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Avtometriya

2015 year, number 6

1.
GAS-DISCHARGE HE-NE LASER WITH A WAVELENGTH OF 1.52 Ојm FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

S. N. Atutov1,2, V. A. Sorokin1,2
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: лазер, усиление, длина волны 1, 52 мкм, гауссов пучок, модовый состав, laser, gain factor, wavelength of 1.52 Ојm, Gaussian beam, mode composition

Abstract >>
Results of a detailed study of a gas-discharge He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 1.52 μm for telecommunications systems are reported. Some important parameters of the laser are measured, such as the laser beam divergence (M2), the laser power as a function of temperature, laser power stability, noise characteristics of laser radiation, etc. A possibility of laser microminiaturization is mentioned, which is of interest for its application under conditions of intense electromagnetic interference.
																								



2.
LASER DIODE MODULATION UNDER MULTICHANNEL DIGITAL 64-QAM AND 256-QAM TV SIGNALS

V. A. Vardanyan
Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Informatics, ul. Kirova 86, Novosibirsk 630102, Russia
Keywords: клиппирование, отношение сигнал/шум, поднесущий ТВ-канал, clipping, signal/noise ratio, subcarrier TV channel

Abstract >>
A simulation model for laser diode modulation by multichannel 64-QAM and 256-QAM TV signals is developed. The signal/noise (S/N) ratio is used as a criterion for evaluating the quality of TV signals. The effect of nonlinearity of the light-current characteristic on the S/N ratio is studied. Simulation results are presented in the form of a dependence of the maximum number of transmitted channels on the optical modulation depth with certain requirements for S/N. The simulation model is implemented in the object-oriented programming language Delphi 7.
																								



3.
LONG-DISTANCE FIBER-OPTIC QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION USING SUPERCONDUCTING DETECTORS

V. L. Kurochkin1,2, A. V. Zverev1, Yu. V. Kurochkin3, I. I. Ryabtsev1,2,3, I. G. Neizvestnyi1, R. V. Ozhegov4, G. N. Gol’tsman4, P. A. Larionov4
1Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 13, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
3Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100A, Moscow 143025, Russia
4Moscow State Pedagogical University, ul. Malaya Pirogovskaya 1, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Keywords: квантовая криптография, детекторы одиночных фотонов, quantum cryptography, single photon detectors

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of experimental studies on quantum key distribution in optical fiber using superconducting detectors. Key generation was obtained on an experimental setup based on a self-compensation optical circuit with an optical fiber length of 101.1 km. It was first shown that photon polarization encoding can be used for quantum key distribution in optical fiber over a distance in excess of 300 km.
																								



4.
ACTIVE MODE-LOCKING IN SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS

V. F. Zakhar’yash, A. V. Kashirskii, V. M. Klement’ev
Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: активная синхронизация мод, полупроводниковый лазер, внешний резонатор, active mode locking, semiconductor laser, external cavity

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of experimental studies of active mode-locking in an external-cavity semiconductor laser. Two methods of obtaining active mode-locking regimes have been studied: by modulation from an external generator with a frequency close to the intermode frequency of the external laser cavity and by laser current modulation at the frequency of intermode beats of the external laser cavity through an amplification feedback loop. In the first case, a stability of intermode beats of 10 -14 is experimentally achieved, and in the second case, it is shown that semiconductor laser current modulation by an amplified intermode beat signal from the output of a photodetector provides a stable mode-locking regime also with mode frequency tuning, i.e., a mode-locking regime involving intermode frequency tuning with optical cavity tuning. The effects that accompany mode locking, in particular, the pulling effect and the stability of the mode-locking regime, and possibility of obtaining highly stable intermode beats by suppressing the amplitude noise component in the modulating signal have been studied. A phenomenological study of the pulling and phase locking of the intermode frequency is attempted.
																								



5.
HIGH-EFFICIENCY DIFFRACTIVE FOCUSING DEFLECTING ELEMENT

G. A. Lenkova
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: поворотный фокусирующий элемент, дифракционная структура, эффективность, световые потери, deflecting focusing element, diffractive structure, efficiency, light loss

Abstract >>
The shape of the diffractive structure of a deflecting kinoform element designed for focusing high-power laser beams with a wavelength of 10.6 μm is studied. Formulas are derived for calculating light losses induced by tilting of the incident beam, diffraction, and technological blurring of the steep slope of the structure. It is demonstrated that the height of the structure varies from the minimum to the maximum value depending on the azimuthal angle. It is found that light loss induced by shadowing due to oblique incidence of the beam is rather low (0.6-1.3%), and that caused by diffraction is smaller by an order of magnitude and can be neglected. The light losses induced by technological blurring of the slope and by deviation of the structure height from the design value (in the case of violation of the azimuthal dependence) can exceed 10%.
																								



6.
ADAPTIVE COMPENSATION OF ATMOSPHERIC DISTORTIONS OF MULTICHANNEL LASER RADIATION

O. L. Antipov1, F. Yu. Kanev2, N. A. Makenova2, V. P. Lukin2, E. I. Tsyro2
1Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ul’yanova 46, GSP-120, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Russia
2Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pl. Akademika Zueva 1, Tomsk, 634021 Russia
Keywords: многоканальные оптические системы, атмосферная турбулентность, фазовое сопряжение, multichannel optical systems, atmospheric turbulence, phase conjugation

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of modeling the propagation of multichannel radiation under free diffraction conditions and discusses features inherent in this type of beams under these conditions. In addition, the effect of distortions arising in a turbulent atmosphere on radiation quality is considered, and the efficiency of adaptive compensation of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed.
																								



7.
DETERMINATION OF THE VELOCITY AND SIZE OF BUBBLES IN TWO-PHASE FLOWS BY USING A LASER DOPPLER ANEMOMETER

A. P. Belousov1, P. Ya. Belousov1, L. A. Borynyak2
1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: оптическая диагностика, лазерные доплеровские системы, газовые пузырьки в жидкости, собственные колебания сферической границы раздела, газожидкостные потоки, optical diagnostics, laser Doppler systems, gas bubbles in a liquid, natural oscillations of a spherical interface, gas-liquid flows

Abstract >>
Natural oscillations of a spherical interface between a gas and a liquid in a bubble are registered. A possibility of measuring the geometric parameters of stationary and moving particles of the disperse phase by a laser Doppler anemometer is demonstrated. A method for simultaneous determination of the size and velocity of a bubble or a droplet in a two-phase flow is developed. The mean sizes of a group of bubbles settled on a ruler are compared: the results are obtained by two independent methods, i.e., by analyzing the image and by processing the Doppler signal containing information about the natural oscillations of the spherical interface between the media. A possibility of using a laser Doppler anemometer for simultaneous measurements of the velocity and size of bubbles or droplets in a two-phase flow is confirmed.
																								



8.
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY EVOLUTION IN DISSIPATIVE SOLITON FIBER LASERS

A. S. Skidin1, I. A. Yarutkina1, O. V. Shtyrina1, M. P. Fedoruk1,2
1Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrent’eva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: лазерная теория, математическое моделирование, линейный резонатор, кольцевой резонатор, laser theory, mathematical modeling, linear cavity, ring cavity

Abstract >>
Theoretical results on the energy evolution in ring and linear cavities of dissipative soliton fiber lasers are analyzed. The correctness of the theoretical results is confirmed by mathematical modeling.
																								



9.
RAPID METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXCITATION ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEEN YTTERBIUM AND ERBIUM IONS IN AN ACTIVE FIBER PREFORM

A. S. Smirnov1,2, K. P. Latkin1,2, Ya. E. Sadovnikova3,4, E. G. Leksina5, A. S. Kurkov1,2,3
1Perm National Research Polytechnic University, pr. Komsomol’skii 29, Perm, 614990 Russia
2Photonics Laboratory of Perm Scientific Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lenina 13a, Perm, 614990 Russia
3Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991 Russia
4Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, ul. Stromynka 20, Moscow 107966, Russia
5Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Leninskie Gory 1, str. 5, Moscow, 119234 Russia
Keywords: эрбий, иттербий, эрбий-иттербиевые волокна, эффективность передачи энергии возбуждения, erbium, ytterbium, erbium-ytterbium fiber, excitation energy transfer efficiency

Abstract >>
A rapid method is proposed to evaluate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium ions from measured relative luminescence intensity in different spectral regions in an active fiber preform, taking into account the concentration of active ions and their spectroscopic constants.
																								



10.
METHOD OF CALCULATING THE CROSS-WIND SPEED AT THE ENTRANCE APERTURE OF AN ADAPTIVE SYSTEM BASED ON SHACK-HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSOR MEASUREMENTS

L. V. Antoshkin1, N. V. Goleneva1,2, V. V. Lavrinov1, L. N. Lavrinova1
1Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pl. Akademika Zueva 1, Tomsk, 634055 Russia
2Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Keywords: датчик волнового фронта Шэка - Гартмана, координаты центроида, турбулентные искажения, скорость ветра, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, centroid coordinates, turbulent distortions, wind speed

Abstract >>
This paper presents a method for calculating the cross-wind speed at the entrance aperture of an adaptive system from the coordinates of the energy centers of gravity of the focal spots measured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The range of applicability of the method are determined for data obtained in an experiment on an atmospheric path depending on the intensity of turbulent distortions and the optical parameters of the sensor.
																								



11.
METHOD OF INTERACTIVE MODELING OF FUNCTIONALLY DEFINED OBJECTS WITHOUT PRELIMINARY TRIANGULATION OF THE SURFACE

S. I. Vyatkin
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: интерактивное моделирование, геометрические объекты, функции возмущения, interactive modeling, geometric objects, perturbation functions

Abstract >>
The process of interactive modeling of geometric shapes defined by mathematical functions is studied. A method of interactive modeling of functionally defined objects without preliminary triangulation is proposed. This allows more accurate definition of three-dimensional shapes and simplifies the modeling system. A method adapted for graphic processing units is used for rapid visualization of objects.
																								



12.
THERMAL DETECTORS OF UNCOOLED MULTI-ELEMENT INFRARED IMAGING ARRAYS. I. THERMALLY INSULATED ELEMENTS

S. D. Ivanov, E. G. Kostsov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: инфракрасная техника, тепловые приёмники излучения, теплоизоляция, микроболометры, пироэлектричество, тепловое сопротивление, мегапиксельная матрица, тепловизор, IR engineering, IR detectors, thermal insulation, microbolometers, pyroelectricity, thermal resistance, megapixel array, IR imaging system

Abstract >>
The current status of the list of elements of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging arrays based on thermal insulation of their sensors and on accumulation of heat in the element volume during the time necessary for taking one frame is considered. Specific features of operation and the structure of resistive microbolometers and pyroelectric elements are described, as well as typical parameters of these elements. Prospects of improving the parameters of thermally insulated sensors of megapixel arrays are considered. It is noted that the main factor limiting further improvement of the parameters of pixels in IR imaging arrays and increasing the size of the latter is the value of the thermal resistance between the sensor and the substrate. At the modern level of technology development, the thermal resistance has actually reached the limiting value. Another physical principle of operation of IR detectors is required for a further increase in the sensitivity of sensors, a decrease in their response time, and an increase in the size of uncooled megapixel IR arrays; this principle should not include the necessity of thermal insulation of IR detectors. The operation principle based on using pyrotechnical effects will be considered in the second part of the paper.
																								



13.
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD OF FABRICATION OF A MATCHED METAL-DIELECTRIC STRUCTURE FOR A SENSOR BASED ON THE EFFECT OF FRUSTRATED TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

V. S. Terent’ev, V. A. Simonov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: нарушение полного внутреннего отражения, тонкая металлическая плёнка, металл-диэлектрическая интерференционная структура, сенсорика коэффициента преломления, frustrated total internal reflection, thin metal film, metal-dielectric interference structure, refractive index sensorics

Abstract >>
An experimental method of fabrication of a sensor based on a metal-dielectric structure (Al + ZnS) and optimization of its characteristics is described. The coefficient of light reflection ( p -polarization) from the aluminum layer is studied as a function of the layer thickness for different angles of incidence at the wavelength of 532 nm. Based on calculations, which are qualitatively consistent with experimental results, a structure consisting of matched layers of aluminum and zinc sulfide is fabricated; this structure has a higher angular resolution than the aluminum film with no dielectric coating. The detection limit of angular measurements by the sensor based on this structure is estimated as 2.6 · 10 -5 RIU (refraction index units).
																								



14.
CALCULATION OF THE DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC OF OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

A. G. Baturin1,2
1Scientific Research Institute of Electronic Devices, ul. Pisareva 53, Novosibirsk, 630005 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karka Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: оптоэлектронная система, расчёт параметров, дистанционная характеристика, трассировка лучей, optoelectronic system, calculation of parameters, distance characteristic, ray tracing

Abstract >>
A method for calculating the distance characteristic of optoelectronic systems is proposed which provides increased accuracy in comparison with known techniques. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data.
																								



15.
IMAGE SEQUENCE FILTERING ALGORITHMS FOR RESOLUTION IMPROVEMENT IN APPLICATIVE NOISE CONDITIONS

A. Yu. Ivankov, A. A. Sirota
Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya Ploshchad’ 1, Voronezh, 394006 Russia
Keywords: обработка изображений, сегментация, аппликативные помехи, суперразрешение, фильтр Калмана, image processing, segmentation, applicative noise, super resolution, the Kalman filter

Abstract >>
Algorithms for improving the resolution of a sequence of images distorted by applicative noise manifested in the form of randomly shaped local regions of occlusion are synthesized and analyzed. The basis is the implementation of an optimal linear filtering algorithm in block form, which is synthesized with account for possible emergence of false observations in individual elements of the analyzed images. A method for incorporating the results of independent segmentation of each individual image into the recursive filtering process is proposed, which enhances the quality of the final processing.
																								



16.
MASTER CONTROLLER OF A HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER UNIT SOURCE OF AN ELECTRON BEAM WELDING DEVICE

D. V. Senkov1,2, A. S. Medvedko1
1Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 11 Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: электронно-лучевая сварка, источник высокого напряжения, переходной процесс, стабилизация напряжения, адаптивная обратная связь, electron beam welding, high-voltage source, transient process, voltage stabilization, adaptive feedback

Abstract >>
This paper describes the structure and control algorithms of a controller of a high-voltage source with an output voltage of 60 kV and a power of up to 30 kW. The source is designed to be used as part of a power unit of an electron-beam welding device developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BINP SB RAS). High-quality welds require a stable electron beam energy. Herewith, a standard operation mode is quick and deep modulation of the electron current. The problem of achieving high-quality control and limiting the transient distortions of output voltage of the source is solved. The error of establishing and stabilizing the output voltage is 0.1%, which allows obtaining high-quality welding. Transient distortions at 100% modulation of the load current do not exceed the value of ±1%, which, along with fast reaction of the source to a load breakdown (energy released during breakdown is smaller than 15 J), protects the welded parts and elements of the gun from being damaged by an electron beam.
																								



17.
NONPOSITIONAL ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION METHODS

A. A. Kozhevnikov1, K. P. Bespalov2
1Voronezh Branch of the Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, ul. Uritskogo 75a, Voronezh, 394026 Russia
2JSC Kontzern “Sozvezdie”, ul. Plekhanovskaya 14, Voronezh, 394018 Russia
Keywords: аналого-цифровой преобразователь, система остаточных классов, элайсинг, analog-digital converter, residue number system, aliasing

Abstract >>
This paper describes the analysis of analog-digital converters operating in positional and nonpositional number systems. A new method for analog-digital conversion on the basis of the features of a modular number system is proposed.