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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2019 year, number 1

Early Colonization of Siberia: Meanings and Lessons of History

K.I. Zubkov
Institute of History & Archaeology Ural Branch RAS
Keywords: Сибирь, Россия, колония, колонизация, аграрные переселения, Сибирский приказ, освоение, «фронтир», Siberia, Russia, colony, colonization, agrarian resettlements, Siberian prikaz, development, “frontier”

Abstract >>
Based on the analysis of peculiarities of Siberia’s colonization during the period prior to 1917, the article discusses the issue on “colonial” status of Siberia, as well as economic and political- administrative factors which gave the birth to the colonial syndrome in its development. Historical analysis allows assertion that the notion “colony” when used in relation to Siberia isn’t quite relevant to the existing, habitual and established, meanings of this term. On the one hand, colonial syndrome should be seen as the inevitable development stage in the “life cycle” of newly developing territory, on the other hand, it had been conditioned by the deeper reasons of political nature concerned with the so called “minimalist” approach to managing the Siberian development. In significant part, these problems were the logical consequence of the structural weaknesses of the Russian economy in itself.

Siberia as a Colony. N. M. Yadrintsev’s Opinion on Problems and Prospects of the Siberian Development

V. I. Klistorin
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: Сибирь, областничество, колонизация, богатство и бедность, межнациональные отношения, природные ресурсы, образование, управление, Siberia, regionalism, colonization, wealth and poverty, interethnic relations, natural resources, education, management

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the views of N. M. Yadrintsev, who was of the largest researchers of Siberia and a representative of regionalism, his assessment of conditions and results of the Siberia development and peopling, colonization policy towards the region in historical retrospect and as compared to the European expansion in other regions of the world, his arguments in favor of voluntary colonization as opposed to other colonization models, his seeing of the most urgent problems of developing Siberia, such as Siberian indigenous peoples issues, use of natural resources, Siberian industry development, a sad state of education and culture, dominated state of trade monopolies in the region, and regional governance. The paper shows that N. M. Yadrintsev’s ideas became widespread in the intellectual environment and partly received support by government circles. While many problems have been solved, however, a vision of the region as a raw material colony, an object of external control, and some other aspects still remain challenging.

Arctic Supporting Zones: the Ranks and the Projects

T. E. Dmitrieva, O. V. Buriy
Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division of the RAS
Keywords: пространственное развитие, опорная зона, Арктика, рейтинговая оценка, каркас, природные ресурсы, Spatial development, supporting zone, the Arctic, rating score, transport framework, natural resources

Abstract >>
The article examines some different definitions of the Arctic supporting zone in the national legislative instruments and names zones’ main features. They are: general and social functions - to develop communication and resource potential, to improve quality of life; organizational setting - “project of projects” on the “special territory”; economic model - government-private partnership; spatial structure - transport and industrial framework, consisting of mail lines, hubs and various centers; type - the level of natural resource development, the maturity of specialization, the center and periphery ratio, the specifics of financial mechanisms. The authors have made the first comparative-rating analysis of those zones. The Methodology includes choice of a municipality as an operating unit, calculation of zones’ indicators summation of municipal indicators, use of the Municipal Passports data, rating calculation for each indicator and average overall. The rating allowed determining the factors of strong zone differentiation, which affect the socio-economic development of the Arctic regions. The region’s proposals for the projects in zones are considered. The authors find important to analyze of the mechanisms for the implementation of anchor and other investment projects.

Siberia as an Object of Internal Colonization: Reproduction of Difference and Integrity Engineering

E. A. Erokhina1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management
Keywords: колонизация, целостность, различие, Н. М. Ядринцев, Россия, Сибирь, Сolonization, integrity, difference, N. M. Yadryntsev, Russia, Siberia

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The article discusses the historical and sociological aspects of the transformation of the image of Siberia in the public consciousness of Russians in the XIX - XXI centuries. Based on the analysis of the texts of historians and philosophers of the past, as well as modern researchers, the reasons for the ambivalent perception of the region are shown. It is concluded that the integration of Siberia into the sociocultural space of Russia is the result of the latter’s self-colonization. Modern exotisation of Siberia allows us to conclude that this process has not yet been fully completed.

Manufacturing Industries of Russia: Sanctions, Import Substitution

V. A. Bazhanov1, I. I. Oreshko2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: обрабатывающие производства, санкции, импортозамещение, объёмы производства, инвестиции, инновационная деятельность, экспорт, импорт, Manufacturing, sanctions, import substitution, production volumes, investments, innovation, export, import

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the current state of the manufacturing industries in Russia under the conditions of sanctions that caused the problem of import substitution. The indicators of the state and development of the manufacturing industries, characterizing the scale and quality of production, indicators of production factors (labor and capital) and foreign trade activities were analyzed. The results of import substitution as a policy of increasing the competitiveness of Russian products with a view to bringing them to the world market are briefly discussed. It is concluded that, although the state officially set about creating a digital economy and a breakthrough in the export of high-tech and high-tech products, in reality, the technical and technological development of the country in terms of import substitution did not accelerate. The analysis can be regarded as a kind of monitoring of economic reforms in Russia, caused by sanctions and import substitution.

Prospects for Technological Development of the Engineering Industry in the Krasnoyarsk Krai (Foresight Study)

L. A. Oborin1,2, V. S. Efimov3, A. V. Lapteva3
1Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology
2Research Institute "Rocket-Space Equipment and Technology"
3Siberian Federal University
Keywords: машиностроение, региональная экономика, технологический форсайт, цифровые технологии, Machine building, regional economy, technological Foresight, digital technology

Abstract >>
The purpose of the study is determining the prospects for technological development of engineering industry in the Krasnoyarsk Krai, which is one of the largest industrial regions of the Russian Federation.Based on the forecasts performed by leading Russian and international "think tanks" and a series of in-depth expert interviews key trends of mechanical engineering are identified: revolution in materials; digitalization of processes; cognitization of large-scale systems; institutional transformation. A "map" of new technologies in machinery construction was developed for an expert assessment of the prospects of these technologies; an expert survey was carried out.Based on the survey data, six groups (clusters) of technologies that vary in prospects for modernization and for the creation of new machinery construction enterprises in the Krasnoyarsk Krai were identified. Five groups with medium and high level of prospects include 24technologies; 15 of them are digital (63%). The research shows that the expected technological changes in engineering industry in the Krasnoyarsk Krai correspond to the global trends of digitalization and robotization, and this changes will take the form of "catch-up" modernization. A difficult ecological situation characteristic for the region determines the high priority of "monitoring of negative environmental impacts", "diagnostics of machinery and equipment", "technology ensuring environmental safety", etc.

Initiatives of Regional Machine-Building Complex Against the Background of Reindustrialization (on the Example of the Novosibirsk Region)

L. I. Lugacheva, M. M. Musatova
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, SB RAS
Keywords: санкции, экспортоориентированное развитие, инновации, региональное машиностроение, диверсификация, импортозамещение, Новосибирская область, Sanctions, export-oriented development, innovation, regional engineering, diversification, import substitution, Novosibirsk region

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The article deals with the development and adaptation problems of the regional machine- building complex of the Novosibirsk region. The differences of priorities of import substitution and export-oriented model of development are systematized; the necessity of domination of export-oriented strategy in modern conditions is shown; the factors influencing the formation of export potential of regional machine-building enterprises in recent years are revealed; the characteristics of regional institutions of support of exporters are given. In the work are also discussed measures to support the diversification of the regional production of machine-building complex implemented in the Novosibirsk region: the formation of the municipal order on civil products of the defense industry; the creation of centres for collective use of new technologies for the defence industry, oil and gas and other industries; the development of Technopark structures of industrial and industrial parks. As the priority directions of import substitution in the regional engineering the authors consider: the formation of clusters for the production of components for military and civilian equipment; development of processes of localization of production (creation of Assembly enterprises); production of new products at the traditional capacities of existing enterprises, interregional cooperation and integration, etc.

Situation in the Food Market: New Signals and Old Problems

T. N. Belova1,2
1Academy of Russian Federal Penitentiary Service
2Ryazan State Medical University
Keywords: агропродовольственный рынок, аграрная политика, доходы населения, потребление продуктов питания, импорт продовольствия, импортозамещение, эмбарго, протекционизм, Аgro-food market, agrarian policy, incomes of the population, food consumption, food imports, import substitution, embargo, protectionism

Abstract >>
The current situation in the agrifood market is characterized, on the one hand, by the differentiation of food markets in terms of saturation, and on the other hand, by a reduction in consumer demand due to rising prices. Consumer prices in these segments are much lower than the level of inflation. The processes of import substitution in the food market occur against a background of a decline in consumer demand and an increase in the share of food expenditures in households. Analysis of regional statistics shows a high degree of stratification both in terms of production and consumption of food per capita. An outpacing increase in food prices casts doubt on the correctness of the choice of measures and instruments of protectionism. Proper protectionism, the author believes, can not be realized at the expense of reducing the standard of living of the population, but rather combine market mechanisms with point-wise temporary support for those industries that are characterized by growing profitability and high return on investment. The author considers it necessary to use the tools of the green box (in particular, the program of food cards), the lifting of the embargo on food imports and the introduction of export and import customs duties, depending on the degree of saturation and the formation of domestic industry markets.

Parallel imports in Russia: Areas for Protection, Risk, Development

T. A. Radchenko1,2, A. Yu. Volkov1,3, (Sukhorukova) K.A. Bannikova1,3
1Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation
2Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
3National Research University Higher School of Economics
Keywords: международный принцип исчерпания прав, инвестиции, локализация, товарные знаки, брендированная продукция, International exhaustion of rights, investments, localization, trademarks, branded products

Abstract >>
In 2014 FAS of Russia proposed to introduce international exhaustion of trademarks rights regime in Russia (legalize parallel import of branded products) step by step for different product groups. Meanwhile FAS of Russia did not present criteria for selection of product groups for introduction of international exhaustion of rights at first. An objective of this study was to formulate criteria for selection of product categories for parallel imports legalization in the first place on the basis of existing experience of the assessment of parallel imports legalization effects and to identify these categories taking into consideration the analysis of the composition of “protected” trademarks (included in TROIS), international trade flows of branded goods and the volume of investments of the right holders in Russia.

Influence of the Crisis on Public Health in Saint-Petersburg and Goals of Social Policy

B. V. Korneychuk
National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg
Keywords: геополитический кризис 2014 года, Санкт-Петербург, здоровье населения, охрана окружающей среды, социальная инфраструктура, региональная политика, Geopolitical crisis of 2014, St. Petersburg, public health, environmental protection, social infrastructure, regional policy

Abstract >>
The influence of the geopolitical and economic crisis of 2014 on the health of the residents of St. Petersburg was studied. According to the accepted hypothesis, the crisis had a negative impact on the health of the townspeople and the conditions for their livelihoods. To test the hypothesis, we examined the dynamics of indicators characterizing the health of the population, as well as the factors that affect it. To analyze pre-crisis trends, a linear trend was constructed for each indicator and extrapolated values for the two following the peak crisis were calculated. The main measure, which characterizes the impact of the crisis on the dynamics of the indicator, was a negative deviation from the trend in these years. More than twenty indicators were analyzed, which showed a negative deviation, a significant negative deviation from the trend of indicators of environmental protection, resource health care, consumption of food products. It is shown that the current healthcare development program of the city contains understated targets and does not take into account environmental factors, which reduces its effectiveness as an instrument of regional social policy. The proposed method makes it possible to calculate scientifically grounded targets for the programs of restorative development of the social sphere in St. Petersburg.

In the World of Feedbacks (About Nobel Prize on Economics 2018)

Yu.P. Voronov
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: Нобелевская премия по экономике, математические модели, научно-технический прогресс, изменения климата, обратная связь, эндогенный, экзогенный, патентная система, долгосрочный рост, Nobel prize on economics, mathematical models, scientific and technological progress, climate change, feedback, endogenous, exogenous, patent system, long-run development

Abstract >>
The results of American economists William Nordhaus and Pol Romer investigations are described in the article. They have got Nobel prize on economics for them. The general criterion for two winners is defined by which the Nobel Committee was guided really. It is introduction of feedbacks in economic and mathematical modeling. Methods of comparison of Nobel 2018 laureates ‘ achievements with the results of their predecessors (K. Arrow; R. Solow; J. Shmookler and others) are used. The progress made by the laureates themselves is noted. Three blocks in the models of W. Nordhaus and P. Romer are distinguished; and the functions of each of them are considered. The assumptions that underlie the models constructed by them are also considered.The author notes that climate change models are also being built in Russia; but there are no economic blocks in them; models of long-term economic growth with endogenous scientific and technological progress are formed in Russia also; but representatives of natural Sciences do not participate in them. It follows from the experience of the laureates that this gap should be bridged. The article also describes the hobbies of both winners.