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Philosophy of Sciences

2015 year, number 4

1.
Aristotle and science of the future: metatheoretical analysis

A.P. Fedyaev
Kazan' state university of culture and skills, Kazan
Keywords: Аристотель, геоцентризм, перспективы развития науки, Aristotel, geocentrism, perspectives of sciences development

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the relationship of philosophical views of Aristotle and modern scientific ideas about the universe. The author argues that the physical world is invisible transcendental «beginning» and that the Aristotelian model of the universe can be the basis for the formation of future science.
																								



2.
Model-theoretical semantics, composotionality princeple and truth definition

A.V. Khlebalin1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: семантика, истина, принцип композициональности, естественные и формальные языки, semantics, truth, compositionality principle, natural and formal languages

Abstract >>
The accepted assumptions in the history of development of logical semantics on the basis of opposition of universalists and model-tradition traditions are investigated. Formation of model-theoretical approach in connection with a problem of a definability of semantic concepts is in detail lit. The role of the implicitly accepted by A. Tarsky comes compositionality principles to light, its role in receiving result about inexpressibleness of concept of truth of natural languages is characterized.
																								



3.
Explanation phenomena by means of models in natural sciences and their understanding

V.M. Reznikov
Institute of philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: дедуктивно-номологическая схема, общие законы, феноменологические законы, законы ceteris paribus, теория, модель, объяснение, понимание, Гемпель, Картрайт, deductive-nomological formalization, general laws, phenomenological laws, ceteris paribus laws, theory, model, explanation, understanding, Hempel, Cartwright

Abstract >>
The article shows the limited value of the deductive-nomological formalization for the explanation and understanding of natural phenomena. The formalization uses theoretical laws of nature, which very often have the status of ceteris paribus laws. Сontemporary philosophy of science uses the conceptions of Cartwright, Morgan and de Regt as an alternative to Hempel’s formalization. Our research demonstrates the adequacy of these conceptions for the explanation the phenomena and understanding of used theories. These conceptions use models rather than laws, where the model is the result of synthesis of a modified theory and data representing the phenomena under study.
																								



4.
The ontological and epistemological treats of physics build of world building on modern stage

A.Yu. Storozhuk1
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: эпистемические стандарты, математический стиль, инструментальный стиль, онтологический плюрализм, иерархия, epistemics standarts, statistical and laboratorical styles, ontological pluralism and hierarhy

Abstract >>
The modern stage of the science development is characterized by two opposing trends: specialization, leading to the differentiation of the methods and approaches, and unification or standardization of methods, making them more universal. The latest trend provides the opportunity to unify knowledge as universal techniques make it possible to use them more widely. The application is accompanied by the transfer of universal techniques in a wide range of ontological and epistemological assumptions that underlie these practices, which contributes to the development of a universal ontology of the physical picture of the world.
																								



5.
Number and time. Part I. Idea number of elementary and quantum of time

A.N. Spaskov1,2,3
1Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk
2Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities, Moscow
3Russian Institute for Advanced Study, Moscow
Keywords: натуральное число, арифметическая модель, темпорологическая структура, транзитивно-фазовая концепция времени, расслоенное время, natural numbers, arithmetic model, temporological structure, transitive-phase concept of time, bundle time

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the nature of mathematical concepts, genesis of natural numbers and the temporal structure of consciousness. We analyze the arithmetic model of time and propose a new geometrical model of bundle time which is based on the hypothesis of independent time dimensions corresponding to external linear time and internal cyclic one.
																								



6.
The epistemological bases of the idea of the plurality of the peaces: the first step is - cosmology

A.L. Simanov1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SD RAS, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: эпистемология, космология, метафизика, унификация, мультивселенная, epistemological, cosmology, metaphysics, the unification, multiuniversum

Abstract >>
In the article are briefly shown the epistemological bases of cosmology, which became the first step toward the idea of the plurality of peaces and unification of fundamental physical theories. Thesis is based, that all studies in this region of cosmology rest originally on the ruling fundamental physical theories, and, first of all, to the general theory of relativity, which has several versions of the solution of its equations. But empirical data allow different theoretical interpretations of these solutions that it gives metaphysical nature to such ideas and makes with their object of philosophic methodological analysis. This fact is caused by the fact that they cannot be falsifitsirovany even in the case of the absence of mathematical and logical contradictions.
																								



7.
Awareness of self awareness as a В«sero level» of intelligence

D.V. Vinnik
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: сознание, самосознание, осознание самосознания, рефлексия, зеркальный тест, эволюционная эпистемология, мышление, приматы, эволюция, теория игр, awareness, self awareness, awareness of self awareness, reflection, introspection, mirror test, evolution epistemology, thinking, intelligence, primatology, game theory

Abstract >>
Awareness of self-awareness is a fundamental cognitive property of human beings. This means that awareness of self-awareness could be naturalized as specific functional mental state of human brain. Nature of reflection as real mental state is social one. Evolution of reflective forms of mind could be explained through evolution epistemological standpoint as a result of social reflective games. Organisms have an ability to grasp opponent’s reflective range and to detect epistemic lie by their behavior and external physiological data. Probably this is possible due the evolution of empathy phenomena caused by mirror neurons.
																								



8.
Cognitive processes ontology in conceptions of philosophy of mind

V.I. Silantyev
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: сознание, редукционизм, аргумент зомби, consciousness, reductionism, zombie argument

Abstract >>
The concept of consciousness is considered through its relation to unconscious mental processes, brain activity, and behavioral automatisms. Impossibility of consciousness ontology construction with consciousness being detached from unconscious work of the mind is shown though fallacy of some reductive and nonproductive views on consciousness.
																								



9.
Diophantus of Alexandria and Neo-Pythagorean tradition

E.V. Afonasin1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAN, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Diophantus, new dating, ancient algebra, Neopythagorean arithmetic

Abstract >>
A curious instance of utilization of algebraic terminology in Hippolytus’ ( Elenchos I 2, 9-10: dynamis, cubus, dynamocubus , etc.) indicates that a relatively advanced arithmetic originated in works of such mathematicians as Heron and Diophantus, for some reason, aroused interest in Platonic and Pythagorean circles. Indeed, if we were to look for an example of an “ideal” Pythagorean, Diophantus would certainly qualify: he wrote a book on such a popular Pythagorean subject as polygonal numbers, transformed traditional arithmetic, and created a new theory of number; in a word, he did things a Pythagorean is supposed to do. It is no secret that Pythagorean numerology is not very useful from a mathematical point of view. What if an unknown Pythagorean (Hippolytus’ source) decided to translate the standard Pythagorean theory into the language of higher mathematics of his time? It is as if asked to define number I were to indulge in axiomatic set theory. Besides, the text has clear implications for the dating of Diophantus. Textual observations allow us to entertain the idea that Diophantus as the philosophus Pythagoricus was known and used in the Neopythagorean and Platonic sources from the second, and, possibly, the first century AD. Moreover, if he, as it seems, authored an introductory work on arithmetic, he may be set in a series with such persons as Eudorus, Cleomedes, Moderatus, Nicomachus, and Theon of Smyrna as a fully fledged contributor to the development of the Neopythagorean movement, perhaps to be placed somewhere between Eudorus and Nicomachus.
																								



10.
Idea of unity of knowledge in the history of philosophy

E.A. Bezlepkin
Institute of philosophy and low SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: единство знания, синтез, редукция, методология, онтология, гносеология, the unity of knowledge, synthesis, reduction, methodology, ontology, epistemology

Abstract >>
The review of approaches to the problem of unity of knowledge in the history of philosophical thought made. Performances philosophers from antiquity to modern times and the varieties of reductionist and synthetic models of the unity of knowledge since the philosophy of positivism are considered. Based on the review is concluded that there are several basic approaches to the problem of the unity of knowledge. The approaches can be classified by the ontological (the possibility of the unity of the world) and epistemological (the possibility of reducing / combining elements of the world) grounds.