us to trace the transformation of axiological views of the Yakuts on the value and importance of families and children in their lives. The classification of life values developed by the authors shows how significant each of the three designated groups is for confirming the hypothesis about the preservation of the traditional family lifestyle. We discover the differentiations of respondents' opinions on the competition between the values of family, socio-labor and personal orientations depending on the age, marital and social status of the survey participants. The main conclusion is that the family retains its priority in the lives of the Yakut population with an explicit child-centric orientation. For some young people social, labor, and personal orientations have little or no association with the family. There is a concern about their views on the existing forms of marriage, the relationship and obligations of spouses, and the desire to preserve their freedom.

Evaluating the Quality of Local Public Goods

1Economic Theory Centre of the Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskovskaya st., 29, Yekaterinburg, 620014, Russia
2Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskovskaya st., 29, Yekaterinburg, 620014, Russia
Keywords: сектор общественных благ, потребительская оценка, нормативно-правовая оценка, public goods sector, consumer evaluation, regulatory assessment

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The article reveals that both theoretical and practical aspects of public goods quality evaluation are insufficiently covered in scientific papers. The authors identify two types of pu0lic goods assessment: regulatory and consumer. Here we present a procedure for the consumer evaluation of public goods which considers their proximity and price affordability. The article presents the results of an empirical research on mixed public goods and their consumer evaluation, conducted in Yekaterinburg. The research determined the actual and desired frequency of public goods use. We have compiled a list of public goods that require additional funding and regulation. Our findings can be used in Yekaterinburg social policy development.

The Ethnic and Social Problems of Yakut Territories in the Power of Siberia Pipeline Construction Area

Yakut Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrovskiy st., 2, Yakutsk, 677980, Russia
Keywords: Якутия, газопровод В«Сила СибириВ», коренные малочисленные народы Севера, этносоциальное развитие, этнологическая экспертиза, Yakutia, the Power of Siberia pipeline, indigenous small numbered peoples of the North, ethnic and social development, ethnological expert review

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The paper presents the ethnic and social characteristics of Yakut territories within the area affected by the Power of Siberia cross-border gas pipeline. The construction of the pipeline will have a multidirectional social impact on the regions inhabited by indigenous peoples of the North. We reveal the results of an ethnological expert review on the pipeline construction and outline the main problems emerging from the influence that industrial projects exert over the ethnic and social development of territories.

Regional Assistance in Creating Gas-Chemical Clusters in Amur and Irkutsk Oblasts

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: мегапроект, Восточно-Сибирский нефтегазовый комплекс, газопровод В«Сила СибириВ», регион, согласование интересов, региональные эффекты, государственная поддержка, инвестиционная программа, megaproject, the East Siberian oil and gas complex, the Power of Siberia pipeline, region, alignment of interest, regional effects, public support, investment program

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The article offers a comprehensive analysis of expected effects and gains for regions from building petrochemical clusters in conjunction with the development strategies of mining companies within the East Siberian oil and gas complex (ESOGC) megaproject. The ESOGC megaproject is a tool for studying the commercial performance of companies' investment projects, state and regional tax revenues, and the balance of strategic investment intentions of Gazprom andSIBUR in the exploration of hydrocarbon deposits in Eastern Siberia and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). We examine the Amur and Irkutsk Oblast practices making a regional policy aimed at locating expected effects and benefits, as well as in working out organizational and managerial solutions for the implementation of gas-chemical projects of SIBUR and Gazprom.

Large-Scale Investment Projects: the Problem of Choice Under Uncertainty

Siberian Transport University, Dusya Kovalchuk st., 191, Novosibirsk, 630049, Russia
Keywords: крупномасштабные инвестиционные проекты, неопределенность, коммерческая эффективность, стратегическая эффективность, структуризация, выбор, large-scale investment projects, uncertainty, commercial success, strategic effectiveness, structuring, choice

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The article describes the method of choice for a preferred implementation of large-scale investment project among other alternatives under radical uncertainty. Since projects of this scale are usually rather complex, the selection procedure begins with target structuring. A target system (objective tree) is quantified by using expert techniques. Similarly, the next phase involves building a hierarchy of scenarios describing the development of the economy within the completing projects' life cycles. These two steps result in a strategic evaluation matrix. After analyzing it, according to the decision theory, a researcher is able to select the preferred large-scale investment project. The method has been tested in the evaluation of the following competing projects: Lena-Kamchatka Mainline, Transpolar Mainline, and the reconstruction of the Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur Mainline routes.

Methodology for Assessing the Interregional Cooperation of a Russian Federal Subject

Business and Trade Development and External Relations of Kirov Oblast Administration, Karl Liebknecht st., 69, Kirov, 610019, Russia
Keywords: Кировская область, межрегиональное сотрудничество, оценка, государственное регулирование, формы взаимодействия, Kirov Oblast, interregional cooperation, assessment, state regulation, forms of interaction

Abstract >>
The article presents a methodology for assessing the development level of interregional cooperation of a particular region within the borders of one country, which aims at optimizing the management decision-making process. We propose a new assessment system that allows evaluating not only the state of interregional cooperation but also the prospects for development of relations between regions. Considering the example of the Kirov Oblast regional executive authorities, we conclude that should these authorities use the research results, it will qualitatively improve the state regulation of interregional cooperation.

Eco-Economic Models in the Mineral Resource Sector of Russia

1Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nedorezov st., 16a, Chita, 672014, Russia
2Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Koptyug av., 4, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: механизм партнерства, задача целочисленного математического программирования, программа освоения минерально-сырьевой базы, Забайкальский край, partnership arrangements, integer mathematical programming problem, mineral resource base development plan, Zabaykalskiy Kray

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The paper considers the institution of public-private partnership (PPP) as well as its development level in the Russian mineral resource sector and investigates partnership arrangements as an effective government tool for assisting investors at the expense of the Investment Fund both in building the infrastructure and carrying out environmental measures in underdeveloped areas. In order to examine the properties of partnership, we designed special economic and mathematical tools that help effectively divide the costs required in mineral resource base development between the state and private investors. These tools are a combination of integer mathematical programming problem and a set of predictive models used to describe resource area operation processes. We demonstrate the technique in practice through the example of Transbaikal (Zabaykalskiy Kray), to which end we elaborate a development plan for a group of polymetallic deposits with the PPP mechanism and analyze the sensitivity of solutions to changes in its key parameters. The results of our numerical studies confirm that the mechanism is applicable to underdeveloped areas. They also suggest that, besides a well-thought-out approach to determining the scope of aid essential for infrastructure and environmental projects, it makes much sense to account for transaction costs since their level and structure affect the performance of both private investors and the state.

Problems of Budget Sufficiency of Novosibirsk Megalopolis

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: мегаполис, Новосибирск, бюджет, бюджетные коэффициенты, устойчивость бюджета, методики оценки структуры бюджетов, megalopolis, Novosibirsk, budget, budget coefficients, stability of the budget, budget structure assessment techniques

Abstract >>
The paper studies key fiscal indicators in cities with a population of over one million people and offers a technique to assess their budget and intergovernmental fiscal flows. With the said technique, the author calculates these indicators over the years 2006-2014 and assesses the structure of municipal budgets (considering both local tax and non-tax revenues and the dependence on regional grants). In addition, we examine the possibility to use budget resources in order to fund the main areas of municipal spending. The megalopolises in the Russian Federation have significantly lost their budgetary independence over the period of analysis. We investigate the stability of the budget for Novosibirsk megalopolis by applying the budgetary coefficients technique and demonstrate where Novosibirsk stands among the megalopolises of Russia and the municipalities of Novosibirsk Oblast.

The BRICS Economic Bloc: Risks and Initiatives

Aligarh Muslim University, UP, Aligarh, 202002, India
Keywords: БРИКС, развивающиеся экономики, экспортеры сырья, колониализм, BRICS, emerging economies, commodity exporters, colonialism

Abstract >>
BRICS has come up as an economic bloc. But analysts believe that it is China-dominated and hence will serve the cause of Chinese economy rather than the cause of other economies of the bloc. It is also believed that it could be an alternative to the European Union. Thus, the present paper will explore how far this notion is correct. The paper also deals with the creation of the BRICS Development Bank and its role in the promotion of growth and development in the bloc.

Human Development in the BRICS Countries: Similarities and Differences

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: БРИКС, человеческое развитие, социальное неравенство, социальная справедливость, BRICS, human development, social inequality, social equity

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Drawing on the UNDP report, the article examines the trends of human capital development and its national specificities in the BRICS countries for the period of 1980-2014. We introduce rankings for the BRICS countries according to human development indicators and compare the levels of social inequality and human development by country groups and socio-demographic groups of the population. The main indicators characterizing human development in the BRICS member states are the following: life expectancy, the length of upcoming education, and gross national income. The BRICS countries exhibit high and medium levels of human development; at the same time, there is a positive trend in human development. We conclude that the levels of human development and social inequality are inversely related; the current intense inequality of income distribution seems illegitimate for the majority of Russian citizens. We present an outline of social policy designed to mitigate social inequalities and elaborate promising measures for human capital development in the Russian Federation.

Models of Spatial Analysis and Forecasting

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogova st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: пространство, регион, теория, методология, модель, аналитика, прогнозирование регионального развития, space, region, theory, methodology, model, analytics, forecasting of regional development

Abstract >>
In February 2016, an open methodological seminar for undergraduate and graduate students was organized in the Territorial Systems Department at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS. The seminar is meant to assist young researchers in thesis writing, expand their knowledge and skills in various fields of economics, teach them techniques of how to use scientific literature, information resources, etc. A critical objective of the seminar is to demonstrate that any economic study and model is based on a certain theory; to explain that, depending on a problem, a researcher should select a theory the most adequate to the task, i.e. based on basic hypotheses and conditions that correlate with the subject and object of their research. Each theory is just a more or less crude approximation to reality and can only be useful when solving specific problems. One of the first reports delivered at the seminar was devoted to methods of spatial development analysis and forecasting. This article contains its main provisions.

The 40th Anniversary of the Economic Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences


In Memory of Academician A.I. Tatarkin