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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2016 year, number 2

1.
News from laser field of knowledge (by materials of the XII AMPL conference)

A.V. Klimkin1,2, V.F. Tarasenko1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 4, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
Keywords: конференция, импульсные лазеры, применение лазеров, физика лазеров, химия лазеров, газовые лазеры, лазеры на парах металлов, фемтосекундные лазерные системы, эксилампы, conference, pulsed lasers, laser applications, laser physics, laser chemistry, gas lasers, metal vapor lasers, femtosecond laser systems, excilamp

Abstract >>
The XII International Conference on pulsed lasers and their applications "Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers AMPL" was held in Tomsk on September 14-18, 2015. Subjects of the Conference were traditionally devoted to results of theoretical and experimental studies of physical and chemical processes in laser active media; the newest active media and pumping methods; new laser technologies; fundamental topics of laser physics; application of lasers in science, engineering, medicine, and other spheres; discussion of problems and difficulties in development of laser-based equipment; new optical technologies.
																								



2.
Luminescence of atoms and ions of aluminum in pulse-periodic nanosecond discharge initiated by runaway electrons in nitrogen

D.V. Beloplotov, V.F. Tarasenko, M.I. Lomaev
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 4, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: наносекундный импульсно-периодический разряд, азот, неоднородное распределение электрического поля, алюминий, струи паров металла, цветные мини-струи, nanosecond pulse-periodic discharge, nitrogen, non-uniform electric field distribution, aluminum, metal vapor jets, colored mini jets

Abstract >>
Spectral and amplitude-temporal characteristics of plasma of a pulse-periodic nanosecond discharge initiated by runaway electrons in nitrogen in a pressure range 30-760 torr are investigated. Voltage pulses (U = 13 kV, FWHM is 10 ns, front duration is 4 ns, negative polarity, f = 60 Hz) applied to a cathode made of aluminum. The cathode had a cone form. Diameter of cone base, apex angle, and corner radius of cone apex were 6 mm, 30°, and 0.2 mm, respectively. A flat anode was located at distances of 2 and 6 mm from the cathode apex. Waveforms of voltage pulses, discharge current, radiation intensity, and spectra of discharge plasma were registered. At an interelectrode distance of 2 mm, colored jets of metal vapor were observed near the cathode apex throughout the pressure range. Size of jets was about 1 mm. Intense lines of atoms (Al I) and ions (Al II) of aluminum with wavelengths of 394.4; 396.15 nm and 622.62; 623.17; 704.21; 705.66; 706.36 nm were registered, respectively. Luminescence duration (> 2 ms) of the both was larger than the discharge current duration (~ 1 ms).
																								



3.
Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG composite laser ceramics

S.G. Garanin1, V.V. Osipov2, V.A. Shitov2, V.I. Solomonov2, K.E. Lukyashin2, A.V. Spirina2, R.N. Maksimov2,3, E.V. Pozdnyakov1
1Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607188, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region, Muzrukov Ave, 10
2The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620016, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg, Russia
3Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: керамика, лазер, композит, прозрачность, синтез, Nd:YAG, Cr:YAG, тонкий диск, методика, ceramics, laser, composite, transmittance, synthesis, Nd:YAG, Cr:YAG, thin disk, method

Abstract >>
This work reports the fabrication of composite transparent ceramics consisting of Nd:YAG as the central part and Cr4+:YAG as the edge cladding. The central part of ceramics was shaped into 14-mm-diameter disk or 11-mm-side square and an outer diameter of the edge cladding was 18 mm or 23 mm, respectively. The central part of ceramics exhibited an optical transmittance of  84% at a wavelength of 1.06 µm. The concentration of Cr4+ in Cr4+:YAG ceramics with three different compositions was evaluated using measured transmission spectra and known absorption cross sections. Taking into account the infeasibility condition for self-excitation, the optimal composition of edge cladding was estimated to be 2.5 mol.% Cr + 0.5 mol.% Ca + 97 мол.% YAG.
																								



4.
High-power gas-discharge eximer ArF, KrCl, KrF, and XeCl lasers on gas mixtures free of buffer gas

A.M. Razhev1,2, E.S. Kargapoltsev1, D.S. Churkin3,4
1Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Ac. Lavrentyev's prosp., 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, K. Marksa av., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia
3Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
4Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: бинарная газовая смесь, эксимерный лазер, поперечный объемный электрический разряд, газовая смесь без буферного газа, пониженное рабочее давление, энергия генерации, полный кпд, binary gas mixture, excimer laser, transverse electrical volume discharge, gas mixture without a buffer gas, low operating pressure, laser energy, full efficiency

Abstract >>
The results of experimental studies of the gas mixture (laser active medium) effect on the generation energy and overall efficiency of excimer discharge ArF- (193), KrCl- (223), KrF- (248), and XeCl lasers (308 nm) operating on gas mixtures without the use of a buffer gas are presented. The optimal (in terms of maximum radiation energy) ratio of the gas components of the active media of excimer lasers are found, at which the efficient operation is achieved with a sufficiently high output power of the laser radiation. It is experimentally confirmed that for the rare gas halide discharge pumped excimer lasers the presence of a buffer gas in the active medium is not required for efficient laser operation. For example, in the binary excimer laser gas mixtures containing working rare gas and halogen-containing gas, for pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers operating on electronic transitions of excimer ArF*, KrCl*, KrF*, and XeCl* molecules pumped by a transverse electric space discharge at reduced pressure a buffer-free gaseous mixture, laser pulse energy of up to 170 mJ and high pulsed laser power of up to 24 MW have been attained for the first time. The maximum total efficiency in an experiment for binary gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers has reached 0.8%.
																								



5.
Excitation of coaxial copper vapor lasers by a pulse-periodical inductive discharge

V.M. Batenin1, M.A. Kazaryan2, V.T. Karpukhin1, N.A. Lyabin3, M.M. Malikov1, V.I. Sachkov2
1Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13 Bd.2, Moscow, Russia 125412
2P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
3Scientific-Production Enterprise "Istok" named after A.I. Shokina, 2а, Vokzalnaya st., 141190, Fryazino, Moscow region
Keywords: лазер на парах меди, индуктор, трансформатор, индукционный разряд, численное моделирование, лазерная кинетика, copper vapor laser, inductor, transformer, inductive discharge, numerical simulation, laser kinetics

Abstract >>
Results of numerical simulation of exciting a copper vapor laser (CVL) by a pulse-periodical inductive (electrodeless) discharge are presented. A variant of CVL with a ring active volume of the discharge chamber is studied. It is shown that such a chamber to a higher degree satisfies all the requirements for pumping by the inductive method than an ordinary cylindrical chamber. High output characteristics of lasing obtained in the numerical simulation confirm the possibility of CVL efficient pumping by the new inductive method.
																								



6.
Amplification of picosecond pulses in a gas amplifier of THL-100 laser system

A.G. Yastremsky1, M.V. Ivanov1, N.G. Ivanov1, V.F. Losev1,2
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: усилитель, лазерная система THL-100, численное моделирование, пространственная однородность, amplifier, THL-100 laser system, the spatial intensity distribution, numerical simulation

Abstract >>
Evolution of spatial and energy characteristics of start pulse with energy of 0.8 mJ and duration of 2 ps in the amplifier of THL-100 laser system have been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. Laser radiation energy E = 2 J was obtained experimentally. In this work we present a 3D amplification model of conically diverging laser beams, which takes into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the pump and the geometry of THL-100 laser system amplifier. Description and the test results of the model are submitted. At the start pulse energy of 0.8 mJ the calculated radiation energy at the amplifier output reaches 2.4 J. Simulation results show that maximal intensity of the laser radiation in this mode reaches P = 60 GW × сm-2. Evolution of energy and space-time structure of the laser pulse in the amplifier was investigated. It is shown that in the ideal case (excluding the processes of nonlinear interaction of laser beam with the active medium), at the start pulse energy of 5 mJ, the energy of the laser radiation at the output of the amplifier is increased to E out = 3.8 J. In this mode, the maximal radiation intensity reaches a value of I = 148 GW × сm-2.
																								



7.
Superradiance on ions of molecular nitrogen in filaments

N.G. Ivanov1, V.F. Losev1,2, V.E. Prokop’ev1,3, K.A. Sitnik1
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: филамент, инверсия населенностей, фемтосекундный лазерный импульс, многофотонная ионизация, молекула, ионы, filament, population inversion, femtosecond laser pulse, multiphoton ionization, molecule, ions

Abstract >>
The experimental results of the study of population inversion in the resonant electronic transition B3П g -A3å u+ of nitrogen ions by optical pump of air and pure nitrogen by a femtosecond laser pulse at a wavelength of 950 nm are presented. It is shown that the inversion results from selective settling of N2+ (B2å u+,n¢=0) excited state during multiphoton excitation of the autoionization state of the nitrogen molecule with energy of 18.7 eV. Seed photons for superradiance at transitions of molecular nitrogen ions are photons of the axial supercontinuum occurring in a filament at the corresponding wavelengths. The mode of the superradiance at the wavelength  = 358.4 nm, referred to the transition of the CN molecules, was implemented.
																								



8.
The threshold conditions of ultrashort visible pulse propagation through glass

N.G. Ivanov1, V.F. Losev1,2
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: лазерный пучок, фемтосекундный импульс, компрессор из стекла, керровская нелинейность, пространственное распределение излучения, laser beam, femtosecond pulse, glass compressor, Kerr nonlinearity, spatial radiation distribution

Abstract >>
The results of measurement and calculation of parameters of radiation at  = 475 nm after compression in glass are presented. It is shown that there are three ranges of the energy density of the radiation entering to the compressor. In the first range of low intensity (energy density is 1-5 mJ/cm2), the influence of non-linearity on the output beam parameters is insignificant. The second range of moderate intensity (energy density is 5-10 mJ/cm2) is characterized by a significant loss of energy during the propagation of the output beam. The third range of increased intensities (energy density is 20 mJ/cm2 or more) is characterized by a complete destruction of the spatial structure and the spectral composition of the output beam.
																								



9.
Variation of polarization state in ceramics with disordered crystal structur

V.V. Osipov1, V.V. Lisenkov1,2, R.N. Maksimov1,2, B.V. Shulgin2, A.V. Ishchenko2, V.A. Shitov1
1Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620016, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg, Russia
2Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 19 Mira, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: нанопорошок, оптическая керамика, допирование, поляризация, рассеяние, nanopowder, optical ceramics, doping, polarization, scattering

Abstract >>
In this work, we showed that doping of sesquioxide based ceramics (for instance, Y2O3) by heterovalent ions leads to altering of polarizations. It results in variation of refractive index and wave-front distortion due to presence of volumes with increased content of heterovalent ions. It also contributes to lowering of transmittance and increasing of scattering in ZrO2-, HfO2-, or CeO2-doped Y2O3 ceramic samples.
																								



10.
The study of scattered radiation in laser ceramics based on yttrium oxide

V.V. Osipov1, A.N. Orlov1, V.V. Lisenkov1,2, V.Ya. Shur3, M.V. Konev3
1Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620016, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg, Russia
2Institute of Mechanics and Machine Building, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620002, 19 Mira, Ekaterinburg, Russia
3Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: оптическая керамика, рассеяние излучения, профилометр, optical ceramics, radiation scattering, profilometer

Abstract >>
Investigations of 1Nd : Y2O3 + 6HfO2, 1Nd : Y2O3 + 10HfO2, 3Yb: Y2O3 + 5ZrO2, and 5Yb :Y2O3 + 5HfO2 laser ceramics with typical optical inhomogeneities called "orange peel" are presented. The diameter and thickness of samples were, respectively, 11 and 1.7-2.0 mm. Characteristic sizes of optical inhomogeneities causing the effect of "orange peel" were in a range from 10 to 300 mm.
																								



11.
Inductive HF laser

A.M. Razhev1,2, D.S. Churkin1,3, E.S. Kargapoltsev1
1Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Ac. Lavrentyev's prosp., 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, K. Marksa av., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: импульсный, цилиндрический, индукционный разряды, HF-лазер, спектр генерации, высокая стабильность работы лазера, кольцевая форма пучка, pulsed, cylindrical, inductive discharge, HF laser, generation spectrum, high laser operation stability, ring laser beam

Abstract >>
Results of experimental investigations of dependence of energy, temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics of inductive HF laser generation on pumping conditions are presented. Gas mixture of hydrogen with F2 or NF3 or SF6 and their mixtures with helium and neon were used as an active medium. A maximum generation energy of 19 mJ in a gas mixture He :H2 : NF3 - 45 :1 : 4 under pressure of 42 Torr has been achieved. Pulse duration (FWHM) was 0.42 ms that corresponded to a pulse peak power of 45 kW. Spectral composition of inductive HF laser generation has been investigated for the first time. Lasing spectrum consisted of seven groups of bands near 2732, 2763, 2798, 2835, 2873, 2893, and 2913 nm. Lasing shape had a ring form with diameter of about 20 mm and thickness of 4-5 mm. The laser had high stability when operating in pulse periodic regime. The light pulse amplitude divergence was within 5-6%.
																								



12.
Lasing in mixtures of rare gases with fluorine pumped by volume diffuse discharge

A.N. Panchenko, N.A. Panchenko
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
Keywords: лазеры на фторидах инертных газов, диффузный объемный разряд, эффективная генерация, rare gas fluoride lasers, diffuse volume discharge, efficient lasing

Abstract >>
Laser parameters in Не-Ar(Kr, Xe)-F2 and He-F2 gas mixtures under pumping by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) are studied. It is shown that the REP DD can be a source of efficient laser emission on XeF* and KrF* molecules. Laser action on transitions of molecular fluorine in the VUV range at 157 nm was obtained in REP DD for the first time. It was shown that high uniformity of REP DD allows one to increase laser pulse duration on rare gas fluoride molecules. Laser parameters obtained in the REP DD are comparable with those obtained under pumping by commonly used transverse discharges with preionization.
																								



13.
Visualization of gasdynamic processes at a pulse-periodic discharge initiated by runaway electrons in atmospheric pressure air with a laser monitor

D.V. Beloplotov1, M.V. Trigub2,3, V.F. Tarasenko1, G.S. Evtushenko3, M.I. Lomaev1
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: наносекундный импульсно-периодический разряд, воздух атмосферного давления, убегающие электроны, теневая методика, лазерный монитор, лазер на парах бромида меди, струи паров металла, цветные мини-струи, nanosecond pulse-periodic discharge, atmospheric pressure air, runaway electrons, schlieren method, laser monitor, copper bromide laser, metal vapor jets, colored mini jets

Abstract >>
Gasdynamic processes that take place at a pulse-periodic discharge initiated by runaway electrons in atmospheric pressure air were studied with a laser monitor based on a CuBr laser. Voltage pulses (U = 13 kV, FWHM is 10 ns, front duration is 4 ns, negative polarity, f = 60-3200 Hz) applied to a cone copper cathode with diameter of cone base, apex angle, and corner radius of cone apex of 6 mm, 30°, and 0.2 mm, respectively. A flat copper anode was located at a distance of 2 mm from the cathode. It was established that products of discharge plasma with copper vapors are transferred in radial direction along a surface of the flat anode during 2.5 ms to a distance of 24 mm. The temperature of air heated by the discharge in the moment of its expanding was ~ 1 × 103 K. It was shown that use of the laser monitor in transmitted light allows obtaining contrast images of optical inhomogeneities that arise at a gas discharge.
																								



14.
Investigation of the CuBr laser gain characteristics

M.V. Trigub1,2, G.S. Evtushenko2, V.O. Troitsky1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: CuBr-лазер, неустойчивый резонатор, усилительные характеристики, CuBr laser, unstable cavity, gain characteristics

Abstract >>
In this paper, the investigation results of gain characteristics of a CuBr laser with an unstable cavity are shown. The effect of the losses in the feedback channel of the unstable telescopic resonator with lateral output radiation was investigated. The possibility of allocating one laser wavelength through the use of band-pass filters in the cavity feedback channel was demonstrated.