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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2014 year, number 5


A. Onuchin Alexander
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation


V. A. Sokolov1, V. F. Baginski2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Francis Skorina Gomel State University, Sovetskaya str., 104, Gomel, 246019 Republic of Belarus
Keywords: annual allowable cut, order of calculation, economic accessibility, economic efficiency, wood resources, mature wood, forest use, forest management, Republic of Belarus, Siberia

Abstract >>
Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods) and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.


S. K. Farber1, N. V. Bryuhanov2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2«Vostsiblesproekt, N. K. Krupskaya str., 42, Krasnoyarsk, 660062 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest planning, state forest inventory, sample plot, forest inventory sub-compartment, forest inventory errors, stratification

Abstract >>
State forest inventory (SFI) is a forest investigation that was not performed earlier in our country. Its purpose is to identify total forest area characteristics including wood volume in Russia. There are several papers about the existence of huge differences between actual forest management and SFI data. Nevertheless, at the Russian forest management committee of NFI data performed in Bryansk in 2013 it was still decided to use SFI data. The reasons for existence of differences in land category and forest formation were revealed on the basis of the two examples in Krasnoyarsk Territory Angara river region. The amount of sample items was 340. We compared the sample plots and compartment in order to identify the characteristics of differences between NFI data and forest management materials. We performed physical observation of sample plots and compartments of forest stands and relief maps in order to identify the potential differences. Reconciliation of sample plots of SFI data and compartment showed significant mistakes due to inhomogeneous structure of compartments and some forest management decision for third category. However, these issues do not influence on differences. Systematic errors occur because of SFI methodology peculiarities. This is the main reason for differences between traditional forest management and SFI data. These errors should be improved. The main conclusion made during the performed work is to refuse from stratification of total forest area characteristics at the planning stage of choosing the sample plots. The relief and soil hydrological characteristics should be taken into consideration in a stratification analysis. Sample plots location should be chosen based on the landscape peculiarities, far from the pathway, that will allow elimination of the systematic errors.


V. I. Arkhipov1, D. M. Chernikhovski1, V. I. Berezin2
1«Roslesinforg, Volgogradski Prospekt, 45, Building 1, Moscow, 109316 Russian Federation
2«Sevzaplesproekt, Kolya Tomhcak str., 16, Saint-Petersburg, 196084 Russian Federation
Keywords: new technology of forest inventory, photo interpretation method, firmware, digital aerial photographs

Abstract >>
The main stages of the developed technology of forest inventory by interpretation method, named «From survey — to project», with the use of modern aerial survey data, special software and hardware are discussed in the paper. A need for development of high-end technology of forest inventory is due to increasing demands of state, business, and civil community for actual and correct information about forests. The tasks of research were: integration software and hardware into single technology, testing on the real object, and development of recommendations for introduction into production and forming of system of preparing specialists for forest interpretation. Positive results of experimental works by measurement and analytical forest interpretation in stereo regime on base of photogrammetric software were obtained by specialists from Russia, Croatia, Belarus, and Sweden. In the technology From survey to project, the following instruments are used: photogrammetric complex Vision Map A3, digital photogrammetric system Photomod, program ESAUL, GIS ArcGIS, special hardware for stereo visualization. Results of testing this technology are shown on example of model territory. Comparison of results of forest inventory obtained by interpretation method and results of control inventory obtained by enumeration method demonstrated that errors of determination of main forest inventory characteristics do not exceed the norms. The advantages of practical use of the technology are shown. It has been noted that forest inventory by interpretation method is a complex psychophysiological process and it requires an attraction of specialists with high qualification on base of special training. It is indicated the necessity of forming system for training forest inventory specialists on interpretation method. The designed and prepared curriculums and training manuals for interpretation method in forestry are listed.


C. Hüttich1, M. A. Stelmaszczuk-Górska1, J. Eberle1, P. Kotzerke2, C. Schmullius1
1Friedrich-Schiller University, Löbdergraben, 32, Jena, 07743 Germany
2GAF AG, Arnulfstrasse, 199, Munich, D-80634 Germany
Keywords: remote sensing, SAR, MODIS, time series, forest change monitoring, near-real time

Abstract >>
Forest cover disturbance rates are increasing in the forests of Siberia due to intensification of human activities and climate change. In this paper two satellite data sources were used for automated forest cover change detection. Annual ALOS PALSAR backscatter mosaics (2007–2010) were used for yearly forest loss monitoring. Time series of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, 20002014) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were integrated in a web-based data middleware system to assess the capabilities of a near-real time detection of forest disturbances using the break point detection by additive season and trends (Bfast) method. The SARbased average accuracy of the forest loss detection was 70 %, whereas the MODIS-based change assessment using breakpoint detection achieved average accuracies of 50 % for trend-based breakpoints and 43.4 % for season-based breakpoints. It was demonstrated that SAR remote sensing is a highly accurate tool for up-to-date forest monitoring. Web-based data middleware systems like the Earth Observation Monitor, linked with MODIS time series, provide access and easy-to-use tools for on demand change monitoring in remote Siberian forests.


N. Abe1, M. Tsukahara2, F. Homma3, Y. Omomo3, T. Ishiyama3
1VTI Research Institute, Nishiku, 6860-39, Ikarashi, 1, Niigata, 950-2101 Japan
2Niigata Prefectural Forest Research Institute, 2249-5, Unotoro, Murakami, Niigata, 958-0264 Japan
3Oris Co., Ltd, Toyano, 310, Chuoku, Niigata, 950-0951 Japan
Keywords: Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L. f.) D. Don) forest resources, ALOS AVNIR2, PRISM space image data, geometric correction, topographic correction, volume estimating equation, increase of forest register accuracy, Japan

Abstract >>
The volume of Japanese cedar ((Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. Ex L. f.) D. Don), «sugi» in Japanese) plantations was estimated by using the Japanese satellite ALOS (AVNIR–2, PRISM) to identify sugi plantations as a forest resource. We performed highly precise geometric corrections by locating ground control points (GCP) on the RPC (Rational Polynomial Coefficients) geometric correction image. DPR (Dual Partitioning Regression) was used for the topographic correction. The forest was extracted by primary classification and sugi stands by secondary classification. The overall accuracy of the primary classification was 94 % and that of the secondary classification was 89 %. Parameters effective for estimating volume per hectare were selected by multiple regression analysis between volume and average digital number of each band (band value) by a stepwise procedure. Regression equation using the reciprocal of band 4 (Near IR) value was significantly effective. We demonstrated that the area with a negative NDVI value is not a sugi forest. By identifying these areas using periodical satellite monitoring, the accuracy of the forest register can be increased and this helps facilitate the practical use of the sugi forest.


T. Rouvinen
Trestima Oy, Hermiankatu str., 6-8 D, Tampere, 33720 Finland
Keywords: forest survey, measurements and evaluation of forest resources using mobile telephone, Trestima technology

Abstract >>
Higher efficiency of forest survey is a corner stone of forest inventory and forest planning. Mobile technologies create a unique opportunity to solve the problem as well as measurement accuracy improvement, higher data objectiveness and independent control of the results. Trestima technology bases on extraction of forest attributes such as basal area, tree stem diameter, tree height and species distribution from photographs captured by a mobile phone. Image processing is performed automatically in a cloud service using machine vision, which is aided by a human operator when necessary. That allows automating all further calculations. Functions of electronic compass and geopositioning implemented on modern smart-phones allows registering the direction as well as sufficiently accurate geographic coordinates, which enables unambiguously association of a measurement and its location. The service produces reports about timber stock, basal area, average diameter, average height, number of tree trunks and diameter distribution. The report prepared for each tree stand includes standard error, as well as confidence interval for the measurements results and the assessment, with a 95 % probability level. Using thecross-section area, the average diameter and average height, the timber stock and the number of stems in the specific area may be calculated. The report generated by Trestima can be easily supplemented by a derived parameters, as well as any of the applicable formulas can be easily modified or altered in accordance with the needs, for example, dependingon the particularforest inventory area. One of the key features of the Trestima technology is the fact that each measurement contains geographic coordinates’ data. It means that, the location of eachmeasurementcan be displayedon the map, and the route, and the area cover under consideration can be analyzed.


V. A. Usoltsev1,2, V.P. Chasovskikh2, O. A. Bogoslovskaya2, Yu. V. Noritsina1, V. A. Galako1, G. G. Terekhov1
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii Trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: tree line, ecotone, carbon stock, allometric equations, qualimetry indices, Tylaiskii Rock Mountain, the lower Pur river, the Urals

Abstract >>
This paper reports on measured carbon stocks in the forests of two tree line ecotones of the Ural region where climate change might improve growing conditions. The first is an alpine ecotone that is represented by an altitudinal gradient of the spruce-dominated forests on the Western slope of the Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain (Western part of the Konzhakovskii–TylaiskiiSerebryanskii Mountain system, 59°30'N, 5900'E), at the alpine timber line that has risen from 864 to 960 m above sea level in the course of the last 100 years. The second is an arctic ecotone in larch-dominated forests at the lower course of the Pur river (67N, 78E), at the transition zone between closed floodplain forests and open or islandlike communities of upland forests on tundra permafrost. According to our results, there are large differences in the carbon of the aboveground biomass of both ecotones across environmental gradients. In the alpine tree line ecotone, a 19-fold drop of the carbon stocks was detected between the lower and higher altitudinal levels. In the arctic ecotone the aboveground biomass carbon stock of forests of similar densities (1300 to 1700 trees per ha) was 7 times as much in the river flood bed, and 5 times as much in mature, dense forests as the low density forests at higher elevations. Twelve regression equations describing dependencies of the aboveground tree biomass (stems, branches, foliage, total aboveground part) upon stem diameter of the tree are proposed, which can be used to estimating the biological productivity (carbon) of spruce and larch forests on Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain and the lower Pur river and on surrounding areas on the base of traditional forest mensuration have been proposed. In order to reduce the labor intensity of a coming determination of forest biomass the average values of density and dry matter content in the biomass fractions are given that were obtained by taking our sample trees.The results can be useful in assessing the income part of the carbon cycle in forests of alpine and arctic tree communities of the Ural region, as well as when validating the results of simulation experiments on evaluation of the carbon depositing capacity of forests.


V. I. Polyakov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: polluted stands, landscape, probability of tree survival, tree fall, prognosis, reconstruction, Markovs models, matrices, logistic regression, vigor state category scale, Taimyr

Abstract >>
In 2001 six permanent sample plots (PSP) were established in forest stands differing in degrees of damage by pollution from the Norilsk industrial region. In 2004 the second forest inventory was carried out at these PSP for evaluation of pollutant impacts on stand condition changes. During both inventory procedures the vigor state of every tree was visually categorized according to 6-points scale of «Forest health regulations in Russian Federation». The changeover of tree into fall was also taken into account. Two types of Markov’s models simulating thinning process in tree stands within different ecological conditions has been developed: 1) based on assessment for probability of tree survival during three years; 2) in terms of evaluation of matrix for probability on change of vigor state category in the same period. The reconstruction of tree mortality from 1979 after industrial complex Nadezda setting into operation was realized on the basis of probability estimation of dead standing trees conservation during three years observed. The forecast of situation was carried out up to 2030. Using logistic regression the probability of tree survival was established depending on four factors: degree of tree damage by pollutants, tree species, stand location in relief and tree age. The acquired results make it possible to single out an impact of pollutants to tree stands resistance from other factors. There was revealed the percent of tree fall, resulted by pollution. The evaluation scale of SO2 gas resistance of tree species was constructed: birch, spruce, larch. Larch showed the highest percent of fall because of pollution.


L. N. Vashchuk
«Pribaikallesproekt, Rose Luxemburg str., 160, Irkutsk, 664040 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest inventory, statistical method of forest survey, forest resources, forest economic expedition, left bank of the Angara River, report, 1932 year

Abstract >>
Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP), arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights) were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m) SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m), where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four sample cutting area in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.


A. N. Borisov, V. V. Ivanov, E. V. Ekimov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: ecological niche, the area of an individual dominance, resource allocation, modeling of the resource space distribution

Abstract >>
The method for evaluation of the resource space distribution in an ecological niche between individuals and communities is discussed in the paper. The method is based on allocation of areas in which each individual or community has the dominating area (DE) in spatial sharing of a resource. Realization of the method is shown on examples of the analysis of existential dynamics of field vole (Microtus gregalis) colonies and the analysis of horizontal structure of a pine tree stand. It is shown that the offered method gives an adequate estimation of a resource sharing between individuals and communities. It is shown that Shter, Weihe, etc. methods, based on determination of the areas of growth, give a systematic overestimate for individuals of the small sizes, and underestimate for a bigger individuals. The offered method doesn't show such divergences. For a studied pine tree stand close dependence of DBH on the area of their DE (R2 = 0.79) is revealed. Modeling based on spatial sharing of a resource can be used for the description of a separate individuals’ growth dynamics in a tree stand, and investigation of a tree stand growth. Data on splitting the territory on DE of field vole colonies allows analysis of existential process of settling by population of territories and to receive quantitative indices on development of dumps on different phases of number dynamics. The developed method allows study of spatial sharing of the territory and estimate of the real capacity of habitats. The placement analysis taking into account a season of reproduction and at different phases of number also gives chance for a quantitative assessment of specific radius of shelters of the field vole.


R. D. Vasilishyn
National University of Life Sciences and Environment of Ukraine, Geroev Oborony str., 15, Kiev, 03041 Ukraine
Keywords: biological productivity, energy potential, normative and reference tables, spruce forests, Ukrainian Carpathians

Abstract >>
The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

STANISLAV NIKOLAEVICH SANNIKOV (to 85 years of birthday)

LEONID NIKOLAEVICH VASHCHUK (to 70 years of birthday)

SERGEI YURIEVICH KOLESNIKOV (to 60 years of birthday)