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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2011 year, number 3

The Role of Lithic Raw Material Quality in the Use of the Formalized Strategies of Flint Knapping in the North-East Asian Paleolithic Age

A.I Krivoshapkin, P.D Brantingham, K.A. Kolobova
Keywords: Paleolithic age, stone flaking technologies, North-East Asia, stone raw material
Pages: 3-6

Abstract >>
The article is written on the data received from stratified Paleolithic cave site Tsagaan Agui (Mongolia). Studying the lithic artifacts from this site testifies that Late Pleistocene hominids in certain areas of Northeast Asia used sophisticated and elaborated technologies of preparing formalized cores though the quality of the available raw materials was poor. Thus, the technological innovations in stone knapping, noted at Tsagaan Agui, show, that the poor quality of raw material in itself cannot explain the almost complete absence of formalized core technologies in East Asia.

The strange burial accessories of the Fofonovo cemetery

P.V Volkov, E.D Jambaltarova
Keywords: Baikal region, the Fofonovo cemetery, funeral ritual act, burial accessories, accompanying implements, functional analysis, interpretation
Pages: 7-10

Abstract >>
The authors for the first time introduce the functional description and interpretation of the accompanying implements of several burial places in the Fofonovo burial ground, based on the results of traceological survey. The study reveals specific tools raises questions about sacredness of many items found in six graves excavated in 1936 (from the funds of the Hermitage).

Forms of Symbolic Behavior in the Early Upper Paleolithic Cultures of Siberia

L.V Lbova
Keywords: symbolic activity, culture, Upper Paleolith, behavioral complex, man of modern physical type, Siberia
Pages: 11-14

Abstract >>
Problems of the origin and nature of the modern human behavior are among the most important and debated issues in the contemporary studies dealing with human evolution. This paper contains material from the complex of archaeological sites from the initial stage of the Upper Palaeolith in Siberia, showing various forms of symbolic activity. In general, the artifacts demonstrate the presence of the earliest technologically and typologically complex of subjects with an established system of manufacturing and processing, embodied in a series of stylistically consistent items. Siberian materials look quite correct in stadial and territorial context.

The Sun, the Moon and Shades in the Tarhatinsky Megalithic Complex

.G. Gienko, .P Matochkin, P.. Matochkin
Keywords: megalithic complex, solstice, equinox, petroglyphs, astronomical phenomenon, shades
Pages: 15-18

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the research of a unique monument in the Mountain Altai - the Tarhatinsky megalithic complex. Based on aerophotography data the authors present a plan showing arrangement of megaliths and stone circles. Summer solstice observations and astronomical calculations have revealed the fact that 4 thousand years ago the sun rays used to strike the very center of the east megalith during sunsets. The mythologized image of this effect was reflected in petroglyphs. There has been discovered evidence of interrelation between the stone objects arrangement and the picture of shades cast by megaliths on astronomically significant days.

The Missing Link ─ Mesolithic Period (On the Problem of Preserving Information Traditions by the Cultures of the Post-Paleolithic Era in Eurasia). Part II. Sources Compound in their Structure.

V. Y. Larichev
Keywords: the Mesolithic Epoch, astronomy, calendars, primitive art, semantics of images and symbols, interpretation, numerical records of time, protoscience, astral religion, preservation of infor
Pages: 19-22

Abstract >>
The author proceeds with his reconstruction of the time notation systems in the cultures of Western Europe regarding them as a calendaristics heritage of paleolithic cultures existed in the same region. His search was carried out by means of the numerical content analysis of the two multiple figure and multi-symbol compositions from the primitive art found in the grottos of Levant (Spain) and Sicily. Deciphering of their information content proved that the latter was identical to that of the sources with simple structure.

From the History of Ethnographic Study of the Mansi

YE.A Pivneva
Keywords: Voguls, Mansi, Ob Ugrian people, ethnographic research, ethnocultural heritage
Pages: 23-26

Abstract >>
The article presents a historiographical review of the major ethnographic studies of one of the small peoples of West Siberia - the Mansi. The author places special emphasis on the contemporary ethnographic studies conducted in the recent decades and based on a principally new approach implying involvement and participation of the Mansi people themselves.

The Tolmach (Interpreter) Service in Siberia: the Early Period of Colonization

A.A. Lyutsidarskaya
Keywords: colonization, dialogue, the contingent of interpreters ("tolmachi"), indigenous peoples of Siberia
Pages: 27-31

Abstract >>
For the first time in historiography the author brings up a problem of language translation services providing better communication between the peoples of the Siberian polyethnic region in the XVII-XVIII centuries. The interpreter (tolmach) service was a prerequisite of such communication.

Belts of the Russian Peasants in Siberia in the Late XIX - Early XX Centuries: Typology and Ethnocultural Characteristics

E.V. Fursova, YU.YU. Afanasyeva
Keywords: ethnocultural characteristics of belts, typology, ornamentation, Russian old-settlers, Siberian Old-Believers
Pages: 32-35

Abstract >>
The paper deals with ethnocultural characteristics of belts as one of the most important elements of traditional garments worn by different groups of Russian population in Siberia: old settlers, Cossacks, Old Believers. Based on analysis of manufacturing techniques, ornamentation and ceremonial functions the authors trace the common and specific characteristics of the belts which belonged to different groups of Russian population in Siberia; they also offer their own reconstruction of origins of this element of culture.

Food System of the Buryats in the Area of the Fore-Baikal Depression in the First Half of the XIX Century.

A.A. Badmaev
Keywords: food system, the Buryats, the Fore-Baikal region
Pages: 36-38

Abstract >>
The paper deals with historical reconstruction of the Buryats food system in the first half of the XIX century. Based on the archival and literary sources the author proves that the Buryats preserved their traditional food system, however, it was gradually influenced by the new types of economic activities (arable farming, fishery, vegetable gardening). These innovations in food system were especially typical of the settled Buryats.

About Summer Holiday of the Forest Yukagirs

P. E. Prokopyeva
Keywords: the Forest Yukagirs, traditional calendar, summer holiday
Pages: 39-42

Abstract >>
The article describes the Forest Yukagirs summer holiday connected with the Solar cult. Based on analysis of the ethnographic materials the author comes to conclusion that it was the main holiday in the Yukagir traditional calendar meant for providing well-being in the new production year. The main trends in the holiday's transformation are also traced.

Telengits of the Altai Republic in the Period between Two Population Censuses.

S.P. Tyukhteneva
Keywords: the Altaians, Telengits, indigenous small peoples, census, ethnical identity
Pages: 43-45

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the ethnocultural processes among the aboriginal population of the Republic of Altai in the period between the population censuses of 2002 and 2010. In March 2000 the Telengits, Tubalars, Chelkans were included into the Single list of indigenous small peoples of the Russian Federation. Since then the debates have been going on whether the Telengits should be regarded as an ethnic group separate from other Altai indigenous peoples.

Unofficial Collections of Works in the Russian Political Journalism of the XVI century (a problem statement)

L.I. Zhurova
Keywords: political journalism of the XVI century, Iosif Volotsky Nil Sorsky, metropolitan Daniil, Maksim Grek, author's self-consciousness, manuscript collection of works
Pages: 46-49

Abstract >>
The article considers a problem of forming the unofficial collections of works in the Russian political journalism in the first half of the XVI century. These works were collected by the outstanding social figures: Nil Sorsky, Iosif Volotsky, metropolitan Daniil and Maksim Grek. The author analyzes composition and architectonics of the unofficial collections of works which allows her revealing the writers' creative methods as well as peculiarities of the readers' perception.

Life of Patriarch Joakim: Specificity of Composition (On the Question of Characteristics of Hagiographic Genre in the XVII Century)

T.V Panich
Keywords: hagiography, tradition, late hagiography, genre transformation, structure, composition
Pages: 50-53

Abstract >>
The paper studies the genre specificity of Life of Patriarch Joakim, its structure and composition. The work of art is analyzed as a complex of writings of different genres, functioning as specific structural elements within the traditional hagiography scheme.

A Metropolitan Photius Pastoral Letter as a Part of The Crhistian's Secure Shield of Faith (Khristianoopasniy Shchit Very) by the Monk Avraamii.

L.D Demidova
Keywords: manuscript Old Believers' collections, monk Avraamii, metropolitan Photius, church reform
Pages: 54-57

Abstract >>
A chapter from the Old Believers' collection The Christian's Secure Shield of Faith (Khristianoopasniy Shchit Very) is a subject for consideration in the article. The author shows that the monk Avraamii shuffled fragments of a metropolitan Photius' pastoral letter and provided them with his own comments so as to use the text of the early XV century for exposing the lies of the church reform supporters, Patriarch Nikon first of all. Having atemporalized the Photius' letter, Avraamii actualized its accusatory sense, which made the readers perceive it as a polemic writing, created on behalf of the Old Belief supporters.

About the Old Believer`s Interpretation of the Eschatological Ideas of His Predecessor

N.S. Guryanova
Keywords: Old Belief, eschatology, manuscripts, writings, reader
Pages: 58-61

Abstract >>
The paper deals with interpretation of authoritative eschatological writing About Antichrist. 18 parts by the Old Believer, who lived at the beginning of the XIX century. Analysis of new foreword, written by this Old Believer, and examination of some corrections, offered by him for the previous author`s version of the preface, allowed to show how the Old Believer perceived the eschatological ideas of his close predecessor. This aspect of the Old Believers` ideology is of special importance for the researchers.

The Scientific Basis of the Cartographic Documents of the Land-Surveyors - Participants of the Expeditions to Siberia in the First Half of the XVIII Century.

I.A. Shipilov
Keywords: surveyors, map-makers, the scientific basis of map, latitude, longitude, Siberia
Pages: 62-65

Abstract >>
The article considers the map documents of the surveyors - participants of the scientific expeditions to Siberia in the first half of the XVIII century. These documents served as sources for complex map editions, for the works of Russian and European scientists and map-makers. The paper shows how the studies conducted by land-surveyors provided more adequate perception of the Siberian geography by the enlightened Russian and European readers. The author through analysis of the scientific basis underlying the cartographic documents of the land-surveyors defines their role in establishment and development of cartography as a science in Russia.

The Manuscript Collection of the Krasnoyarsk Merchant Family of Larionovs as a Primary Source for the History of Siberian Merchantry in the Late XVIII - XIX Centuries.

E.V. Komleva
Keywords: Siberian merchantry, epistolary heritage, the history of everyday life
Pages: 66-70

Abstract >>
The article represents a brief description of the complex of written documents which belong to the Krasnoyarsk merchant family - the Larionovs - and are dated to the late XVIII - early XX centuries. The study of this collection allows to enrich significantly the existing views on the commercial and enterprising activities of ordinary Siberian merchants, their culture and communicative norms. It also contributes a lot to investigating the history of everyday life of Siberian citizens. Four business letters to Ivan P. Larionov are published.

About Simeon Gavrilov's Methods of Collecting Information for the Rodosloviye in 1896.

M.V. Pershina
Keywords: Old-Belief, historical writings, Rodoslovie, oral sources
Pages: 70-73

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the Old-Believers' Rodosloviye compiled by a Severodvinsk Phillipian writer Simeon Gavrilov in the Russian North in 1896. The paper shows that the local people's oral tales served as main sources for Rodosloviye, collected during a specially organized inquiry, which was a part of a previously developed research program. Based on the analysis of Rodosloviye the author comes to conclusion that Simeon Gavrilov paid much attention to the stage of information gathering, developed his own methods of interviewing the people and determining reliability of the conveyed information. his research program was successively implemented.

Historical and Eschatological Views of the Pechora Old-Believers (On the Material of Oral Stories of the Ust-Tsilma Peasants)

T.F. Volkova
Keywords: history of Old Belief, Old Believers' centers of traditional and book culture, the Lower Pechora, folk eschatology, oral history, peasants' tales, Syktyvkar University collection of folklore materials
Pages: 74-77

Abstract >>
Based on the materials kept in the Syktyvkar State University (the historical non-written storied told by the Pechora peasants and recorded during the expedition to the Lower Pechora) the article traces the views of the Pechora Old-Believers about the significant events in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church Split; about the interpersonal relations of its leading figures. The author showed how the informants interpreted some eschatological ideas. Such sources allow characterizing the mentality and historical views of the Pechora peasants$ the image of the Archpriest Avvakum kept in the people's memory; the peasants' perception of the events during the siege of the Solovetsky monastery; their ideas about the Judgement Day.

Principles of Work of the Old Believe Authors of Sacred Biography in the XX Century

O.D. Zhuravel
Keywords: national hagiology, Sacred Biography, Old Believers, literary canon, Uralo-Sibirskij pateric
Pages: 78-81

Abstract >>
The article deals with the problem of hagiographic narrative in the literature of Siberian ld elievers of the XX century. The author analyzes methods of work of the old believe writers, the role of the Old Russian and early Byzantine hagiographic canon, folklore and realistic tendencies in the creation of the Sacred Biography, which are included in the Uralo-Sibirskij pateric. The author considers questions of national representations on sanctity.

Historical Rossica in Poland in the first Half of the XIX Century

I.S Troyak
Keywords: Poland, Rossica, historical books, book publishing, XIX century
Pages: 82-85

Abstract >>
The article examines problems related to history of publishing works on Russian history in Polish language in the first half of the XIX century. It presents some facts regarding the history of publishing certain writings of Polish authors or works written by Russian historians and translated into Polish. The author shows how the Poland's loss of independence led to separation of historical Rossica in Polish language on a territorial basis.

The Confessional Constant in the System of Life-Preserving Behavior of the Polacks in Siberia: From Viewpoint of the Polish Memoirists

T.G Nedzelyuk
Keywords: diary notes, "Siberian topic", "Polish Siberians", memoirs
Pages: 86-88

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the memoirs of the Polacks, who lived in Siberia; characterizes the main trends in studies conducted by the representatives of the Polish scientific schools (the Warsaw and Wroclaw schools). In conclusion the author describes the modern state of the problem.

The Author Preferred to Remain Anonymous

E.N. Savenko
Keywords: Samizdat, Tamizdat, uncensored press, informal culture, history of the Dissident movement
Pages: 89-92

Abstract >>
The article covers formerly unknown aspects of social activity of a talented scientist, doctor of physical-mathematical sciences, A.I. Fet: his participation in Samizdat and Tamizdat from the 1960s to early 1990s. His unofficial forms of creative work are characterized. The paper describes the contents of the works which represented A.I. Fet's views on the topical social problems and were distributed in the uncensored information space; reveals his pen-names under which the Samizdat books and unauthorized translations were published.

The Russian Library's Social Role in the Context of Post-Non-Classical Rationality

G.M Vikhreva
Keywords: library, function, mission, society, value paradigm, post-non-classical science
Pages: 93-95

Abstract >>
The article covers a problem of ambiguous position expressed by the modern library in defining its basic functions as a result of the identity crisis faced by the library as a social institution. The author analyses alternative points of view existing in the modern library science and representing the communicative and socio-cultural ways of library science development; proves the benefits of the socio-cultural role as more promising and complying with humanitarian and educational traditions of the library, as well as methodologically sound due to the new post-non-classical type of scientific rationality.

Evolution of the Siberian and Far Eastern Libraries from the Perspective of Cultural and Regional Research

E.. Artemyeva
Keywords: culture, society, region, Siberia and Far East, evolution, libraries
Pages: 96-99

Abstract >>
The aim of the paper is to reveal how the cultural and sociological conceptions along with the results of regional researches influenced the development of library science; to identify approaches applied by specialists studying the libraries in Siberia and Far East. It was shown that libraries development in XVIII-XX centuries was viewed by the specialists in the context of the general historical process and evolution of the regional culture which had such characteristic features as openness, aspiration for dialogue, increment of values originated both within and beyond that culture. The author emphasized the fact that local libraries were not isolated from the national library system but functioned as its integral part.

Solovyov's S.M. Approach to Studying Epistolary Sources for Characterizing the Age of Enlightenment in The History of Russia from the Earliest Times

I.V. Prokopyeva
Keywords: "The History of Russia from the Earliest Times" by S.M. Solovyov; epistolary sources; approaches to studying epistolary sources; the Age of Enlightenment; Peter I; the publication, translation and binding of books
Pages: 100-102

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is to describe S.M. Solovyov's approaches to studying the early XVIII century epistolary sources for characterizing some aspects of the Age of Enlightenment. The special attention is paid to S.M. Solovyov's methods of interpretation of the epistolary sources regarding Peter the Great's activities in the sphere of book publishing, translating and binding at the beginning of the XVIII century. The author reveals the two methods used by S.M.Solovyov for the analysis of historical sources: 1) the source is viewed as a material object; 2) the source is viewed as an information object.

The Circle of Reading of the Orenburg Province Residents in the I - early Centuries

T.N. Savinova
Keywords: circle of reading in a province, library science history, the Orenburg Cossack army, libraries of the Orenburg zemstvo, ulture at the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries
Pages: 103-106

Abstract >>
The paper deals with questions of the Orenburg province inhabitants' demand for books and periodicals at the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries which was in direct dependence to the readers' educational level, financial condition, their literary tastes as well as to the form of book distribution - by subscription, through the book trade, libraries. Having studied the information about the library stock of the Orenburg Cossack army the author concludes that for the most part it was composed of the hardcopy fiction lacking scientific and specialized literature; stresses the fact that the demand for periodicals was driven by advertising along with political situation in the country.

The Russian Television at the Beginning of the I Century: Organizational Structure and Technologies of Broadcast

I.V. Lisunova
Keywords: television, media industry, cable networks, satellite broadcasting, IP-TV, mobile TV, the Internet
Pages: 107-110

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the problems of con of the new electronic media and development of the existing ones. The author offers classification of the organization structure of the Russian television; describes peculiarities and contradictions in its formation. The main emphasis is placed on revealing the technologies and broadcasting specificity which allows characterizing the current state of the national television industry and foreseeing its further transformations.

Worship of the Holy Spring Nearby the Village of Ryabovo in the Vikulovskiy District of the Tyumen Region

E.E. Yermakova
Keywords: sacral geography, cultural landscape, worshipped spring, the Ninth Friday, icons, pilgrimage
Pages: 111-113

Abstract >>
The article considers the local tradition of worshipping the holy spring. In this connection the author describes the history of the church in Ryabovo; circumstances of the spring's showing up, pilgrimage to the spring; practice of vowing; cultic attributes.