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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2016 year, number 2

1.
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL REFORESTATION IN THE MINING LANDSCAPES OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

E. V. Ivakina1, S. V. Osipov1,2
1Pacific Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Radio str., 7, Vladivostok, 690041 Russian Federation
2Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova str., 8, Vladivostok, 690950 Russian Federation
Keywords: техногенный, горнопромышленный, антропогенный ландшафты, растительность, флора, экологическая сукцессия, биологическая рекультивация, Дальний Восток России, technogenic, mining, anthropogenic landscape, vegetation, flora, ecological succession, biological recultivation, Russian Far East

Abstract >>
The area of technogenic territories in the Russian Far East and Siberia continues to increase. The aim of this article is show the degree of reforestation processes scrutiny in mining landscapes of the Russian Far Eastern region. The results of technogenic landscapes research of the Russian Far East are represented by extensive set of knowledge, accumulated over half a century, and highly of disparate in resent time. They are not extensive as the results of studies of natural landscapes, but have important practical importance. Time of mining influence in the landscapes of the Far Eastern region is relatively small, and makes some decades in most cases. Therefore, the results of most studies belong to early, at least middle stages of ecological successions. Floral features of mining areas are thoroughly characterized. Many papers are devoted to the regularities of self-healing vegetation. Questions of recultivation are considered for each site individually. It is recommended to provide forestry, recreation, sanitation and meliorative restoration that assume different recultivation schemes. The selection of wood species is commonly recommended from the number of native species, because they are better adapted for local growing conditions. Compiled the lists of tree species, most successfully surviving on the dumps. In the presence of fairly extensive scientific literature, detailed studies of the structure and dynamics of disturbed areas are few in number. In particular, the facies structure of technogenic territories have not been studied, the recovery process of vegetation differentiated for different types of habitats were not considered and there are no detailed landscape and geobotanical maps of disturbed areas. Unfortunately, monitoring studies of natural and artificial reforestation are not developed.
																								



2.
CONDITION OF FOREST CROPS AND SOIL COVER AT RECLAIMED DUMP OF COAL MINE

V. A. Androkhanov1,2, O. G. Berlyakova1
1Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Akademika Lavrent’eva, 8/2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Molodeznaya Str., 1, Barnaul, 656038 Russian Federation
Keywords: растительность, почвы, эмбриоземы, нарушенные земли, рекультивация, мониторинг, почвенно-экологическое состояние, Кузбасс, vegetation, soils, embryozems, disturbed lands, reclamation, monitoring, soil-ecological condition, Kuznetsk Basin

Abstract >>
The investigation of processes of recovery of disturbed land at the urban areas is a new, urgent problem for industrialized centers. Currently disturbed areas where recovery operations are conducted by various reclamation technologies are within the city of Novokuznetsk area in Kuznetsk Basin. Monitoring investigations to determine their environmental condition and the level of natural ingredients recovery have not been conducted at these areas until recently. The lack of such information does not allow efficient analysis of the conducted reclamation activities and determination of the prospects for recovery and further use of such land. The paper presents the results of an investigation of forest plantations and areas with natural revegetation of disturbed areas, and the complex of soil studies to determine the basic physical and agrochemical characteristics of young soils formed on the disturbed surface is conducted. Based on these studies the vegetation and soil cover were characterized and the soil-ecological condition of the reclaimed areas from the 1970’ stailings pile of «Baidaevskij» coal mine was assessed. As a result of reclamation activities, the sites with different plant communities are formed at the tailings pile surface. Botanic composition at the reclaimed areas represented species able to operate successfully in a technogenic landscapes. Because the grand dump territory is reclaimed by the forest approach the statement of forest is characterized by the special aspects, such as high density of planting with little crown density, high opacity and low level of stable forest recovery. The tailings pile sites reclaimed by different methods are characterized by specific soil-ecological condition, which can be used to assess the efficiency of reclamation. Soil-ecological assessment of the conducted reclamation efficiency is carried out on the basis of assessment of the soil, formed on the surface of the disturbed area. The more developed phytocoenosis formed in more developed soil areas, and therefore the better soil-ecological condition takes place after reclamation activity. The main tailings pile area is characterized by the satisfactory and good soil-ecological condition. This demonstrates that the currently formed natural-technogenic complex successfully functions that allows this area to carry out protection functions within the territory of city.
																								



3.
ORGANIZATION OF VEGETATION COVER OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS AT BORODINSKIY OPENCAST COAL MINE DUMPS (KANSK FOREST-STEPPE, EASTERN SIBERIA)

D. Yu. Efimov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: флора, растительность, аквальные экосистемы, угольные отвалы, техногенные ландшафты, flora, vegetation, aquatic ecosystem, coal mine heap, technogenic landscapes

Abstract >>
The paper present the results of study of the floristic composition and importance of species of aquatic ecosystems on different types of technogenic surfaces of the Borodino coal mine and assessment of the impact of local factors on the structure and the dynamics of vegetation. The list of plant taxa containing 91 species of higher plants and 3 charophytes. The largest amount of macrophytes species are Elodea canadensis Michx. , Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. , Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. , Potamogeton alpinus Balb. , P. perfoliatus L. , Sparganium emersum Rehm. , Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. , Typha latifolia L. , Warnstorfia fluitans (Hedw.) Loeske , Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., the basis (up to 67.6-70.9 %) of vegetation mosaic of aquatic systems and differentiate its structure posttechnogenic landscape. Sorensen index ( QS = 0.63-0.71) and Spearman rank correlation coefficient ( rs = 0.29-0.62, p < 0.01) values showed the greatest similarity between the species composition of the aquatic complexes arising on mineral surfaces planned dumps. The low level of similarity ( QS = 0.13-0.45; rs = 0.25-0.34, p < 0.05) in species composition is typical fir ponds and wetlands formed around the perimeter of the heaps along the erosion of slopes. Non-parametric analysis of variance showed a statistically significant ( p < 0.001) differentiation of the species composition of the variables values of the analyzed environmental factors: the direction of reclamation, type and age of geomorphic surfaces dumps. Aquatic complexes significantly complement and enrich the mosaic of man-made landscape of the Borodino coal mine, the potential of their diversity should be taken into account when developing plans and strategies for reclamation of disturbed areas.
																								



4.
TECHNOGENIC FORESTS ON THE DISTURBED LANDS OF WESTERN SIBERIA

V. N. Sedykh
West-Siberian Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zhukovskiy str., 100/1, Novosibirsk, 630082 Russian Federation
Keywords: техногенные факторы, нарушения, техногенные леса, рекультивация, Западная Сибирь, technogenic factors, disturbances, technogenic forests, recultivation, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
State of forest stands, which were originated naturally on mechanically disturbed moor-forestry lands near oil and gas complexes of Surgut Poles’e (Western Siberia) is estimated in the paper. The differences of their timber value from natural stands are also discussed. Newly originated forests on the higher relief technogenic positions differ significantly from natural stands not only by their productivity, but also by their structure and biological diversity. It gives full possibility to call them technogenic forests. ft was unexpected, but the raised role of such forests opened potential productive forces of the Surgut Poles’e. This role showed a necessity of cardinal revision of forestry principles and natural protection of moor-forestry ecosystems. The state of compound technogenic forests witness positive consequences of the destruction of soil cover and significantly surpass the soil damage. Due to this fact, it is necessary to study deeply this phenomenon. The new data concerning this phenomenon will be a scientific development for creation a new normative base for rational natural use and re-cultivation of disturbed forestry parts of Western Siberia.
																								



5.
REGULARITIES OF RESTORATION OF PLANT COVER ON THE DUMPS OF THE KUZNETSK BASIN

A. N. Kupriyanov, A. Yu. Manakov
Kuzbas Botanical Garden, Institute of Human Ecology, Federal Research Center for Coal and Coal Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Leningradskiy, 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russian Federation
Keywords: отвалы угольных предприятий, сингенез, зарастание, экологические факторы, Кузбасс, dumps of coal mines, syngenesis, overgrowing, ecological factors, Kuznetsk Basin

Abstract >>
The article considers the issues of the restoration vegetation on the dumps of the coal enterprises of the Kuznetsk Basin. Studies have shown that the dumps have a wide range of environmental conditions and are potentially suitable for establishment of plants. To negative environmental factors at the mine dumps include the lack of productive moisture, failed penetration, contrasting temperature regime on the different elements of the relief, and low potential fertility of the embryonic soils. Positive - high humidity in the depressions, the high content of fine-grained deposits in the lower part of the elephant dumps, excessive accumulation of snow in the winter on separate dumping sites. On disturbed lands identified eight technogenic ecotopes, characterized by various microrelief, moisture level, amount of fine fractions of technogenic eluvium determining favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable conditions for vegetation of disturbed land. Selected three stages of syngenesis: pioneer stage, simple plant communities and complex plant communities. The stage of zonal phytocenosis on the dumps was not detected. The basis of diagnostic signs consists of the projective cover, the nature of the host plants, the number of species part of the zonal species. The selected criteria are universal and can be applicable to most dumps. Speed of syngenetic succession does not depend on calendar age of the dumps, and environmental conditions, which are formed on separate sites.
																								



6.
ANIMAL POPULATIONS ON THE GLADES OF ELECTRIC POWER LINE-500 KW IN FIR AND PINE FORMATIONS OF THE SOUTHERN TAIGA

A. S. Shishikin1, V. B. Timoshkin1, A. V. Gurov1, E. V. Ekimov1, M. N. Egunova1, S. M. Loshchev1, S. A. Astapenko2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Branch of the Russian Centre for Forest Protection, Centre for Forest Protection of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Akademgorodok, 50a/2, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: пихтовая и сосновая формации, просека ЛЭП-500, микроартроподы, герпетобионты, мелкие млекопитающие, птицы, плотность населения, электромагнитное воздействие, fir and pine forest formations, glade of electric power line 500 kw, microarthropods, herbetobium elements, small mammals, birds, population density, electromagnetic impact

Abstract >>
The test groups of animals showed different reaction on the presence of electric power line (EPL) glades, which cross light and dark conifer formations. The microarthropods react on the changes of hydrotermic soil conditions in a higher degree. The direct influence of electromagnetic field on the population density of soil invertebrates has place in both forest formations, but with opposite consequences. The same is demonstrated by herpetobium elements: the clear dominance of «meadow» species in fir formations and the absence of this in pine parts. Small mammals on the LEP glades increase their abundance and species diversity. They also demonstrate that their distribution is dominated by food and protection conditions. But at the same time, the distribution of constant rodent winter refuges demonstrate the negative effects of EPL existence. The analysis of bird populations on the basis of optimal life conditions demonstrated a highest negative effect of electromagnetic field of EPL. Independently of the creation of good protection, food and nesting conditions for birds, which usually occupy open biotopes and bush with herb thickets, they avoid the EPL glades. The first results showed the dual effect of EPL glades on animal populations. It is necessary to take into account the forming of intrazonal locations and real electromagnetic effects. The significant conclusions are found for birds, because they receive more irradiation. Also some biological peculiarities are important: the migratory species have a possibility to react immediately, according to the season, on the changing of biotopes. As for other animal groups, it is necessary to prolong the study of seasonal changes. For the invertebrates it must be performed the instrumental analysis of the differences of hydrotermic conditions of EPL glades and native biotopes.
																								



7.
MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOGENICALY DISTURBED FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL SIBERIA

A. V. Bogorodskaya
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: нарушенные лесные экосистемы, микробные комплексы почв, эколого-трофические группы микроорганизмов, микробная биомасса, базальное дыхание, микробный метаболический коэффициент, Красноярский край, disturbed forest ecosystems, microbial soil complexes, ecological trophic groups of microorganisms, microbial biomass, basal respiration, microbial metabolic quotient, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires - was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic microorganisms as to the existence of low temperatures, and to the effects of pollutants. Successional development microorganisms of dumps of different ages defined as properties of soils, surface slope, and the development of vegetation. Reclamation of dumps with the application of topsoil accelerated the development of meadow vegetation and succession microbial complexes.
																								



8.
THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SMALL MAMMALS IN THE DUMPS OF OPENCAST COAL MINES

E. S. Uglova, A. N. Borisov, E. V. Ekimov, A. S. Shishikin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: мелкие млекопитающие, численность, разнообразие, погодные сценарии весны и лета, угольные отвалы, Бородинский буроугольный разрез, Красноярский край, small mammals, abundance, diversity, spring and summer weather scenarios, coal piles, Borodino opencast coal mine, Krasnoyarsk krai

Abstract >>
Piles of rocks represent the diversity of environmental conditions, which is manifested in the difference of forage and cover conditions. The influence of weather conditions is manifested in a greater degree at the initial stage of formation of ecosystems dumps. The research was carried out on the piles of Borodino brown coal mine section from 2005 to 2014. Data analysis showed a positive correlation of moisture in the area and the abundance of rodents that is not observed for insectivores. The method of correlation analysis showed a weak dependence of population dynamics of small mammals to weather conditions. The study used factor analysis, which grouped the values of population density, diversity, dominance, temperatures of summer and spring, coefficient of moisture, indicators of snow in three clusters. The first cluster combined indicators as diversity and abundance of small mammals. The second cluster combined indicators of moisture in the area, such as summer precipitation and snow cover (snow depth and snowmelt period). The third cluster included the total temperature of the spring and summer period. The description of characteristics of the studied objects in three-dimensional space of factors is obtained. It has allowed revealing of the role of individual indicators on the population dynamics of small mammals.
																								



9.
SPECIFICS OF BIOLOGICAL RECULTIVATION IN NORILSK INDUSTRIAL REGION

G. S. Varaksin, G. V. Kuznescova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Норильский промышленный район, зоны нарушенности, биологическая рекультивация, устойчивые виды ив, черенки, дички, сохранность, Norilsk industrial region, zones of disturbance, biological recultivation, resistant forms of Salix species, cuttings, wildings, safety

Abstract >>
Experimental recultivation plantations were established in 2001-2003 in three areas allocated depending on the degree of exposure to industrial emissions and the state of woody vegetation in the vicinity of the city of Norilsk industrial region. The first object was the control zone of moderate disturbance, where the vegetation is mostly in normal state - east of the town of Talnakh (Listvyanka river area), the second object is located in zone of strong disturbance (Nalednaya river area, 1 km south of the town of Oganer), and third object of the experimental plantations was established in zone of very strong disturbance of vegetation - at Ergalakh river area (10 km south-east of the city of Norilsk). Experimental plantations were created by planting natural plants (wildings) of Picea obovata L., Larix sibirica L., Rosa acicularis L., Junipeus sibirica L., and different species of willow cuttings using different farming techniques to grow them. In 2008, studies were carried out by state (survival, safety, growth rates) of the created recultivation plantations. The studies have revealed species resistant to industrial emissions in Norilsk region. It has been discovered that survival rates and safety of willow plantings created by cuttings depends on planting technology and site properties. The greatest safety and resistance to industrial emissions were woolly willow Salix lanata L. and Salix hastata L.
																								



10.
ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH OF TECHNOGENIC TERRITORIES

A. S. Shishikin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: техногенное воздействие, классификация, отвалы угольных разрезов, Норильский промышленный район, водохранилища ГЭС, technogenic impact, classification, coal mine dumps, Norilsk industrial region, water reservoirs of hydropower stations

Abstract >>
To conduct complex research, the system of classification of biological objects was developed and adapted for different nature conditions and forms of anthropogenic impacts. The experience of organization of biological investigations at coal mine dumps and gold-mining polygons, pollutant emissions, operating and developing hydropower station reservoirs was used in the work. The general structure of development of the classification schemes of anthropogenic lands is presented with three generalized specific levels distinguished. The form and intensity of the anthropogenic impacts were used for zoning. Spatial extrapolation and forecast of the anthropogenic impacts are made with respect to the geomorphological state and succession’ dynamics of the anthropogenic habitats. Monitoring and resource estimation are carried out by the succession stages. Quantitative estimation of the structure of the anthropogenic lands is made with a use of moderate- and high- resolution satellite data in GIS. Types of mountain recultivations of coal mine dumps determine three post-anthropogenic succession series/classes: erosion, forest, and steppe. They are divided by groups of types depending on succession stage - from juvenile to closed corresponded to the zonal standards. The type shows stage that is determined by the dominant vegetation. For Norilsk anthropogenic region where there is constant pollutants impact, five classes/zones, four groups of types by geomorphological characteristics and two additional indicators which estimate the presence of dead ground vegetation as well as six types by dominant vegetation were defined. Classification scheme of the impact of hydropower station reservoirs is characterized by three levels of generalization for water and coast surfaces. The basin is divided by classes depending on the width and direction of the dominant winds (open, closed), groups of types depending on depth (deep-, shallow-water), types depending on flowage and stagnation. The coastline is divided by classes of constant marginal erosion, periodical impoundment and climate impact, group of types and types by well-known succession series and stages typical for the coast vegetation.