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The journal "Ateroskleroz"

2013 year, number 1

1.
DNA METHYLATION STATUS OF THE CELL PROLIFERATION GENES IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS

M.S. Nazarenko, A.V. Markov, I.N. Lebedev, A.A. Sleptsov, A.V. Frolov, O.L. Barbarash, L.S. Barbarash, V.P. Puzyrev
Keywords: DNA methylation, atherosclerosis, Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip

Abstract >>
The purpose of this study was to identify the features of methylation status of genes whose products are involved in the cell proliferation in vascular tissues of patients with atherosclerosis. We tested the vascular samples from carotid arteries, internal mammary arteries and saphenous veins, which differ in their morphological and functional characteristics and the degree of susceptibility to pathology. DNA methylation profiling was performed by using the microarray «Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip («Illumina, USA), methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction and methylation-specific PCR. For the first time we identified 45 CpG-sites of 36 genes with differential DNA methylation between vascular tissues. The most pronounced differences in the DNA methylation level were registered for CpG-dinucleotides of genes ALOX12, CARD11, DAB2IP, PTPRC, RASIP1, THRB, TLR4, TNFRSF9 and WNT16 . Our data do not support the hypothesis of epigenetic dysregulation of cell-cycle genes ( CDKN2A (p16INK4a and p14ARF), CDKN2B (p15INK4b)) in atherosclerosis.
																								



2.
DYSLIPIDAEMIAS IN THE ELDERLY AND THE VERY OLD: GENDER DIFFERENCES

E.V. Tereshina, O.P. Pleteneva, N.E. Osokina, Yu.D. Aprosin, E.P. Zakiev
Keywords: dyslipidaemia, lipoprotein dispersion, aging, gender differences

Abstract >>
BACKGROUND: Aging of the world population attracts attention to the elucidation of etiology factors triggering development of age-dependent systemic pathologies including atherosclerosis. We assessed the dynamics of lipid parameters changing and their gender differences in people aged 45 years and over. METHODS. Total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and relative content of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) in blood serum were measured by means of spectral analyzer and electrophoresis on acetate plates in 1650 patients (1167 women, 483 men) aged 45 yrs and over. The prevalence of dyslipidaemias was estimated by standard statistic methods. RESULTS. In age period over 75 yrs the frequency of dyslipidaemias decreased from 81.0 % to 36,4 %. The most significant decrease concerned combined dyslipidaemia (CD) (4 times) and triglyceridemia (2 times). CD lowering in men observed through the age range of 4590 yrs, in women from 75 yrs and over. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia in men increased during 60-90 yrs and decreased in women in the period 45-75 yrs. In CD the relative increase of both VLDL and LDL was observed but the VLDL content elevation is associated with high mortality. CONCLUSION: Frequency of elevated TG and VLDL content in sera significantly decreased in men aged 60 yrs and over and in women aged 75 yrs and over.
																								



3.
Role of microalbuminuria for inhospital event risk assessment after coronary artery bypass surgery

K.S. Shafranskaja, A.A. Kuzmina, D.A. Sumin, K.V. Kamlenok, K.E. Krivoshapova, V.V. Kalaeva, M.V. Evseeva, O.L. Barbarash, L.S. Barbarash
Keywords: coronary artery bypass surgery, prognosis, microalbuminuria

Abstract >>
The study was aimed at assessing the prognostic value of microalbuminuria for inhospital events prediction in CAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The course of perioperative period in 719 patients undergoing CABG in the Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases between March, 2011 and April, 2012 was evaluated. All the patients had creatinine concentrations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR by MDRD) and daily urine microalbumin levels measured before CABG and at day 7 after CABG. Major event rates were assessed (myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischemic attack, acute or decompensated chronic renal failure or remediastinotomy) during the hospital stay. The EuroSCORE was calculated for each patient. Different EuroSCORE risk patients had similar serum creatinine levels while microalbumin concentrations in daily urine were significantly higher in moderate and high EuroSCORE risk groups before the surgery as compared to low-risk patients. Patients who experienced postoperative events had significantly higher microalbuminuria both before and after surgery while there were no differences in such renal dysfunction markers as creatinine and GFR. Preoperative microalbuminuria assessment can act as a marker of complicated postoperative period after CABG.
																								



4.
COMPLIANCE TO NON-DRUG THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE UNDERWENT CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

S.A. Pomeshkina, I.V. Borovik, E.V. Krupyanko, I.N. Zavyrylina, O.L. Barbarash
Keywords: coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, compliance

Abstract >>
To assess the perioperative dynamics of compliance to the recommendations for the non-drug therapy for patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). 320 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), who had undergone CABG, were enrolled in the study. The questionnaires were used to assess patients sociodemographic data, present CAD risk factors, dietary habits, physical activity level, therapy prior to CABG and 1year after. The clinical state of patients was evaluated using medical and outpatient medical record data. The compliance was assessed by the Davydovs method. During the assessment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors about half of the patients were suggested to smoke prior to CABG, and only a few of them gave up the habit after surgery. Patients with abdominal obesity increased by 8 % after surgery. The number of patients, who had changed diet and engagement in physical training, did not differ. Patients did not achieve an adequate level of cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure in 1 year after revascularization. The level of compliance, assessed by Davydovs questionnaire, did not change after 1 year. Inadequate compliance of the recommendations by patients, who had undergone CABG, was reported.
																								



5.
INFLUENCE OF PULSE TRANSTSEREBRALNOY ELECTROTHERAPY AND SODIUM CHLORIDE BATHS ON LIPID METABOLISM IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

E.N. Markova, Yu.A. Nikolaev, I.M. Mitrofanov
Keywords: hypertension, lipids, electric, sodium chloride baths

Abstract >>
A survey and follow- up of 120 patients with Stage 12 stage, grade 12. Rated isolated and combined effects of pulsed electro transtserebralnoy and sodium chloride baths on lipid metabolism. Have shown that patients with arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia to non-drug correction justified Course assignment transtserebralnoy pulse electrotherapy and sodium chloride baths. In the presence of dyslipidemia in patients with arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, with the presence of low-density lipoprotein, as a non-pharmacological treatment is advisable to use sessions transtserebralnoy pulse electrotherapy. For correction of dyslipidemia in patients with hypertension accompanied by hypertriglyceridemia, justified the combined exchange application transtserebralnoy, pulse electrotherapy and sodium chloride baths, allowing for a personalized approach to drug-free correction of lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension.
																								



6.
HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN, AND APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I: A REGULATORY ROLE AND NOVEL THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR THE TREATMENT ATHEROSCLEROSIS

L.M. Polyakov, L.E. Panin
Keywords: atherosclerosis, high density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, the regulatory role of apoA-I-mimetic peptides, treatment strategies

Abstract >>
In the review show the functions of high-density lipoprotein, is not related to the exchangeof lipids within them. The results own research, as well as literary evidenced of the important regulatory role. Regulatory effect of HDL is closely related to their antiatherogenic properties. However, it should be noted that the mechanism of action of antiatherogenic HDL is not limited to a reverse transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver, it is determined by many other factors, all of which is important not only in the context of defense against atherosclerosis, but also in the protective role of HDL in a broader sense. The data show that HDL has an important antiinflammatory effect, have antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, regulate vascular tone and anticoagulant activity, act as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Due to the urgency of the problem of atherosclerosis in the emphasis that understanding the molecular mechanisms of the regulatory properties of HDL opens up new prospects for the development of more effective treatments for this disease. New treatment strategies should include the development of promising therapeutic approaches that modulate HDL metabolism, which would increase their levels in the blood and improve the reverse cholesterol transport. This review deals with, in our opinion, the two most promising areas is the creation and use of recombinant HDL or reconstructed, as well as peptide-mimetics of apolipoprotein A-I
																								



7.
The thickness of the intime-media of the carotid arteries in women: relationship to risk factors of cardiovascular diseases

A.N. Ryabikov, Yu.Yu. Ukolova, S.K. Malyutina
Keywords: intima-media, carotid arteries, atherosclerosis, women, population, risk factors, cardiovascular diseases

Abstract >>
The specific features of the development of atherosclerosis in women and determinants of subclinical changes of carotid artery are less investigated than in men. The purpose of review is to summarize the findings from published studies of the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in women. We performed a systematic PubMed literature search for 20 years (19932012) on this subject (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). In addition, some early published major studies were included in the review. Despite heterogeneity of the results presented in literature, their analysis showed specific features of the associations between CIMT and CVD risk factors in women. For instance, weak association was revealed between CIMT and age in women under 50 years old and the faster annual progression of CIMT was shown at older age compared to men. Hypertension and blood pressure (predominantly systolic) are associated with CIMT increase similarly in men and women. Direct association between CIMT and obesity was also shown in both sexes. The higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome was reported among women in menopausal age than in men, but we failed to find out the evidence of different associations between these factors and CIMT in men and women in available literature. Specific associations was found with dyslipidemia, namely, the different impact of triglycerides level on CIMT in women depending on menstrual status and age. The smoking was associated with CIMT, and in women above 45 years old smoking was the most powerful predictor of atherosclerosis independently from menstrual status and age. Sex-specific effect of genetic factors and new biomarkers on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis was observed although the data accumulated in this area are controversial and require further research. The understanding of female peculiarities in the determination of carotid intima-media thickening might improve the efficiency of atherosclerosis prevention at early stage.
																								



8.
METABOLIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. CURRENT STATE OF PROBLEM

N.A. Timoshenko, Yu.I. Ragino, M.I. Voevoda
Keywords: cardiomyopathy, metabolic dysturbances, diagnostic, electrocardiography parameters

Abstract >>
This review presents the current state of metabolic cardiomyopathy problem. The questions of terminology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, staging flow diagnostics, including electrocardiography, echocardiography and phonocardiography, and treatment of disease are discussed.
																								



9.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SULFATED POLYSACCHARIDES OF SEA SEAWEED

S.P. Kryzhanovskiy, T.S. Zaporozhets, N.N. Besednova
Keywords: sulfated polysaccharides of sea seaweed, fucoidan, dyslipidaemias, antioxidant status, immune system

Abstract >>
The present review is devoted to the analysis of the properties of sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae that determine their applicability in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These compounds have antilipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory effect. Sulfated polysaccharides are structurally diverse and heterogeneous, which makes studies of their structures challenging, and may also have hindered their development as therapeutic agents to date. The production of a standardized commercial product based on algal sulfated polysaccharide constituents will be a challenge since their structural and pharmacological features may vary depending on species and on location and time of harvest. In this regard, currently sulfated polysaccharides are used as parapharmaceutical agents in combination with the main treatment.