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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 5

1.
Essay on the History of Russian Forest Pyrology

P. A. Tsvetkov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесная пирология, обзор основных этапов развития, forest pyrology, review of the main development

Abstract >>
Forest pyrology was used as a part of the forestry in the end of the nineteenth century. The founder of the forest pyrology in Russia was academician Ivan S. Melekhov. He defined it as a science of nature of forest fires, their effects, fire fighting methods, and positive function of fires in the forest. Formed as a branch of the forestry, forest pyrology became an independent science that developed as a theory and practice of forest protection. Separation of forest pyrology to an independent branch of the science was caused by the results of the much research that revealed great importance of the forest fires as a factor of the forest formation and as an ecological and evolutional factor that is of global importance. Fires greatly influence forest formation, their distribution, state, and productivity. In the paper, the short historical review of the main periods of Russian forest pyrology is given. Five periods were determined from the beginning of its origin to the further development. The total state of the science of forest fires in Russia is provided. It is noted that the organization of the laboratory of forest fires in 1959 in the V. N. Sukachev Institute of forest and wood SB AS USSR resulted in the academic recognition of the forest fires science; thus fire investigations in Siberia became systematic. The large contribution of the Russian scientists to the investigations of forest fires is emphasized. Many achievements of Russian forest fire scientists became world-famous.
																								



2.
The Uniqueness of the Contemporary Stage of Forest Remote Sensing in Russia

A. S. Isaev, T. V. Chernenkova
Centre for Forest Ecology and Production, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str., 84/32, Moscow, 117997 Russian Federation
Keywords: мониторинг биоразнообразия лесов, дистанционное зондирование, индикаторы разнообразия, экосистемные функции, картографирование, ГИС-технологии, monitoring of forest biodiversity, remote sensing, biodiversity indicators, ecosystem functions, mapping, GIS-technologies

Abstract >>
This paper reflects the planetary role of Russian forests in formation of vegetation biodiversity, providing resource and ecosystem services as well as maintaining human-friendly environment. It depicts the history and framework of biodiversity monitoring of Russian boreal forests on the basis of remote sensing and ground-based data. The framework is based on a conceptual approach of biodiversity investigation taking into account the spatial-temporal dynamic and current forest state. The emphasis is put on the originality of the modern stage of forest cover assessment using remote sensing data - the most important component of information management of regional natural and anthropogenic forest dynamics. The application of advanced quantitative methods of GIS-technologies through analysis of satellite data and digital elevation model (DEM) in order to determine the genetic, spatial and temporal relationships between typological diversity and environmental factors enables to develop a new approach for the study of multidimensional spatial differentiation of forest cover. Local data interpolation during the ground research at upper scale levels using spectral satellite imagery processing and quantitative methods makes it possible to save important information on the structure and vegetation properties. Several examples of forest typological inventory at the federal, regional and local levels are provided. The system of indicators aimed at practical application of forestry and environmental management at the regional level, developed in this paper, helps identify qualitative changes in forest cover under the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors and develop appropriate measures to maintain the necessary level of forest biodiversity of the territory.
																								



3.
Comparative Regionalization of Northern Eurasia by Woody Plants and Ground Vertebrates

Yu. S. Ravkin1,2, I. N. Bogomolova1, S. M. Tsybulin1
1Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Frunze Str., 11, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russian Federation
2Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue, 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russian Federation
Keywords: районирование, древесные растения, кластерный анализ, факторы, корреляция, Северная Евразия, regionalization, woody plants, cluster analysis, factors, correlation, Northern Eurasia

Abstract >>
According to the data borrowed from the Biodat base on areas of 536 species of wood plants by means of one of methods of the cluster analysis floristic classification is made and division into districts of Northern Eurasia is executed. Three regions that, in turn, are divided into provinces and districts, are as a result allocated. The border between Southwest and Northeast regions passes diagonally from the northwest on the southeast from the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea to Altai. Such arrangement of border is caused by incomplete postglacial restoration of areas of broad-leaved tree species and modern distinctions in the hydrothermal mode. Considerable similarity of this border with carried out earlier as a result of the similar analysis of fauna of vertebrate animals though on land vertebrata it runs North - from the Kola Peninsula to Baikal is shown. Estimates of communication of variability of communities with various factors of the environment are similar, but usually on land vertebrata they are slightly higher, except for provinciality (35 and 19 % of dispersion). It testifies to more accurate reaction of animals to distinctions in the environment. The exception on provinciality is connected with more coincidence to its accepted gradation on plants (The European, West and East Siberian provinces). It is confirmed by estimates of communication with regionality - division into groups of provinces (regions) that differ on fauna and flora (29 and 38 %) less. The regime explanation of heterogeneity of flora, on the contrary, is slightly fuller, than on fauna (73 and 64 %) though the total assessment on general concepts is approximately identical (80 and 81 % of dispersion).
																								



4.
Drought Impact on Wood Formation and Antioxidant Protection of Scots Pine Cambial Zone

N. E. Sudachkova, L. I. Romanova, I. L. Milyutina
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, засуха, ксилогенез, камбий, флоэма, фотосинтетические пигменты, углеводы, окислительный стресс, Scots pine, drought, xylogenesis, cambium, phloem, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, oxidative stress

Abstract >>
The effect of drought on the 8-9-year-old seedlings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) was simulated in the field by isolating trees from precipitation. The biochemical changes typical of water stress wеre compared with the structural changes of the annual rings of wood. The samples of the current and last year needles, cambium and adjoining layers of xylem and phloem of stems and roots were analyzed. In the needles, the content of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids were determined. The contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of enzymes, realizing antioxidant protection: superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, glutathione reductase and content of sugars and starch were determined in tissues of xylem, phloem and cambium. It was shown that drought reduces the weight of the needles, the chlorophyll content and the width of the annual wood rings. In moderate drought in the cambial zone oxidative stress was developed and also protection system against free radicals was activated, which resulted in a high SOD activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide due to the activity of peroxidase reduction. As a result, the division processes in cambial zone and cells extension growth were inhibited and the width of annual wood rings decreased due to reduction in the number and size of tracheids. It was found that decrease in growth was not due to deficit of carbohydrates for the process xylogenesis. Water deficit increases the concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrates in the tissues, which, due to the inhibition of division and extension cambial derivatives are only partially used for thickening tracheid cell walls. As a result, abnormal tracheides with reduced size of cells and lumens and thickened cell walls were formed. Abundance of soluble carbohydrates was deposited as a reserve pool in the root phloem in the form of starch. The stock function of root phloem was increased under water deficit conditions.
																								



5.
Soil and Soil Cover Changes in Spruce Forests after Final Logging

E. M. Lapteva, G. M. Vtyurin, K. S. Bobkova, D. A. Kaverin, A. A. Dymov, G. A. Simonov
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: средняя тайга, подзолистые текстурно-дифференцированные почвы, почвенный покров, вырубки, антропогенная трансформация почв, Республика Коми, middle taiga, podzolic texturally-differentiated soils, soil cover, logging areas, anthropogenic soil transformation, Komi Republic

Abstract >>
Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol) and enlarges their ratio (up to 35-38 %) in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5-10 years) stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30-40 years after logging), soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable) components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.
																								



6.
Number of Chromosomes and Chromosome Rearrangement of Norway Spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in the Forests of Rilo-Rhodope Mountain in Bulgaria

A. N. Tashev1, T. S. Sedel’nikova2, A. V. Pimenov2
1University of Forestry, Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 10, Sofia, 1797 Republic of Bulgaria
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Picea abies, число хромосом, B-хромосомы, хромосомные перестройки, Болгария, Picea abies, chromosome numbers, B-chromosomes, chromosome rearrangements, Bulgaria

Abstract >>
Comparative investigations of chromosome numbers and chromosome rearrangements in populations of Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) growing in the territory of State Forest Service «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa», «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte» in Rila-Rhodope mountain region (Bulgaria). Populations are located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive 92/43. It was found that diploid set of seed progeny of P. abies from the 4 populations studied includes 24 chromosomes (2 n = 2 x = 24). Mixoploidy (2 n = 24, 36; 2 n = 24, 48; 2 n = 24, 36, 48) was detected in some germinating seeds of all studied populations of P. abies. Metaphase cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Garmen» and «Eleshnitsa» contain supernumerary, or B-chromosomes, while the variability of their number and occurrence was observed. In cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte», B-chromosomes are not revealed. Some chromosome rearrangements such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of P. abies from populations of «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa» and «Dobrinishte». Probably occurrence of mixoploids, B chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements in P. abies populations growing in Rila-Rhodope mountain region is connected with adaptation of trees to the extreme environmental conditions and such a serious factor that presently forests in the studied region located in the zone of natural radioactivity and in the past, the region of study was subjected to substantial anthropogenic pressure due to uranium extraction industry.
																								



7.
Forest Litter Stocks in Korean Pine-Broad-Leaved Forests of the Southern Sikhote Alin

A. V. Ivanov
Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture, Blukher Avenue, 44, Ussuriisk, 692510 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесная подстилка, углерод, кедрово-широколиственные леса, Южный Сихотэ-Алинь, Приморский край, forest litter, carbon, Korean pine-broad-leaved forests, southern Sikhote Alin, Primorsky krai

Abstract >>
The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7-20.3 t ha -1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years). Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55-10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.
																								



8.
Morphometric Parameters and Phytomas of the Siberian Larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. Trees in the Eastern Khentey (Northern Mongolia)

I. M. Danilin1, Z. Tsogt2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Zhukov avenue, 77, Ulaanbaatar, 210351 Mongolia
Keywords: деревья лиственницы сибирской Larix sibirica Ledeb, морфометрические параметры, надземная фитомасса, аллометрические уравнения, Восточный Хэнтэй, Северная Монголия, Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. trees, morphometric parameters, aboveground phytomass, allometric equations, Eastern Khentey, Northern Mongolia

Abstract >>
In order to solve various research tasks, actual morphometric parameters of trees and forest phytomass assessment data are of great scientific interest and intended for multipurpose applications. However, often this important original information is stored in the archives of the researchers or institutions, will not be published and is not available for detailed analysis and reliable comparisons. The records of morphometric parameters and above-ground phytomass of the Siberian larch ( Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trees, measured on coordinate sample plots established in Eastern Khentey, northern Mongolia are presented in the paper. The morphometric parameters and phytomass of the trees are considered as the main characteristics, that determines course of the processes in forest ecosystems, and might be used for environmental monitoring, sustainable forestry, forest productivity modeling, taking into account global changes, studying the structure and biodiversity of forest cover and assessment of forest carbon sequestration. The study of morphological structure and phytomass of trees seems necessary because the various structural parameters and fractions have different content of nutrient elements and different contribution to annual production of forest stands. On the basis of biometric statistics, allometric equations relating morphometric and production parameters of the larch trees have been calculated, which can be used in ecological modeling, forest inventory and thematic forest interpretation of aerial- and satellite scenes in northern Mongolia.
																								



9.
Vladimir Nikolaevich Sedykh (to 80 Years of Birthday)


																								



10.
Viktor Petrovich Bobrinev (to 80 Years of Birthday)