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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2003 year, number 2

1.
Natural Halogenated Non-Terpenic C15-Acetogenins of Sea Organisms

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1, ALEXANDER G. TOLSTIKOV2 and GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products,
School of Pharmacy, P. O. Box 12065, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
Jerusalem 91120 (Israel), E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Lenina 13a, Perm' 614000 (Russia)
3Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 329-339

Abstract >>
Halogenated non-terpenic C15-acetogenins of sea organisms make up a large group of natural compounds. Structures of more than 130 compounds are considered and data on their biological activity are presented.
																				  																		



2.
Natural Halogenated Polyacetylenides

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1, GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV2 and ALEXANDER G. TOLSTIKOV3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy,
P. O. Box 12065, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)
E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: gtolstik@nioch.nsc.ru
3Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Lenina 13a, Perm' 614000 (Russia)
Pages: 341-348

Abstract >>
The review is dedicated to a group of natural compounds of a new type
																				  																		



3.
Pollution of the Lake Baikal Basin: Organochlorine Pesticides

OYUNA V. TSYDENOVA1, VALERIY B. BATOEV1, LUDWIG WEISSFLOG2 and KLAUS-DIETER WENZEL2
1Baikal Institute of Natural Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russia)
2UFZ-Umweltforshungszentrum, Permoserstrasse 15,D-04318
Leipzig (Germany) E-mail: vbat@binm.baikal.ru
Pages: 349-352

Abstract >>
The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) content in bottom sediments of main tributaries of the Lake Baikal was studied. Experimental data on the presence of hexachlorobenzene, DDT and its metabolites and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers in sediments allowed estimating pathways of OCPs input to the Baikal basin.
																				  																		



4.
Luminescence-Based Detection of Microquantity of Aromatic Nitro Compounds

VALENTINA N. IVANOVA and VLADIMIR A. NADOLINNY
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia),E-mail: spectr@che.nsk.su
Pages: 353-358

Abstract >>
A two-stage method of converting aromatic nitro compounds into luminophors is proposed. It includes catalytic reduction of the nitro aromatic compound by molecular hydrogen followed by the interaction of the formed aromatic amine with a fluorogenic reagent (fluorescamine, ortho-phthalaldehyde). Efficient reduction is provided by using palladium catalysts on supports with developed surface, such as barium sulphate, C60 fullerene, and microcapillary glass plates. Luminescence of the final products is observed in the regions l = 490
																				  																		



5.
Using 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol for Obtaining of bis[3-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propyl]phtalate by Ecological Acceptable Industrial Method

VICTOR S. KOBRIN1, ALEXEY P. KRYSIN1, NAILYA U. KHALIKOVA1, VLADIMIR I. MALYAVKA2 and VLADIMIR P. DUNAEV2
1Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: benzol@nioch.nsc.ru
2Altaykhimprom Company, Yarovoye (Russia)
Pages: 359-361

Abstract >>
The reaction of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with allyl alcohol resulting in the formation of 4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol is implemented on industrial scale. Condensation of the product with phthalic anhydride leads to the formation of the corresponding diphthalate, which is the final commercial product. The stability of operation at all technological stages was achieved in course of industrial practice.
																				  																		



6.
Transformations of Wood Structure under Mechanochemical Treatment

IRINA V. MIKUSHINA1, IRINA B. TROITSKAYA2, ALEXANDER V. DUSHKIN2, YURI A. OL'KHOV3 and NATALIA G. BAZARNOVA1
1Altay State University, Pr. Lenina 61, Barnaul 656099 (Russia)
2Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia), E-mail: Chab@solid.nsk.su
3Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russia)
Pages: 363-370

Abstract >>
The structure transformations of the wood under mechanochemical treatment in vibratory centrifugal, planetary, and ball mills are investigated by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical spectroscopy. Specific surface of the samples is estimated. Features of the changes in wood properties under grinding in these types of mills are established. Under wood treatment in vibratory centrifugal and planetary mills, no complete amorphization of the structure of wood matrix occurs; quite contrary, some ordering is observed.
																				  																		



7.
Synthesis of Bismuth (III) Stearates

ANNA V. MININA, YURI M. YUKHIN, BORIS B. BOKHONOV, IRINA A. VORSINA, YURI I. MIKHAYLOV and LYUDMILA E. DANILOVA
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia), E-mail: Yukhin@solid.nsk.su
Pages: 371-378

Abstract >>
The synthesis of bismuth (III) oxohydroxostearate through the interaction of stearic acid with bismuth-containing perchlorate or nitrate solutions is investigated by means of X-ray phase analysis, thermogravimetry, electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The conditions for the formation of bismuth stearate of Bi6O4(OH)4R6 composition (where R is stearate anion) are determined. Reasonability of obtaining highly pure bismuth stearate from metal bismuth is demonstrated; the latter is preliminarily oxidized with oxygen of the air, the resulting Bi2O3 is dissolved in nitric acid (1 : 1); bismuth is purified from extrinsic metals by its precipitation in the form of oxohydroxostearate, which is formed on adding bismuth nitrate solution to sodium stearate solution at the temperature of (80
																				  																		



8.
Synthesis of Bismuth (III) Stearates

KLAVDIY G. MYAKISHEV and VLADIMIR V. VOLKOV
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 379-385

Abstract >>
Reactions of CdX (X = Br, I) with MBH4 (M = Li, Na, K) under mechanical activation (MA) of the mixtures of crystalline compounds in vacuum vibratory mill are investigated. It is discovered that the reactions are accompanied by the formation of B2H6; its yield depends on the nature of CdX2, MBH4and correlates with the calculated values. It is shown that the mechanochemical synthesis of B2H6 depends on temperature within the range 50_120
																				  																		



9.
Time-Resolved Fluorescent Spectroscopy for Determining the Products of Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds

VLADIMIR A. NADOLINNY, VALENTINA I. IVANOVA and SERGEY N. LUNEGOV
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: spectr@che.nsk.su
Pages: 387-388

Abstract >>
The possibility to apply time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to the analysis of mixtures of aromatic amines or nitro compounds after their preliminary reduction to amines is demonstrated.
																				  																		



10.
Comparative Analysis of Biogenous Carbonate Hydroxylapatite and of Its Synthetic Analog as a Material for Osteoplastics

NADEZHDA A. PALCHIK1, ALEXANDER M. GONCHAR2, TAMARA N. GRIGORYEVA1, VALENTINA N. STOLPOVSKAYA1, TATIANA N. MOROZ1 and LEONID V. MIROSHNICHENKO1
1United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: nadezhda@uiggm.nsc.ru
2Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 4, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 389-394

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis of biogenous and synthetic carbonate hydroxylapatite of various degree of crystallinity has been carried out. The analysis of chemical composition of enamel and dentine was carried out on an X-ray microanalyzer, that of the synthetic product on an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Crystallochemical characteristics were studied by X-ray diffractometry and molecular spectroscopy. Identity of structural characteristics and of the chemical composition of the specimens studied was demonstrated. Toxicological, mutagenic properties and histocompatibility of the synthetic apatite were studied. The material obtained was used for treatment of patients with defects of bone tissue.
																				  																		



11.
Co-processing of Copper and Nickel Ores from Noril'sk Deposits and the Apatites from Maymecha-Kotuy Province

VALERIY V. PATRUSHEV1, ANATOLIY V. CHUBAROV1, IGOR I. SMIRNOV and PAVEL G. SHULAKOV
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 664049 (Russia), E-mail: pvv@krsk.info
Pages: 395-405

Abstract >>
The processes involved in treatment and processing of copper and nickel ores with the use of phosphoric acid solutions are investigated, as well as processes of precipitation of platinum metals with thiocarbamide and sorption of nickel and cobalt from phosphoric solutions. A technology is proposed for co-processing of copper and nickel ores from Noril'sk deposits and the apatites from Maymecha-Kotuy province. Advantages of this technology are: isolation of all valuable components from raw material in the form of high-quality primary concentrates, decrease in the amount of recycling products due to simplification of the technology, high coefficient of multipurpose utilization of raw material, which provides manufacture of additional products, absence of the necessity for expenses to build tailing and cake dumps, sulphur utilization in Clause process, which provides a decrease in environmental hazard, simplicity of instrumentation, simultaneous production of phosphoric fertilizers for the needs of agriculture in Siberia.
																				  																		



12.
Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Sapropelite Coals for Obtaining Initial Products for Industrial Organic Synthesis

NADEZHDA N. ROKOSOVA1, ALEXEY P. KOZLOV1, YURI V. ROKOSOV1 and NIKOLAY V. BODOEV2
1Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Sovetskiy Pr. 18, Kemerovo 650099 (Russia)
2Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russia) E-mail: chem@kemnet.ru
Pages: 407-419

Abstract >>
Results of experiments on low-temperature pyrolysis of sapropelite coals that can be used to develop scientific foundations of technology for processing of sapropelite fossil fuels in order to transform them into synthetic fuel and raw materials for chemical industry are described and discussed. Pyrolysis products have been obtained from sapropelite coals of various deposits with different degree of catagenetic maturity of the organic matter. The yield of liquid products for some coal samples was as high as 60 % (by mass). Liquid pyrolysis products have been studied 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and separated into fractions column chromatography and distillation. According to chromato-mass spectrometry the obtained fractions are complex mixture of hundreds of compounds. The bulk of pyrogenetic products of the samples consists of alkanes and alkenes of normal structure. The high yield of liquid pyrolysis products obtained from sapropelite coals permits considering them as a promising raw material for obtaining artificial liquid fuels. Similarly to the traditional use of petroleum, processing of these products with a wide use of fractionation and hydrogenization is necessary.
																				  																		



13.
About the Operation of Gas Diffusion Hydrophobized Electrodes Based on Mixtures of Black Species during the Electrosynthesis of Peroxide Ion from Oxygen

YURI V. SALTYKOV, VASILIY L. KORNIENKO, TATIANA A. KENOVA and GALINA V. KORNIENKO
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: kvl@icct.ru
Pages: 421-425

Abstract >>
The operation of gas diffusion hydrophobized electrodes (HPE) made of black mixtures (hydrophobic soot A437-E and hydrophilic ones P702 and P805-E) during the electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen is investigated. Changes in the characteristic length of electrode in the process under investigation depending on the highly develop three-phase boundary electrolyte
																				  																		



14.
Light Hydrocarbon Liquids Production by Co-Pyrolysis of Polypropylene and Hydrolytic Lignin

VICTOR I. SHARYPOV1, NATALIA G. BEREGOVTSOVA1, BORIS N. KUZNETSOV1, SERGEY V. BARYSHNIKOV1, NICOLAS MARIN2 and JEAN VICTOR WEBER2
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: sharypov@krsk.info
2Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, 57500,
Rue Viktor Demange, Saint-Avold (France)
Pages: 427-434

Abstract >>
The effect of components ratio in the mixture composed of atactic polypropylene and hydrolytic lignin on the yield of products and composition of the light (b.p. < 180
																				  																		



15.
Calcium Sulphate Dihydrate as a Product of Complex Processing of Serpentinite

VADIM V. VELINSKIY and GENNADIY M. GUSEV
Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: ofiolit@uiggm.nsc.ru
Pages: 435-437

Abstract >>
The investigation of gypsum (calcium sulphate dihydrate), obtained in course of serpentinite processing, is performed. It is shown that the product is characterized by high ecological purity and meets the demands of the All-Union State Standard (GOST) to the 1st-rate gypsum. The gypsum binder made of the gypsum obtained from serpentinite corresponds to rapidly and normally hardening grades G-2
																				  																		



16.
Ecologically Safe and Resource-Sparing Technologies and Materials: Problems and Perspectives

JIBZEMA G. BAZAROVA, SUSANNA S. PALITSYNA and ELENA G. KHAYKINA
Baikal Institute of Natural Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russia), E-mail: jbaz@binm.baikal.ru
Pages: 439-441