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The journal "Ateroskleroz"

2011 year, number 2

1.
DIABETES MELLITUS AND CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

V.I. Volkov, S.A. Serik
Keywords: diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, prophylactics, glycemia, dyslipidemia, statins, hypertension
Pages: 3-15

Abstract >>
Diabetic patients have the excess risk of developing atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), which is the most common cause of death in diabetes. The major contributor to the increased CAD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes is dyslipidemia. The multicomponent pathogenesis of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in diabetes remains incompletely understood. At present there is not convincing evidence of intensive glucose control benefit for prevention cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is recognized as the primary target of the treatment of dyslipidemia in diabetic patients and statins are the drugs of choice for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In patients with diabetes and hypertension the main determinant of the cardiovascular benefits of antihypertensive drugs is the blood pressure level achieved under treatment, but nevertheless pharmacologic therapy should include either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or an angiotensin II receptor antagonist.
																								



2.
STRESS-MEDIATED MECHANISMS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS

M.V. Khrapova, M.I. Dushkin
Keywords: PPAR, stress, metabolic syndrome
Pages: 15-24

Abstract >>
Some aspects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) involvement in regulation of stress-dependent biological processes leading to insulin resistance, lipid imbalance, hypertension and inflammation are reviewed. Analysis of literature data clearly shows the main role of PPAR in stress signal transduction following to metabolic disbalance development under prolonged stress conditions. The interplay of three PPAR isoforms functional activity with metabolic process disturbances during stress is under special emphasis. Taking into account experimental data described in literature we suggest that PPAR activation under acute stress is an adaptive response while stable PPAR hyperexpression under proloned stress can cause insulin resistance, hypertension, and visceral obesity. The strategy of PPAR using as pharmacological targets in metabolic syndrome correction is under consideration.
																								



3.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE SERUM LIPIDS LEVELS IN SIBERIA

A.V. Sukhanov, M.V. Ivanova, YU.I. Ragino, M.I. Voevoda, YU.P. Nikitin
Keywords: Alzheimer disease, cognitive functions, serum lipids
Pages: 24-37

Abstract >>
Background: Previous studies examining the association of serum lipids levels with the risk for development of Alzheimer disease (AD) have been inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the serum lipids levels in persons suffering from AD. Methods: 147 patients suffering from AD (according to NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) of both sexes from the Novosibirsk city were examined. Concentration of serum lipids were assessed by enzymatic method. Cognitive functions were determined by Mini-mental State Examination Scale (MMSE). Results: Patients' serum lipids levels were corresponded to norms according to European and American Recommendations. Patients' serum lipids levels were not statistically significant distinguished from those in long-livers from the Novosibirsk city and Yakutia. Statistically significant associations between serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH) levels and patients' age, as well as MMSE score were not revealed in correlation analysis. Conclusion: Serum lipids levels were not associated with risk for development of AD in examined patients' group.
																								



4.
ATHEROTHROMBOSIS: ROLE OF CHRONIC VASCULAR INFLAMMATION

G.I. Kostyuchenko, YU.P. Nikitin, D.D. Arzamastsev, D.A. Ananiev, A.D. Tsalikhin, L.A. Kostyuchenko
Keywords: atherothrombosis, vascular inflammation, prophylaxis
Pages: 37-44

Abstract >>
The results of our studies and the data of scientific literature indicate on the significant role of vascular inflammation. The authors suggest considering of the structural and functional damage of endothelium and signs of vascular inflammation observed in atherothrombosis in the context of common pathologic process - vascular inflammatory reaction (response).  The modern approaches for pharmacological  prophylaxis of any variants of complications of atherothrombosis are discussed.
																								



5.
FIBROTIC PROCESS IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS

YA.SH. Shwartz, YE.A. ??heresiz
Keywords: atherosclerosis, fibrosis, macrophage, fibroblaste, lissosphincter sell
Pages: 44-56

Abstract >>
In this article up-to-date notions of the variants of atherosclerotic plaque evolution are reviewed, atherogenesis is described as chronic inflammatory and fibrotic process, the major cytokines and mediators involved in the process are characterized. The paper lays special emphasis on the role of interrelationships between mononuclear phagocytes and the extracellular matrix-producing cells.
																								



6.
BASIC PHENOMENA AND LAWS IN STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION OF HEART-VESSELS

S.N. Bagaev, V.N. Zakharov, V.A. Orlov
Keywords: cardiovascular system, helical blood flow, blood circulation biomechanics
Pages: 56-67

Abstract >>
Investigations are aimed at studying the blood circulation biomechanics, the physical mechanisms of the cardiovascular system transport function, and regularities of branching and dichotomic division and merging of blood flows at the level of bifurcations of large arterial blood vessels and microvessels.
An analysis of created protacrylic casts of the heart and blood vessel cavities has revealed new anatomical peculiarities: funnel-shapedness of the configuration of heart and vessel chambers, tangentiality of atrial orifices and ventricular apertures, and tangentiality of branching of arterial blood vessels at the level of bifurcations.
An original method of X-ray contrast cineangiocardiography has been developed. It has allowed, for the first time at the system level, to visualize the helical character of blood motion in the heart atriums and ventricles, arteries, and veins. In hydrodynamic investigations of the blood circulation system, the physical laws of conservation with a local dynamic approach for funnel-shaped canals were used.
The performed fundamental investigations of the structural-functional organization of the cardiovascular system have allowed the authors to make a number of scientific discoveries. Briefly, their essence is in the following: The phenomenon of formation of a helical blood flow in the cardiovascular system shows new anatomical-functional principles in the greater and lesser circulations; The universal phenomenon of formation of a twisted flow of biological media in the canals of transport systems reveals the general physical mechanism in the organization and sustaining of a helical blood flow in the transport function of the cardiovascular system. This helical flow is created by a twisting wave excited in the channel walls by contraction of spirally oriented muscle and elastic elements; The property of a twisted liquid flow is to create a tractive force in funnel-shaped canals of variable circular section, and discloses the nature of arterial diastolic pressure due to the energy of rotational motion of a helical blood flow. Diastolic pressure is used to overcome the vascular resistance; The law of hemodynamics in arteries reveals a mathematical relation between the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of the helical blood flow; The law of branching of large arterial blood vessels establishes an unambiguous mathematical relation between the morphometric parameters of blood vessels, and the kinematic and dynamic parameters of the helical flow at the level of bifurcations of arteries and veins; The law of branching of blood microvessels reveals an unambiguous mathematical relation between the morphometric parameters of blood microvessels, the kinematic and dynamic parameters of the Poiseuille flow of blood in arterioles, capillaries, and venules.
On the basis of the scientific discoveries, a new direction has been created. It makes it possible to develop new technologies of diagnostics, treatment, and prophylaxis in medical practice.