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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2016 year, number 2


A.A. Anoykin
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Lavrent’ev str., Novosibirsk, 6300900, Russia
Keywords: Кавказ, Дагестан, средний палеолит, верхний палеолит, первичное расщепление, леваллуазская техника, Caucasus, Dagestan, Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic, primary reduction, Levallois technique

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The article deals with the problem of Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Dagestan (Northeastern Caucasus). The sites of Tinit-1 and Rubas-1 (upper assemblage) in the Rubas valley is characteristic of a watershed period between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in this part of the Caucasus. The analysis of these industries makes it possible to infer that Levallois technique was gradually phased out, with its transformation focused on a more intensive use of technical volume of a core within the semi-volumetric blade technique. At the same time, lithic industries underwent changes in their toolkits: the Middle Paleolithic pointed forms were vanishing, the treatment of side-scrapers tended to become simpler, the number and variability of the Upper Paleolithic types increased, the isolated tool-markers (shouldered and carinated end-scrapers, truncated-faceted pieces, transverse multiple burins) came into use. In addition, the general typological composition of tools corresponded to a single function. The lithic industries discussed above demonstrate gradual change within the frame of a single strategy during the whole period of their existence, lasting about 15 ka (50-35 ka BP). Comparison of materials from the sites of Rubas-1 and Tinit-1 with collections obtained from the sites in the South Caucasus has revealed significant differences between them. Thus, during the early stages of their occurrence (80-50 ka BP), the Middle Paleolithic industries of the Dagestan showed a resemblance to the industries of the Zagros-Taurus type (including materials obtained from the sites in the South Caucasus), and later they became distinctly different from the assemblages discovered in the adjacent areas. This suggests that the Dagestan industries represented a local version of the Middle Paleolithic industries developed in the Middle East. Therefore one can argue that the development of later lithic industries occurred in the region on a local basis.


S.V. Kovalenko1, P.V. Volkov1,2
1Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentieva str., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Западное Приамурье, осиноозерская археологическая культура, стратиграфия, отжимная ретушь, трасология, орудийный набор, Western Amur Region, Osinoozerskaya culture, stratigraphy, pressure flaking, traceology, tool set

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In 1961 A.P. Okladnikov discovered an outstanding archeological site on the shores of Lake Osinovoe in the Amur region. In 1962 and 1965 stationary studies were carried out. They resulted in several excavated dwellings which gave abundant data for characterizing the Neolithic culture. The result of the research was the allocation of late Neolithic Osinoozerskaya culture. Its tribes lived in this area in 3,000-2,000 BC and were a settled population, mainly engaged in hunting and fishing. In relation to the discovery of millet grains in the hearth dimple of one of the dwellings it was concluded that the inhabitants practiced crop farming. Despite the fact that over the last decade archeologists have studied several new sites, greatly expanding the range of sources for the analysis of Osinoozerskaya culture, it remains the least studied among the Neolithic cultures of the region. The problems associated with such controversial issues as its genetic link with the earlier Novopetrovskaya culture (in spite of the time gap of 4,000 years) and the emergence of agriculture, remain unsolved and require further reflection. In 2012, in order to gather new data on the culture, studies were continued on the periphery of the Neolithic settlement. There were pole-holes identified at the lower stratum of the occupation layer - they could have been designed for a light shed. The output is a collection of artifacts (pottery and stone), several of them were defined by use-wear analysis as a tool set including household items of daily use with frequent trimming and alteration, peculiar to dwellings and sites with a variety of human activities. Overall the excavated site is a mono-cultural one, which refers to the period of Osinoozerskaya culture and was used by the inhabitants for economic activity.


A.V. Tabarev, D.A. Ivanova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Японский архипелаг, Кюсю, культура яёй, погребения, бронзовые зеркала, Japanese Archipelago, Kyushu, Yayoi culture, burials, bronze mirrors

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The article is based on the results of work with the collections kept in the museums of Fukuoka prefecture (Kyushu, Japan), and on analysis of a wide range of literature devoted to the phenomenon of elite female burials in Yayoi culture accompanied with large numbers of bronze mirrors. It is illustrated with the most significant data on Sugu-Okamoto, Mikumo, and Hirabaru necropoleis. The events which occurred on the Japanese Islands during III BC - III AD marked not only the shift from one culture (Jomon) to another (Yayoi), but also fundamental changes almost in all cultural components. These changes included replacement of subsistence economy with the producing one; emergence of new technologies and the upgrade of former ones; modification of burial ritual and social structure. All these changes were connected with a strong migratory impulse from the territory of Korean Peninsula. Yayoi culture was spreading across the archipelago from the territory of Kyushu, where the new forms of social organization (complex chiefdoms) headed by charismatic leaders appeared. According to historical records and archaeological data, women occupied a special place among these leaders. The authors use these data to interpret the role of mirrors in Yayoi society. Mirrors belong to the traditional shamanistic attributes among aboriginals in North and Eastern Asia. With the emergence and spread of metallurgy mirrors became part of prestige economy and served as indicators of a special status of the buried persons. The case of the elite Yayoi burials on Kyushu shows parallel development of several interesting processes: moving from the import of bronze mirrors to their manufacturing with the local or Chinese molds; emergence of items with hypertrophic parameters based on prestige technologies; empowerment of chiefs with the unique skills to master the “magic” of the mirrors, and gradual institutionalization of mirrors into one of the Sacred Japanese Treasures.


S.P. Nesterov
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Амурская область, Озеро Долгое, мохэ, сосуд-горн, металлургическое производство, Amur region, Long Lake, Mohe, ceramic vessels-furnaces, metallurgical production

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In 2014, in the Amur region near the Amur River on the site Ozero Dolgoe two submarine pits were excavated. On the present-day surface submarine pit № 16 was rectangular in shape with rounded corners (4,2×5 m), steep sides and a depth of 46 - 52 cm. The submarine pit № 17 is square shaped with rounded corners (4,6×4,8 m), with steep slope, depth 40-51 cm. The stratigraphic and planigraphic observations, structure of the burnt wooden frames at the bottom of deep pits № 16 and № 17, and the discovered artifacts allowed to suggest that these are funerary complexes of Mohe of Troitskaya group dated from the VIII century. However, AMS 14C analysis of coal samples from the pit № 17 allowed to obtain the new dates - 1760±40 years ago (MTS-17572), cal. ±1δ 230-340 BC, ±2δ 139-385 BC, or the first half of the III-IV century. Theses dates are different from the previously proposed ones, therefore the discrepancy of 400-500 years in dating requires additional carbon dating of samples, and additional study of similar depressions (there are 41 of them left on the site). Findings from a filling of a deep funnel pit № 17 include 95 kg of glandular wreckage of kritsa of various sizes (total weight 1.55 kg), 89 pieces of slag (weight 0.4 kg); 200 fragments of pottery vessels from at least three groups of Mohe of Troitskaya group; a piece of iron armor plates and possibly fragment of an iron boiler; 17 riverine pebbles, 7 pebbles splintered, 2 stone, and 7 stone chippings and flakes, about 240 burnt animal bones. They have developed into a complex of objects associated with the smelting of small portions of iron in ceramic vessels-furnaces. Similar vessels for smelting of iron and bronze were found at the of Mohe settlement of Aspen Lake. The presence of industrial waste in a depression on the surface of the terrace suggests that somewhere near to metal smelting there was a special area or workshop, which was periodically cleaned and freed from the iron manufacturing waste. Remains of iron production belong to Mohe of Troitskaya group, and dated IX-X centuries.


JU. S. Khudyakov1, YU.A. Filippovitsh2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentyev str., Novosibirsk, 630090
2Novosibirsk national State University, 2, Pirogov str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Южная Сибирь, енисейские кыргызы, железный век, Southern Siberia, Yenisei Kyrgyz, iron tip of spear, broadsword, bits, stirrups, Minusinsk Hollow

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The article analyzes the collection of finds - iron objects of armament and horse harness from the Minusinsk Hollow. Judging from the good state of preservation and bent blade of a broadsword they could belong to the culture of the Yenisei Kyrgyz. The iron tip of a spear from the collection is distinguished by its original design. The tip has a rhombic shape with indentations on the sides. The similar tips of spears in the burial mounds of the culture of the Yenisei Kyrgyz did not occur in the past. Among the objects there is an iron broadsword with bent blade and detachable guard. According to design features, this finding relates to the third type of broadswords that were in the inventory of the Yenisei Kyrgyz warriors in the era of the High Middle Ages. A horse harness from the collection has iron bits, composed of two elements with the rings on the ends. There are also two damaged iron stirrups with flat loops and apertures for threading the leather straps. The embossing ornament is drawn on the surfaces of the loops, that reproduces a schematic image of a bird. Judging by the composition and form of the discovered objects of armament and harness from the Minusinsk Hollow, they could originate from the burial place of the Yenisei Kyrgyz warrior, buried in the uplands in the valley of Tes’ River in the end of the first millennium - the beginning of the second millennium A.D. The fact that among the weapons from the internment in the valley of Tes’ River there is a broadsword, whose blade was bent twice for ritual purposes, and a spear of infrequent form, this burial mound could belong to the professional Kyrgyz warrior - combatant. In the past objects with similar shape were found by archaeologists in the course of excavations of burial mounds of the culture of the Yenisei Kyrgyz people in the territory of Tuva.


L.V. Tataurova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 15, Karl Marx str., 644024, Omsk, Russia
Keywords: археология Нового времени, медное культовое литье, христианство, конфессии, погребальный обряд, archeology of Modern time, copper cult molding, Christianity, faiths, funeral ceremony

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An increasing amount of archaeological research on the monuments of Modern time in Siberia, along with publication of the received materials promoted the study of cult copper molding as a category of finds. On the basis of materials from the Ilim fortress V.I. Molodin has created a typology of crosses attributing them to the Old Belief or Catholic types. In regard to the Old Belief types of crosses it is stated that they can’t be identity marks of confessional appurtenance of their owners because the same crosses were used also by the followers of official Orthodoxy. The purpose of this article is to reveal signs of confessional distinctions on the basis of archaeological materials from the Russian complexes of Modern time. The author used materials of an archaeological monument of Izyuk-I (Omsk region). According to the written sources in the XVII-XIX centuries the majority of villagers in the settlement of Izyuk were Old Believers. The materials from a funeral complex showed that more than a quarter of collected crosses which were worn on the neck belong to the Old Belief types. They were classified by researchers as belonging to this type on the basis of analysis of their morphology and texts of prayers. It is possible that Old Believers also used other types of crosses as the texts of prayers could be missing or difficult to read because of low-quality molding. Another criterion could be position of hands of the buried, because according to the ethnographic data the arms of the Old Believers were folded in a certain way. The author comes to conclusion that certain groups of population can be attributed to various religious confessions only on the basis of a set of signs while the cult copper molding of the XVII-XVIII centuries can not be used as the defining feature. For this purpose it is necessary to analyze more profoundly an archaeological context, to correlate it with the available stavrografic materials and written sources. The pectoral cross found in one of burials is of special interest. The paper introduces for the first time into scientific circulation the copper Old Belief icon found in an occupation layer of the settlement with the image of Saint martyrs Quiricus and Julitta.


A.Y. Mainicheva
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentiev str., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: культура жизнеобеспечения, мировоззрение, расселение, русские, Сибирь, culture of life support, worldview, settlement, Russians, Siberia

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The article reports about identifying ways to preserve stability as well as to change the Russian location in Siberia during the XVII - early XXI centuries in the worldview aspect of the culture of life support. An important objective in this area is to study the structure of the location and to establish the laws underlying the choice of location and layout of settlements as one of the important elements of the culture of life support. This article discusses some of the principles underlying the selection of methods and programming ethnographic survey of Russian location in Siberia. Modeling method is used to organize the available data on location. To this end, one selects essential characteristics describing with a certain degree of approximation a settlement pattern. They include principles and features of a settlement, communications of the population, location and plan structure of settlements. Modeling allows to consider both the diachronic and synchronous transformations; to reveal worldview attitudes. Working with the model requires the collection of specific data in order to form the source base. Materials are collected and studied on the basis of various sources which include the principles and structure of the location, system of communications; settlements directly described and studied on the spot, informants’ tales about location and settlements, geographic and topographic maps etc. Much attention is paid to the specific ethnographic research methods: method of direct observation, polling method, interviewing.


E.F. Fursova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, 630090, Ak. Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Западная Сибирь, круги брачных связей, этнокультурные группы, старожилы, переселенцы, обычаи экзогамии, эндогамии, Western Siberia, circles of marital relations, cultural groups, Old-timers, Immigrants, customs of exogamy, endogamy

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The purpose of the article is not only to revive interest in a controversial issue of prevalence of exogamy or endogamy practices in the selection of marriage partners in Siberian villages, but also to substantiate the author’s position on this subject on the basis of new ethnographic materials of the early XX century. Of interest is mapping the circles of marital relations of the members of the Russian ethnos, especially Siberians, due to the fact that neither pre-revolutionary, nor Soviet ethnographers produced any comprehensive studies on this topic. Mapping the marital relationships allows to confirm or deny the data on the territory of settlement of ethnic groups (especially groups of Old Believers) obtained from the oral reports of the informants; to complement the whole wedding ritual complex with necessary materials. While historians on the basis of historical data concluded that exogamy was typical of the XVIII century, ethnographers based on field materials of the late XIX century wrote about the wide-spread endogamy, which contributed to isolation of certain ethnic groups (such as the Cossacks, peasants). Expeditions organized by the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences obtained field data that proves, regardless of the work of predecessors, that in the late XIX - early XX century representatives of specific ethnic and cultural (ethnographic) groups created local groups, whose members avoided intermarriages. Endogamous marriages were supported by the older generations of villagers. Hence, the tradition of matchmaking brides from neighboring and even remote villages reflected the commitment of the villagers to the custom of exogamy, while commitment to “our” brides from the culturally similar group points to endogamy. Persistence of these practices contributed to the preservation of ethnic and cultural groups in the southern part of Western Siberia through to the early 1930s when in line with the state’s policy of the “new life” the youth was oriented to take advantage of the right to choose their own destiny.


A.A. Badmaev
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentyeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: буряты, Байкальский регион, конфликт, агрессия, жертва, обычное право, традиционное мировоззрение, Buryats, Baikal region, conflict, aggression, victim, common law, traditional worldview

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Issues related to the study of methods of social conflicts resolution remain understudied in the Buryat ethnographical literature. The purpose of the present research is to reveal traditions of handling the conflicts among the Buryats in the XVIII-XIX centuries. There were various types of social collisions: some of them were intergroup and even interethnic conflicts, while others were intragroup (including family conflicts). The author considers the latter type of collisions. The research is based on the literary and archival sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. In a traditional society there were two possible ways of reconciliation: extrajudicial (when the aggressor admitted depravity of his or her action, apologized to his or her victim and received forgiveness) and judicial (held by the Court of the non-Buryat chiefs). Aggressors and their victims belonged to the local groups interested in the prompt resolution of conflicts. The Buryat courts had the estate character and were totally controlled by the “indigenous chiefs”, therefore all levels of this judicial system were aimed at achieving reconciliation. Investigation, judgment and execution were held by the “indigenous chiefs”. Proceedings initiated by the victims were usually completed by the lowest-level courts. Along with substantive examination of cases and carrying out of sentences (prescribing fines or even corporal punishment for the aggressor) the courts were instrumental in maintaining the peace and stability within the local groups. This social institute was sanctified by the traditional worldview that supported the authority of the court’s and the indigenous chiefs among popular masses. At the same time, according to the traditional beliefs the superiority of the mythical court of “white” sky inhabitants and spirits over the ordinary courts was generally accepted. For this purpose people continued the practice of taking oath near the “shaman stones”.


V.A. Burnakov
Novosibirsk National State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: хакасы, традиция, мировоззрение, культ огня, фетиш, Чалбах тoс, обряды, nation, tradition, worldview, cult of fire, fetish, Chalbach tos, ceremonies

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The aim of the article is to study the cult of fire of Khakasses in its material manifestation such as a fetish of Chalbach tös. To achieve this goal the author sets and solves the following tasks: defining its sacred significance and its role in the worldview and ritual practices of the Khakass people; analysis of its external characteristics; revealing variations of its symbolic design and considering the ways of ritual interaction with this sacred object. The chronological scope of work covers the period from the late XIX to the mid-XX centuries. Selection of temporal boundaries of the study is determined first of all by the status of the source base related to the topic of the study. The main sources are archival and ethnographic materials. The work is based on a comprehensive, systemic-historical approach to the study of the past. Research methodology is based on historical and ethnographic methods - scientific description, specific historical method and relic. In the worldview and ritual practices of the Khakasses considerable attention is given to the cult of fire. In traditional consciousness, the fire is endowed with protective and patronizing functions. It was believed that the fire possessed the properties of purification, healing, etc. The image of the spirit of fire has found its vivid expression in the fetish of Chalbach tös. All major sacred qualities of this supernatural creature transferred to the ritual object. A special system of rites was formed in connection to it. This idol was perceived as one of the most important tribal family spirits-patrons. There was a wide-spread belief that the people’s health, well-being and economic success to a large extent depended on its benevolence.


V.V. Nikolaev1,2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentiev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk national research state university, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Великая Отечественная война, коренное население Сибири, кумандинцы, челканцы, этнодемография, Great Patriotic War, indigenous people of Siberia, Kumandins, Chelkans, ethnodemography

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The article deals with demographic transformations of the ethno-local groups of Kumandins and Chelkans as a result of the Great Patriotic War as exemplified by the age-sex structure. The Great Patriotic War produced catastrophic demographic effects on the indigenous peoples and resulted in more than 1000 deaths. The analysis of age-sex structure allows to reconstruct these effects. The research objective is to consider demographic transformations of the indigenous peoples as a result of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) by the example of ethno-local groups of Kumandins and Chelkans. Despite the considerable volume of publications about the Great Patriotic War, the problem of participation indigenous people of Siberia and the North in this war remains understudied. In particular, there are virtually no studies on the demography of indigenous peoples during this period. Research is based on data from the registers of farms of the Nizhneneninsk and Suzop Village Councils, the Solton district of Altai Region, and Malocheben Village Council in the the Turachak district, Oyrat Autonomous Region (now Altai Republic) dated to the early 1950s. In general, the data on the age and sex composition of the Kumandins of the Nizhneneninsk and Suzop Village Councils, as well as the Chelkans of Malochebechensky Village Council indicate that there was a demographic crisis during the postwar period. It was characterized by a gender disparity in favor of females, reduction of the share of children in the general structure of the population as a result of the low level of birth rate, increasing share of the elderly, a regressive type of age structure. Combat losses, along with the increased mortality of indigenous people as a result of deterioration of living conditions were the main causes of demographic changes.


U.V. Svetacheva1,2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentiev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Minusinsk Martyanov museum, 60, Lenina str., Minusinsk, 662608, Russia
Keywords: Минусинский уезд, домостроительство, переселенцы, украинцы, Minusinsk territory, housebuilding, settlers, Ukrainians

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The objective of this article is to consider the history of development of several South Russian settlements in the Minusinsk region and their architectural traditions. The culture of South Russian resettlers is less studied than that of the old residents. It analyzes the issues related to the formation of the group of South Russian settlers in the Minusinsk uyezd; touches upon an issue establishment of several settlements; describes traditions of house construction, including the rituals of the domicile. The paper is based on the materials of expedition organized by the Minusinsk local history museum in 2015. The expeditionary work was carried out in the villages of Minusinsky, Kuraginsky, Krasnoturansky, Idrinsky Districts of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. Traditional culture of the South Russian resettlers was studied during a short-term trip. The main forms of work were interviews with audio recording and photography. The majority of South Russian settlements in the Minusinsk uyezd had been formed since the late XIX - early XX centuries. Stolypin agrarian reforms largely contributed to the process of resettlement. However the first descendants from the South Russian territories came here as early as in the early XIX century. It was the time when the village of Kavkazskaya was established. The settlers were immigrants from Mogilev, Orel, Kharkov, Tambov and Poltava provinces of the Russian Empire. The buildings in the above settlements continued the South Russian architectural traditions: the immigrants used to build dugouts (zemlyankas), mud huts (mazankas, mazanuhas), trampled huts (toptankas), houses of sward layers; hutches of sun-dried bricks were also wide-spread due to the lack of building timber. To some villages it was brought from the sub-taiga areas. Houses of sun-dried bricks prevailed in those villages that had neither wood nor possibilities to import it from other areas. The author notes that some superstitions connected with housebuilding, moving home and house-warming parties (vlazyny) have survived up to our days.


E.E. Ermakova
Tyumen State University, 6, Volodarskij str., Tyumen, Russia, 625003
Keywords: Рафайлово, религиозный ландшафт, почитаемый источник, почитаемый камень, Rafaylovo, a religious landscape, worshipped water source, holy water, revered stone

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The article analyzes mechanisms of creating the sacred landscape, including the worship of a water source and a revered stone. In the Trans-Urals and Siberia some “holy places” remain understudied, while relevant materials are to be introduced for scientific circulation. For the purposes of a systematic presentation the object of research are the mechanisms of creation of the religious landscape. The subject of research is the specifics of veneration of a water source and a stone in the village of Rafaylovo in the Isetsky district of the Tyumen region. The research is based on the published sources and field data (oral reports, interviews, discussions, participant observation) collected in 2012-2013. Analysis of field data collected in the peripheral rural areas reveals specific practices of the religious worship of shrines. These practices developed under the conditions of the secondary cultural landscape formed by the resettling population in the territory of the Trans-Urals. Furthermore, the research materials, which include the new sacred objects, demonstrate the new ways of sacralisation of natural objects. Analysis of the above materials leads to the conclusion, that the sacred landscape is actively being created in the territory of a historic religious center. In Soviet times the village of Rafaylovo was completely devoid of Christian symbols (the sacred markers). Nowadays it is re-acquiring them owing to the active participation of the locals, especially the head of the local religious community. In order to improve the sacred status of the territory in the process of “new colonization” a water source and a stone (a fragment of the Holy Dormition Cathedral of the Simonov Monastery) were added as new objects of worship. New religious symbols form a new image of the sacred landscape, which is purposefully constructed thanks to the adequate strategy developed by the stakeholders, and especially by the Russian Orthodox Church, which is typical for the whole territory of Siberia.


A.V. Dmitriev
Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: государственная власть, русская армия, Сибирская губерния, Д.И. Чичерин, Сибирский корпус, комиссия Г.М. Осипова, провиант, state power, Russian army, Siberian province, D. I. Chicherin, Siberian corps, G. M. Osipov’s commission, supply of provisions

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The article is devoted to studying the interaction between civil and military authorities while they were addressing problems concerning provision of the Russian troops’ material needs in the 18th-century Siberia. This was clearly a key aspect of securing the Russian empire’s borders east of the Urals. Its study can help to estimate precisely the efficiency of local authorities’ operations and their specific relations with the Siberian corps’ command. The author focuses on one of the episodes in the history of the Siberian governor D.I. Chicherin’s activities in that field. The article is based on archival sources: two books from the Senate fond in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts and one file from the fond of the General Auditor expedition of the Collegium of War in the Russian State Military History Archive (Moscow). Several conclusions have been drawn from the study of archival materials. First, objective difficulties, due to the remoteness of the region and home stations of the military units, certainly, hampered purchase and delivery of food supplies. However, Chicherin’s excessive efforts led to enormous expenditures of the state treasury’s funds and unnecessary accumulation of provision for many years into the future. Second, overlapping functions and indistinct differentiation of powers between the military command and civil authorities had obviously facilitated many abuses. The losses resulting from such abuses often were irretrievable for the state treasury. On the other hand, the Russian empire’s supreme power paid much attention to the questions of state defense and maintenance of army’s fighting efficiency throughout the XVIII century. Therefore, the civil and military powers managed to ensure adequate performance of the army supply system even under such conditions, in this far outlying region of the Russian empire, at the cost of great financial expenses.


A.D. Vasilyev
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North SB RAS, 1, Petrovskogo str., Yakutsk, 677027, Russia
Keywords: Н.И. Мягков, биография, областной начальник, военно-морская служба, Балтийский флот, Сенат, Якутская область, N.I. Myagkov, biography, regional head, naval service, Baltic Fleet, Senate, Yakutsk Oblast

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Based on the newly discovered documents from the Russian State Archive of the Navy the paper aims to look more closely at the biography of N.I. Myagkov before he was appointed Head of the Yakutsk Oblast. In Post-Soviet Russia due to the digression from the Marxist-Leninist teaching and use of the new methodological approaches researchers have been paying more attention to the tsarist authorities. One of them was N.I. Myagkov, Head of the Yakutsk Oblast (1826-1831), a man who greatly contributed to the development of his region. He occupies a special place among other Yakutsk regional heads. The study of this historical figure is relevant due to the fact that at the current stage researchers have information only about his activities in Yakutia as well as some brief facts about his early years. The principle of historicism provided the methodological basis for the study. The author used a historical-biographical method (reconstruction of the process of formation and development of N.I.Myagkov’s personality before his activities as Head of the Yakutsk oblast) and a problem-chronological method (studying it in a time sequence). The major finding of the study is that for the first time in historiography it describes in depth the process of formation and development of N.I. Myagkov’s personality before his activities as Head of the Yakutsk oblast. The author also presents new facts about his early period of life (his studies at the Gentry Sea Cadet corps, military service in the Baltic Fleet, work at the Governing Senate and Admiralty Office, appointment as Head of the Yakutsk Oblast).


L.M. Dameshek, I.L. Dameshek
Irkutsk State University, 1, Karla Marxa Str., Irkutsk, 664003, Russia
Keywords: Европейская Россия, Сибирь, крестьянские начальники, сословный состав, имущественное положение, образовательный уровень, вероисповедание, испытания на должность, отношение к службе, временное правительство, European Russia, Siberia, peasant officials, estates, property status, educational status, religion, examinations for the post, attitude towards service, Russian Provisional Government

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The provisional regulation of 1898 on peasant and indigenous officials was implemented in Siberia in 1898-1917. The attempts to apply the law in the northern territory of Asian part of Russia, were rejected by the government. The analysis of service records proves that 35,5 % of peasant officials in the governorates of Western Siberia were from commoners, in Irkutsk - 65 %, in Eniseysk - 68 %, in Transbaikal area - 96 %. The officials holding university degrees comprised 32 % in Western Siberia, and 25 % in Eastern Siberia. The peasant officials owned neither immovable nor acquired property. According to the Table of ranks 50 % of the peasant officials held ranks from the 14 to 8. The peasant officials’ average salary was 1500 rubles in Western Siberia and 2000 rubles in Transbaikal area. 91 % of them were Christians. There was a high turnover among the peasant officials in Siberia. Their subordinate areas differed in size. Prior to their appointment to the new position they were engaged in a wide range of professional activities (from military and police officers to medical attendants and teachers), or did not have any profession at all. The work of peasant officials was characterized by abuse of position, corruption, and forced conversion of non-Russians to Christianity. In 1912 a program of examinations was introduced for the candidates running for the post of peasant official. This program had been developed for the purpose of improving the “qualitative composition” of the newly appointed officials. It was not implemented because of the First World War. Even under these circumstances the government took measures to improve the qualitative composition of the peasant officials, exempting them from military service etc. However all these attempts were unsuccessful. By 1917 the share of nobles among the Siberian peasant officials had not only failed to increase but actually decreased. The number of Orthodox officials reduced as well. The number of officials with higher education remained at the same level as in 1914. After the fall of the monarchy the situation radically changed. On July 29, 1917 the Provisional government decided to abolish the institution of peasant officials.


A.V. Dobrovolsky
Siberian State Transport University, 191, D. Kovakchyk str., Novosibirsk, 930046, Russia
Keywords: Сибирь, Омская губерния, ЦК ПСР, социалисты-революционеры, правые эсеры, партийные организации, крестьянские союзы, Siberia, Omsk province, Socialist Revolutionaries, Right Socialist Revolutionaries, party organizations, peasant unions

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The purpose of the study is to show the illegal activities of the Omsk organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the early 1920s. The author used new archival documents that can help to disclose hitherto unknown episodes in the activities of the Omsk municipal and provincial organizations of the Right-Wing Socialist Revolutionaries under Soviet rule. The presented study applied comparative, structural and logical methods of analysis. Based on the interrogation records related to one of the leaders of the SRs’ local party organization in Omsk the author reconstructs a picture of Party life in Omsk in the early 1920s; describes how the SRs went underground and restored their Party structures at the municipal and provincial levels; analyzes personal composition of the executive bodies. The analysis of Lunegov’s interrogation records allowed to obtain a new information about the organizational structure, quantitative and qualitative composition of the executive bodies of revolutionary organizations in that period. Special attention is paid to the analysis of basic activities of the Omsk municipal committee and illegal forms of the SRs’ work with the population. The author believes that the party leaders were not able to deploy a large-scale party work among both the SRs and various groups of population during the period under study. The author considers the fact that the local bodies of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission had quite detailed information about the illegal activities of the Right-SRs, except for the intra-party information. This gap was partially compensated during Lunegov’s interrogations. Based on the obtained information the author concluded that the Omsk SRs tried to intensify their party activities with the beginning of the new economic policy. This motivated the Bolshevik government and the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission’s local authorities to take appropriate actions which paralyzed the activities of the Right-SRs and then helped to initiate the process of self-dissolution of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the Omsk province.


A.G. Teplyakov
Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, 56, Kamenskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630099, Russia
Keywords: конформизм, идеология, журналисты, сталинизм, двоемыслие, сопротивление, conformism, ideology, journalists, Stalinism, resistance

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Contemporary studies on the Soviet man identity shows that there were ambiguities in the ways of its development. Many Soviet people (regardless of whether or not they were famous) were forced to pretend to be ideological Communists, to lead a double life, fabricate a fake biography. Many active “builders of communism” with party tickets unenthusiastically received and obeyed the orders from the Bolshevik power. Among the well-known members of the Soviet press there were many people of that sort. The paper aims to show that even the most active propagandists of the Soviet system often were hypocritical. Many professional and well-educated Communist media employees were secretly critical of the dogmas of propaganda. They considered them primitive and criticized them, while some Bolshevik journalists renounced their Communist views. The article shows how dissent manifested itself among the prominent representatives of “ideological front”, for the most part in Moscow. People’s commissars L. Krasin and G. Chicherin were known for their great skepticism regarding the world revolution. In communicating with each other many famous Communists invented epigrams and jokes about the Soviet regime. Many provincial journalists also showed dissent. In the years of the Great Terror, even the most loyal servants of the regime were willing to criticize the policy of repressions. Thus, the journalistic elite was dominated not by the ideological fanatics, but by conformists, who agreed to accept the Bolshevik policy. Their articles and books written in dogmatic spirit often contained hidden criticism or irony. Some journalists believed in communism and criticized the Soviet regime in order to improve it. Other propagandists defended their personal interests and therefore agreed to lead a double life. Some propagandists associated with the anti-Stalinist opposition sharply criticized the foundations of Bolshevism. Thus, in the Soviet Union the ideological sphere was sometimes marked by rejection of the tenets of communism which was not always concealed.


V.B. Laperdin
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikilaev street, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: аграрная политика государства, крестьянство, хлебозаготовки, Западно-Сибирский крайком, Р.И. Эйхе, agrarian policy of the state, peasantry, grain procurements, West Siberian regional committee, R. I. Eikhe

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The article analyzes relations between the leadership of West Siberian regional committee (Kraikom) and Politburo on the issues associated with the grain procurement campaign in 1931-1932. Such analysis will help to better understand the role of party regional representatives in Stalin’s agricultural policy. While on the whole remaining supporters of changes that took place in the Soviet countryside, the regional authorities could also adjust their course. In terms of grain procurement it led to controversy with the Central Commitee on timing and volume of harvested grain. The final plan for grain procurement campaign of 1931-1932 in West Siberia was a result of long negotiations between central and regional leaders. Unrealistic objectives set by Politburo, caused a negative response from the regional committee. R.I. Eikhe, First secretary of West Siberian regional committee, repeatedly appealed to the central government to reduce the plan. In August 1931 he proposed to reduce the grain procurement quota from 100 to 65 mln. puds, explaining this by drought and crop failure that struck the main grain-growing areas of the region. This argument was supported by disappointing messages about the scope of disaster. In addition, R.I. Eikhe received moral support from the heads of other regions, who also had to ask Politburo to reduce the grain procurement plan. The West Siberian regional committee serving its own interests took a defensive stance that fit into common actions of other regional party organizations. Politburo had to make concessions, reducing plan to the proposed 65 million puds. It is noted that the final plan was a result of compromise. Procurement organizations collected required amount of grain, but this was detrimental to the food, forage and seed funds of collective farms. It also impacted negatively on agricultural economy of region and material well-being of peasants.


A. A. Plyasulya
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: аграрная политика советского государства, коллективизация, совхозы, сельское хозяйство, зерновое производство, Сибирь, agrarian policy of the Soviet state, collectivization, state farms, agriculture, grain production, Siberia

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In the late 1920s - early 1930s the state farms played the most important role in modernization of agricultural sector of the Soviet economy. The government relied on organizing the large specialized farms. Since 1928 the construction of grain state farms became a priority as the latter were intended to become a major force in grain production and delivery and to demonstrate the advantages of large socialized production to the peasants. Until 1931 the number of grain farms increased due to the construction of new farms, however they didn’t meet the Soviet government’s expectations. The state made significant investments in material, technical and financial supply of state farms, but their level of production and profitability remained unsatisfactory. Poor organization of labor was one of the sources of the crisis in grain-producing state farms. It was the main reason for failure to implement the plan for grain delivery by the state farms during 1930 - 1932. Moreover, agronomic standards often were violated. Irrational use of agricultural machinery had a negative impact on harvesting. Efficient management of state farms was often hampered by their extremely huge size. The need for restructuring grain-producing state farms became increasingly apparent. Further policy of the state pertaining to sovkhozes was to optimize and increase the effectiveness of the existing farms instead of establishing new ones. Reorganization of state farms led to their downsizing and conversion. It was intended to increase significantly the manageability of farms and positively affect their production results. Since 1935 transfer of state farms’ lands to the collective farms had been widely practiced. In conjunction with the reorganizations the system of public sector management in agriculture underwent permanent changes.


D.S. Orlov
Altai State University of Humanities and Education them. V.M Shukshina, 55, Korolenko str., Biysk, 659333.Russia
Keywords: сельское хозяйство, аграрная политика, хозяйственный механизм, аграрный кризис, инвестиции, изъятие средств, колхозы, совхозы, рентабельность, закупки, Западная Сибирь, agriculture, agricultural policy, economic mechanism, agrarian crisis, investments, withdrawal of funds, collective and state farms, profitability, purchasing, Western Siberia

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The article analyzes problems of agrarian and economic history of the USSR in the second half of the 1960s - the first half of the 1980s that have been insufficiently addressed by prior research. These issues are related to the government’s attempts to increase the productivity of farms by limiting policy diktat in planning production and procurement as well as by increasing investments in agricultural sector. Based on the materials of Western Siberia, the author proves the thesis that mechanisms of economic incentives and improving welfare of the state and collective farms in the second half of the 1960s contributed to the recovery of agricultural production; while strengthening of administrative and tax diktat against the farms in the early 1970s led to the subsequent decline in the industry’s development and to a crisis in the agricultural sector in the early 1980s. The crisis of 1980-1982 accompanied by a decrease in production and in volume of public procurement was considerably complicated by the unfavorable weather conditions, however, its main cause lay in imbalance of economic mechanism and actual bankruptcy of the majority of agricultural enterprises. The Food Program adopted at the Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the CPSCU in May, 1982 was aimed at solving the aggravated food problem. It provided the implementation of complex measures to improve the farmers’ well-being, to expand residential and community construction, to improve health and consumer services in rural areas. The government restructured debts of agricultural enterprises and raised the purchasing prices. Since the beginning of implementation of the Food Program, the situation in the agricultural sector stabilized. Agriculture in Western Siberia in the second half of the eleventh five-year plan was increasingly dynamic.


V.S. Shmakov
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сельский социум, социально-экономические процессы, многоукладная экономика, человеческий капитал, аграрная политика, rural community, socio-economic processes, mixed economy, human capital, agricultural policy

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Comparative analysis of development of agro-industrial complex in the post-perestroika period in Russia and Belarus shows that during the period of socioeconomic reforms the agriculture in these countries have gone through several stages of its development and had its own particular characteristics. The specificity of sustainable development of agriculture and the entire agro-industrial complex of Russia and Belarus can be attributed to the growing influence of globalization, Russia’s accession to the WTO, and challenges of the Western world. This leads to increased competition between domestic and foreign farmers, degradation of the internal market. The use of a systematic approach with elements of historical and logical analysis allows to identify the main trends of development of AIC of Russia and Belarus. Crucial domestic actors, intensely affecting the sustainable development of agriculture in Russia and Belarus are agricultural policy, mixed economy, human capital of the village. Diversity in agro-industrial complex develops in a different way, suggesting the existence of human resources capable of working in conditions of economy in transition, the intensive development of the production base and technology. The adjustment of the state’s agrarian policy leads to differentiation of socio-economic space, which is a space for interaction between government and society. The diversity and multidirectional character of changes in socio-economic and political behavior of the villagers makes it necessary to refine and update the theoretical and empirical knowledge of the evolution of socio-economic and political conditions of life of the rural society. Relevance of the study of development of agriculture and rural society is determined by the fact that the problem of rural development under socioeconomic transformations in contemporary Russia and Belarus, and challenges posed by Western countries in the form of international sanctions, is of strategic importance in the context of food security.


S.K. Zhetpysbaev
Assembly of People of Kazakhstan in Pavlodar Region, Republic Kazakhstan, 35/1, 1st May street, Pavlodar, Pavlodar region, Republic of Kazakhstan, 146000
Keywords: межнациональные отношения, Ассамблея народа Казахстана, мир, общественное согласие, стабильность, дружба народов, национальное единство, international relations, the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, peace, social harmony, stability, friendship of nations, national unity

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The article presents the results of the study concerning the activities of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan over the last 20 years, from 1995 to 2015. The article emphasizes the relevance of creation of this civil society organization; considers prospects for its development; historical dynamics of development of its political and legal status. It comprehensively reflects the role of the President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev in the formation and functioning of the Assembly as an institution of nationwide unity. The author stresses that the purpose of the Assembly is to ensure inter-ethnic harmony in the country in order to form Kazakh civil identity and a competitive nation on the basis of the Kazakhstan patriotism, civic, spiritual and cultural unity of the peoples of Kazakhstan where the Kazakh people should play a unifying role. It provides an evaluation of the Assembly’s significant positions in harmonization of international relations, successful implementation of Kazakhstan’s model of interethnic tolerance, peace and social harmony. Mutual respect and equality of all Kazakhstan citizens, regardless of their nationality and religion, the steady strengthening of social harmony and harmonization of inter-ethnic relations have always been and continue to be the key priorities of the state policy. The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan plays a leading role in socio-cultural processes as a link between the civil society and the state. This type of corporativity and responsibility of the state and civil society, which emerged in Kazakhstan in the sphere of inter-ethnic relations, has become a unique phenomenon in the history of modern civilization. This is evidenced by the scope and content, multidimensional nature of social, historical and cultural activities regularly carried out by the Assembly. Experience and prospects of Kazakhstan People’s Assembly activities have significant potential for use in international practice.Thus, the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan represents a synthesis of the state policy and civil society organizations aimed at strengthening a tolerant civil society and social harmony.