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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2005 year, number 5

1.
Theory of Porous Hydrophobized Electrodes Applied in Electrosynthesis (Review)

Yu. V. SALTYKOV and V. L. KORNIENKO
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: kvl@icct.ru
Pages: 587-598

Abstract >>
Results of the researches on the new branch in the theory of porous hydrophobized electrodes, in particular, hydrophobized electrodes that are applied in electrosynthesis, have been systematized. An attempt has been made to comprehend the experimental results, which have been obtained during electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic substances inside the porous hydrophobized electrodes in the intrakinetic mode. The role of a porous hydrophobized electrode in the processes of indirect electrochemical synthesis has been revealed as promising and ecologically safe method of producing the chemicals.
																				  																		



2.
Study of the Efficiency of a New Reagent Composition Hydro-Phos to Decrease Water Hardness and Scale Formation

I. I. BRAZOVSKIY, G. I. KATIBNIKOVA, I. A. SALNIKOVA and V. V. SAMOYLENKO
United Institute of Energetic and Nucler Research - Sosny,
Belarus National Academy of Sciences, Ul. Akademika A. K. Krasina 99, Minsk 220109 (Belarus) E-mail: radchem@tut.by
Pages: 599-602

Abstract >>
Investigations have been conducted on the development of the "Hydro-Phos" reagent composition, which prevents formation of scale in the boilers of heat power units and in the networks of heat and water supply. Chemical, technological, and service properties of the "Hydro-Phos" reagent composition have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the employment of this composition ensures an effective protection against corrosion and scale formation on the internal walls of heating elements; water hardness tangibly drops, and previously accumulated corrosion products dissolve.
																				  																		



3.
Purification of Drainage Water from Dumps of Solid Household Wastes Using Calcium Oxide for Premembranous Treatment

V. V. GONCHARUK, Z. N. SHKAVRO, V. P. BADEHA, D. D. KUCHERUK, A. M. SOVA and V. M. KOCHKODAN
Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry,
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pr. Vernadskogo 42, Kiev 252680 (Ukraine) Г…-mail: honch@kiev.ua
Pages: 603-610

Abstract >>
Potentiality to use the process of treatment of drainage water from the dumps of solid household waste by calcium oxide as a method of premembranous preparation has been studied. The flow diagram has been developed for purification of drainage water with processing of the resulting slimes into marketable products. The suggested technology assumes the re-use of
																				  																		



4.
Microelements Migration from Industrial-Household Sewage Deposits Applied as Organic Fertilizers in Forestry

N. N. KULIKOVA, L. F. PARADINA, A. N. SUTURIN, I. V. TANICHEVA, S. M. BOIKO, E. I. KOZYREVA and E. V. SAIBATALOVA
Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia) E-mail: kulikova@lin.irk.ru
Pages: 611-617

Abstract >>
Effect of the deposits from the industrial-household sewage on the macro- and microelemental composition of a forest grass stand and of a young growth of pine and larch has been studied when the deposits are applied as an organic fertilizer. It was found that upon addition of deposits, the content of some chemical elements in soil is increased. Concentration of some elements (V, Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn) is as great as MPC. Plants of herbage react most actively to an increase in the concentration of chemical elements in soil with the deposit. The maximum changes have been registered in the elemental composition of roots of herbaceous plants.
																				  																		



5.
On the Possible Use of Dicarbon Fluoride Intercalates as Containers for Volatile Substances

V. G. MAKOTCHENKO and A. S. NAZAROV
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: mwg@che.nsk.su
Pages: 619-625

Abstract >>
A possibility has been shown to create molecular chemical containers for the storage, the transportation and release in the environment of gaseous and liquid, chemically and physiologically active materials on the basis of a matrix of dicarbon fluoride. As regards a set of operational parameters such as the versatility in respect to the introduced material (i.e. capacity to form compounds with various classes of inorganic and organic matters), the thermal (up to 390oC) and hydrolytic stability, capacity (up to 30 mass %), the protection degree of the introduced material against the influence of external factors and the storage period (for years), the new molecular chemical containers on the basis of dicarbon fluoride outperform the containers on the basis of alternative familiar types of inclusion compounds.
																				  																		



6.
Reextraction of Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru from Organic Sulphides Using Ultra-Violet Light Treatment

V. V. PATRUSHEV, L. P. BULGANINA, T. N. PATRUSHEVA and S. V. OSTANOVA
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: pat@ire.krgtu.ru
Pages: 627-632

Abstract >>
Results of investigations into reextraction of Pt, Ir, Rh and Ru from organic sulphides by water solutions of a number of reagents by the action of the ultra-violet (UV) light have been presented. It has been demonstrated that the UV light has a pronounced effect upon the reextraction of platinum metals. Separating of Rh and Ru from Pt and Ir by a muriatic acid solution of sodium and ammonium nitrates and rongalite has been performed. The UV light irradiation of a system of an extract of organic sulphides and muriatic acid makes it possible to separate iridium from the other platinoids and to reextract rhodium selectively by a sodium hipochlorite solution. The activation mechanism of the reextraction process upon irradiation by the UV light is discussed, which consists in a labilization of the complexes and in the reduction of a central atom to lower
																				  																		



7.
Influence of Solution Mineralization on Decomposition of Its Components under Discharge Electroradiolysis Conditions

O. V. POLYAKOV, A. M. BADALYAN and L. F. BAKHTUROVA
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 633-639

Abstract >>
Based on the measured yields of the hydrogen peroxide formation and capture of radicals by OH acceptor (isopropanol, phenol), dependences of the current efficiency of water decomposition as well as of an efficiency of an electron capture by an acceptor (nitrobenzene) on the electrolyte concentration (sodium and ammonium tetraborate) in water solutions being exposed to anodic microdischarges have been determined. Non-monotone dependences with maxima have been obtained at concentrations 0.03 mol/l for water decomposition and 0.1-0.15 mol/l for electron capture. This effect is attributable to an increase in a proportion of the anionic current through the discharge plasma-liquid cathode interphase boundary with an increase in electrolyte concentration that lowers the current and power efficiency of the water decomposition and treatment under conditions of a high mineralization of the solution.
																				  																		



8.
Humic Acids Form Brown Coal Mechanically Treated in the Presence of Air

A. G. PROYDAKOV1, A. V. POLUBENTSEV2 and L. A. KUZNETSOVA2
1Irkutsk State University, Ul. Lermontova 126, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia) E-mail: dekanat@chem.isu.ru
2Irkutsk State University, Institute of Petroleum and Coal-Chemical Synthesis, Ul. Lermontova 126, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
Pages: 641-647

Abstract >>
Efficiency of brown coal oxidation under various conditions including those of mechanical activation is investigated. It is established that mechanical treatment accelerates coal oxidation thus increasing the yield of humic acids. As shown in the NMR 13C investigation, humic acids from the initial and mechanically treated coal samples substantially differ in the structural-group composition. Field tests showed that humic acids from mechanically treated coal samples possess higher physiological activity, which affects an increase in crop capacity of agricultural plants.
																				  																		



9.
Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Formation of Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere

V. V. SMIRNOV and A. V. SAVCHENKO
Tayfun Company, Institute of Experimental Meteorology,
Pr. Lenina 82, Obninsk 249038 (Russia) E-mail: vsmirnov@obninsk.ru
Pages: 649-654

Abstract >>
The resources of real atmosphere at the size reference areas in polar, mountainous, arid and other regions are evaluated experimentally from the viewpoint of ion-stimulated synthesis of aerosol particles. Air, from which the dust was preliminarily removed, was ionized with the radiation of plutonium 239 isotope with the ionization current equal to 1 mA. With the physical upper limit of the yield of condensed radiolysis products equal to 25-40 molecules per 100 eV of absorbed radiation, the achieved level is 5-10 molecules /100 eV, depending on irradiation time and on the state of the surface air layer.
																				  																		



10.
Obtaining Binders for Road Building from Mixtures of Brown Coal, Oil Residues and Polymeric Wastes

V. I. SHARYPOV, N. G. BEREGOVTSOVA, S. V. BARYSHNIKOV and B. N. KUZNETSOV
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: sharypov@icct.ru
Pages: 655-662

Abstract >>
Joint treatment of brown coal, oil residues and wastes of synthetic polymeric materials, resulting in high-quality binders for road building and distillate hydrocarbon products, is investigated. The technology includes the stage of thermal dissolution of brown Kansk-Achinsk coal in oil residue (1 : 1) in the presence of polymeric material added, and thermal treatment of
																				  																		



11.
Special Plugging Compositions for Low-Temperature Wells on the Basis of Secondary Soda Resources

A. A. SHATOV and M. A. DRYAMINA
Soda Company, Ul. Babushkina 7, Sterlitamak 453122 (Russia) E-mail: ntc@sodastr.bashnet.ru
Pages: 663-667

Abstract >>
A new formula of the plugging solution of gypsum-free binder containing clinker and calcium oxide (a waste product of soda production, 10 % of the amount of clinker) nitrylmethylenephosphonic acid (0.10-0.13 %) and soda ash Na2CO3 (3.8-5.0 %) is proposed for cementation of wells in frozen rocks of the deposits of the Far North. It is shown that all the essential characteristics of the stone formed from the indicated plugging solution are 2-4 better than those of binding compositions based on Portland cement with CaCl2 (10 %) added.
																				  																		



12.
Removal and Stabilization of Chromium Ions from Industrial Effluents

Pakistan Insitute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Health Physics Division, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan) E-mail: ghaffargreat@yahoo.com
Pages: 669-675

Abstract >>
Laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the removal of chromium ions from industrial effluent by stabilizing in silica sand, acting as adsorbents, to prevent leaching. Removal of chromium (III) ions from industrial effluents using silica sand (originated from the river of Ravi) was studied to optimize the physicochemical conditions for maximal removal. The range of pH and temperature was adjusted to achieve maximal removal of metal ions. The initial and final concentration of chromium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The residual concentration of chromium in waste water after treatment was less than 1.0mg/1 which is the value recommended by National Environment Quality Standards (NEQS). Maximal removal (94-96%) of chromium is achieved with pH 10 and at a temperature of 28oC. Under optimized conditions within temperature range of 301-315K the values of D
																				  																		



13.
Scientometric Indices of Chemical Institutes of the Novosibirsk Scientific Centre of SB RAS during the Years 1995-2003 According to the Data of Science Citation Index and Chemical Abstracts

V. M. BOUZNIK1,2, I. V. ZIBAREVA2, N. I. SOROKIN4 and L. S. FILATOVA3
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: bouznik@ngs.ru
2Innovation Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Semenova 1, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russia)
3Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
4Presidium, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 17, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 677-692

Abstract >>
The scientometric indices of six chemical institutes of the Novosibirsk Scientific Centre of SB RAS for the years 1995-2003 obtained by means of the search in the databases of Science Citation Index and Chemical Abstracts of the international scientific and technical net (STN International). The indices take into account the number of publications, their citation rates and impact factors of journals (taken from the Database of Journal Citation Reports) in the absolute representation and in the specific one (per one researcher per one year). The main subjects of investigation are revealed, national and international scientific collaboration is marked. The scientific journals were revealed in which the investigation results obtained by the researchers from the institutes under examination were published most frequently. The indices thus obtained allow us to estimate the dynamics of scientific productivity of the institutes. The indices under analysis are compared with the All-Russian indices whenever possible.
																				  																		



14.
New Ecologically Safe Technologies for Sustainable Development of the Regions of Siberia

1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670046 (Russia) E-mail: bip@binm.bsc.buryatia.ru 2East Siberian State Technological University, Ul. Klyuchevskaya 7a, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)
Pages: 693-694