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"Philosophy of Education"

2017 year, number 1


N. V. Nalivaiko1, O. V. Fotina2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
2Perm State Agricultural Academy named after Academician D. N. Prianishnikov, 614990, Russia, Perm, st. Petropavlovskaia, 23
Keywords: рефлексия, реформирование системы образования, образовательный процесс, методология, функции философии, онтологический подход, электронное обучение, reflection, reforming education system, educational process, methodology, philosophy functions, ontological approach, electronic learning

Abstract >>
Education as a sophisticated open nonlinear subsystem of society seems to be in the state of constant conversion and reforming caused by both the internal and external factors. The process of reforming tends to have a permanent character; one novelty succeeds another exacerbating the conflict between subjective actions of reformers and ontologically given content of education. To resolve the conflict, the philosophical analysis of reflection on theory and practice of education is required. World-view and methodology functions of philosophy are able to reveal the essence of ideas about man, man’s spirituality and sociality. The paper gives the justification of a close connection between philosophy and pedagogical science, as well as of their distinctions. The paper specifies the functions of philosophy of education that provide versatile comprehension of education and its development. As one of the contemporary phenomena of the education, electronic learning is considered from the point of view of ontological approach.


I. A. Pfanenshtil, M. P. Yatsenko
Siberian Federal University, 660041, Russia, Krasnoyarsk, av. Svobodnii, 79
Keywords: исторический путь, историческое сознание, учебное познание, идентичность социума, европоцентризм, историческое образование, history, historical consciousness, cognition, social identity, Eurocentrism, historical education

Abstract >>
In this article, the authors explore various approaches to the problem of Russia's historic path. In particular, it examines the manifestation of this discussion in educational systems. The authors focus on different interpretations of Russian history. The article reveals the important characteristics of the Russian people, which are reflected in specific historical events. However, the ideologues of globalization are not interested in an objective study of the historical past, because history preserves the identity of the society. They use history in its Eurocentrism form, where there is no place for an objective assessment of the real contribution of each nation in the world history.


T. A. Rubantsova
Siberian State University of Railways, 630049, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. D. Kovalthuk, 191
Keywords: традиции и инновации в образовании, образовательные парадигмы, инновационные методики, патриотическое образование, личностные формы отчуждения в образовании, traditions and innovations in education, educational paradigms, innovative techniques, patriotic education, personal forms of alienation in education

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is the analysis of traditions and innovations in a modern paradigm of education, definition of a paradigm of education is given, the main paradigms are identified. The role of the teacher and pupil in the space of educational paradigms is analyzed. The paradigm of formation of traditional society is considered, it is noted that a main objective of this type of education at the first stages was reproduction of the identity of the teacher, later there is a school as a social institute, and the profession of the teacher becomes a mass one. In a paradigm of formation of society of a modernist style, the second step of education, university, is created. The humanistic tendencies appearing in student teaching were inevitably reduced to authoritative and dogmatic types of pedagogical systems. It is noted that recognition of a special role of dialogue in it as principle of existence of various cultural educational models, forming of patriotic education and interest in traditional values is very important for a modern education system.


S. Yu. Polyankina
Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630073, Russia, Novosibirsk, av. Karla Marksa, 20
Keywords: интеграция, дифференциация, стандартизация, вариативность, сетевая организация образовательного пространства, интернационализация образования, integration, differentiation, standardization, variability, network organization of educational space, internationalization of education

Abstract >>
The processes of integration and differentiation in education occur in a variety of problem areas of modern Russian education. Uncontrolled differentiation can be transformed into disintegration, causing negative effects, as well as excessive integration leads to unification and reduction of the viability of the system. The article is aimed at revealing the essence of these contradictions and suggesting ways to resolve them. Total problematic content of integration and differentiation processes in the system of national education have been found in four levels of the educational system, starting with defining of the content of education, taking into account the methods and forms of organization of educational process in the various educational institutions with access to global supranational level. At the level of the content of education, the conflict between differentiation and integration is expressed in the fragmentation of knowledge, on the one hand, and interdisciplinary integration as a principle of selection of educational content, on the other hand. At the level of organization of the educational process, the problem area is the contradiction between the need for standardization of education and its variability. In the system of education as a social institution, discrete-level training is in conflict with the continuum of life-long learning in the knowledge society. Finally, at the global level, the desire to preserve the identity of the domestic educational tradition is opposed to the objective tendencies of Western-style internationalization of higher education. Recommendations to counter negative trends at these levels include: 1) increase in the number of integrated courses that promote a holistic and conceptual thinking as opposed to fragmented and clip thinking; 2) improvement of the tutoring institute in secondary and higher education, as well as the transition of variable components of the learning process in a virtual educational environment, providing the students a series of online courses to choose from, with the use of adaptive learning technologies; 3) network organization of educational space and the creation of integrative regional educational clusters to build continuity of the educational process; 4) intensified trend towards localization, following globalization, associated with the revival of the national educational tradition (ethnopedagogical neotraditionalism) and its combination with the finest examples of Western individualistic and rational educational tradition and collectivist, humanistic orientation of education in the countries of the East.


R. R. Gayfullin
Novosibirski State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: образовательное пространство, коммуникационное пространство, образовательные процессы, информационные технологии, философия образования, educational space, communication space, educational processes, information technologies, philosophy of education

Abstract >>
The article deals with the problem of education in the framework of increasing communication in the modern space. This topic is relevant and significant for both the philosophy of education and pedagogy. The purpose of the work is to search for new forms of interaction in the upbringing-educational space, when the increase of communications led to the emergence of new technological methods in modern education and upbringing. The basic idea is that the inclusion of educational processes into the communication space is extremely relevant: it contributes to the expansion of the educational process and introduces qualitative changes in the nature of the training process.


A. A. Stepanova
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Russia, Tomsk, av. Lenina, 36
Keywords: социальная память, концепт, образование, образовательное пространство, интернет-технологии, social memory, concept, education, educational system, internet technologies

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to comprehensive analysis of the significance of social memory, its role and place in modern education. The major approaches to studying social memory as a special phenomenon are analyzed, the main concepts are revealed and studied. It is substantiated that the increase in the volume of information in the age of Internet technology makes it necessary to develop algorithms for preserving the content of social memory and to develop socio-cultural identity of modern student youth. We describe the attitude toward the significant historical events twenty years ago and now (on the example of the Holocaust) in different countries. The author concludes that at each stage of education young people need to pay attention to the content of social memory, converting negative memories into positive values.


E. A. Krutko
Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, 119571, Russia, Moscow, av. Vernadskogo, 82
Keywords: отчуждение, социальное отчуждение, культурное отчуждение, коммуникативное отчуждение, образование, образовательный процесс, личность, личностное отчуждение, социальная реальность, социальный фактор, социальная система, социально-философский анализ, alienation, social exclusion, cultural alienation, communicative alienation, education, educational process, personality, personal alienation, social reality, social factor, social system, socio-philosophical analysis

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The article deals with the forms of alienation that can appear in the process of foreign languages learning. Despite the availability of a wide range of research on the process of foreign languages learning, it can be noticed that the essence of the changes taking place around us is not examined in these studies. Socio-philosophical analysis of personal forms of alienation shows that the personality of a foreign language learner is often estranged from the actual process of learning, while functionality and alienation become a norm of interaction between teacher and students. The aim of the article is to identify the forms of alienation and conduct a socio-philosophical analysis of these forms. To make learning process effective, a teacher must involve a learner in a number of situations - social, cultural, communicative. However, at these levels the problem of alienation may arise. The loss of individual self-sufficiency can be noted at the social level in the process of learning foreign languages. To be able to communicate, individuals must have shared their cultural and organized codes that are both integrated into their social relations system. However, information and data that today's students obtain are often fragmented, superficial; the value of systematic knowledge is underestimated, which leads to loss of interest and the arising of indifference to the process of learning, to the state of alienation of the individual from the results of learning.


E. B. Baboshina
Kurgan State University, 640020, Russia, Kurgan, st. Sovetskaia, 63
Keywords: идентификация личности, социализация, культурация, человек культуры, социальная адаптация, культурная идентификация, социально-культурное становление, философия культуры, образование, identity, socialization, cultural adaptation, person of culture, social adaptation, cultural identification, socio-cultural development, philosophy of culture and education

Abstract >>
The article reveals the approaches to studying the features of adaptation. The problem of identification is analyzed based on the studied features of human adaptation in the society (L. S. Vygotsky, E. Durkheim, E. Fromm, V. A. Yadov and others). The author analyzes identification not so much as a problem of physical and mental adaptation, but as a socio-cultural formation of the person. The idea. The researcher proposes separation of social adaptation into the issues of socialization and culturation for a more objective analysis of these complex processes, due to their frequent inconsistencies in practice. To do this, we offer to assume an axiological position. The author proves the need for a holistic anthropological knowledge about the formation of the individual in the society to counter the negative social technologies, which produce «questionable» values and norms in the consciousness of the person. The author pays attention to the culture of the personality entering the society. We offer some important principles and mechanisms of the process. The author adheres to the domestic approach to understanding adaptation and culturation (L. S. Vygotsky, I. I. Krupnik, E. S. Markarian, S. V. Lurie, and others). The author, though not cites references to the works of other scientists (O.G. Drobnitsky, I. G. Ionin, N. M. Lebedeva) and foreign philosophers (M. Buber, E. Fromm, M. Heidegger, E. Erikson and others), but takes into account the results of their works in logic and in the content of the vision of problem. The theoretical meaning. The author proves the importance of building mentality-forming structures in assistance to the cultural identity formation of the person as not a passive, but active participant in the process of evolution, emphasizes a special role of education. The novelty lies in defining the features of socialization of the modern person, influencing the form and content of its cultural identity. The leading methods are the analysis of philosophical, cultural, pedagogical and psychological research; hermeneutic method; generalization, abstraction, the ascent from the abstract to the specific, deduction, synthesis. The practical significance lies in the proposed understanding of the possibilities of improvement of cultural identification in the identification of additional targets and mechanisms of education, which are based on developing knowledge of the philosophy of culture, which in this case as a «platform» in the evolution of society is enriched by the position of the awareness of the need of the meta value and meta scientific study of social adaptation.


A. V. Kolesnikova
Novosibirsk State Agricultural University, 630039, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Dobroliubova, 160
Keywords: образование, личность, духовная традиция, онтологичность, концепция целостной личности, живознание, смысл, соборность, бытие, education, personality, spiritual tradition, ontological character, concept of the integral personality, life knowledge, meaning, sobornost, being

Abstract >>
The article considers the problem of education as the personality formation, which presupposes attainment of the person as personality, attainment and comprehension of one’s own spiritual tradition, and, finally, finding of the person as a part of the people and nation. Education needs to return to its initial meaning: ascension of the person to the Image, likening of the person to God-Creator through comprehension of the spiritual foundations of domestic culture and civilization. This circumstance demands comprehension of domestic educational tradition as an ontological phenomenon. The authenticity of tradition has to be determined by the vitality in spiritual sense. The Orthodox spirituality is ontological in its essence. The need of return of education to Christ-centeredness is postulated today also in the works of the famous European philosophers and theologians (H. Yannaras, A. Milano, J. (Panteleymon) Manussakis, T. Shpidlik, etc.).The education system assumes constant interrelation of the teacher and pupil. The meaning of the designated interrelation is discovered in the Russian spiritual tradition which is going back to patristical heritage and continuing in the Russian religious philosophy. In the article, the attention is paid to the concept of integral personality, having complete mind and capable to live-cognition: unseparable perception of life, knowledge and faith. The integration of the mature persons is shown in the nation, culture, civilization; therefore, the problem of personality formation inevitably brings us to the problem of sobornost. Today Russia urgently needs the appearance of the nationally focused teacher. In the center of education is the personality (the teacher, the pupil), the process of education is the formation of the personality (both the pupil and the teacher). The teacher is introduced to eternity already in empirism, directly in his/her work, in its results, in contemplation and action; here is the main evidence of ontological character of the tradition, its rootedness in the life itself. As long as the tradition is alive, teacher's work and education in general can neither depreciate nor become meaningless. At the heart of the Orthodox educational practice is love to the child (as the initial principle and the means of educational influence). The domestic tradition of education includes the spiritual methodology forming a way of thinking and, finally, self-realization of the personality in being. Formation of the integral person (personality) has to become the meaning and purpose of education. As a result of personality formation, there takes place attainment and realization by the person of his/her being in Being.


I. B. Gabedava1, A. I. Evdokimova2
1Lyceum of Applied Sciences, 410030, Russia, Saratov, st. Komsomolskaua, 39
2Saratov State Agrarian University, 410600, Russia, Saratov, st. Teatralnaua, 1
Keywords: ценности, мораль, нравственность, физическая культура, патриотизм, профилактика аморального поведения, values, morality, ethics, physical education, patriotism, prevention of immoral behavior

Abstract >>
This study is focused on educational opportunities of children's recreation camps of our country, which in recent years not only is in difficult economic conditions, but also there are contradictory moral attitudes of the population of different ages. The changed socio-cultural situation of the value reorientation of our state provoked ambiguous conditions of life and education in many families. So, many parents are faced with the problem of their children’s learning, and the associated failure of not only academic but also the communication field of youth, or rather the inability to build relationships with others, which leads to conflict situations. All this gradually leads children and adolescents to various mental and physical abnormalities in the condition, which usually lead to illness, and physical, psychological, and social disruptions, directly related to the immoral behavior of the group. In that regard, the authors investigated the correlation of the concepts of morality and immorality. We present our own pedagogical practices, which has set a goal of prevention of immoral behavior of students, the development of sustainable moral positions and value preferences.


T. S. Kosenko, N. N. Vlasyuk
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: нравственное воспитание, образование, информационное общество, информационные потоки, moral education, upbringing, education, information society, information flows

Abstract >>
The purpose of the paper is to show the negative influence of the non-filtrated media information use by the younger generation and to find a way out of this situation. The authors consider the main tendency of information society and its role in forming of moral values of younger generation. Relevance of the research is the fact that the non-filtrated media information leads to transformation of the consciousness of young generation, formation of a passive viewpoint about life, labor and also consumer attitude to the world. Based on the undertaken analysis, it is concluded that the collaborated efforts by the teachers, parents, legislators, scientists and the public are necessary to solve these problems. In order to preserve the moral and spiritual well-being of children, it is necessary to make several steps: to improve the content of education and upbringing, to form personal responsibility, to create abilities and personality traits, including social skills of adaptation in the information society. It is important also to consider socio-cultural experience of Russia and the advanced countries.


R. A. Latypov, V. Yu. Kachalov
Russian University of Cooperation, 141014, Russia, Mitishi, st. V. Volosninoi, 12-30
Keywords: Кодекс административного судопроизводства РФ, высшее юридическое образование, судебный процесс, представительство в суде, структура институционального пространства страны, Code of Administrative Procedure of the Russian Federation, higher legal education, litigation, representation in court, structure of the institutional space of the country

Abstract >>
This article points to the timeliness and importance of the adoption in 2015 of the Administrative Procedure Code. The article points out the controversial issues of availability of higher legal education among the participants of administrative cases in the order of the RF Code of Administrative Procedure. The authors analyze the evolving jurisprudence on the issue at the level of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, and at the level of courts of the Federation subjects. The question of constitutionality of the requirement of higher legal education for the representatives of the parties, people involved in the case in person, as well as the sole executive bodies of the organizations is considered. The authors conclude on the need to improve the Code of Administrative Procedure of the Russian Federation for the implementation of constitutional rights and legitimate interests of citizens. The work substantiates the structure of the institutional and legal space of the country and concludes on the need to improve the Code of Administrative Procedure of the Russian Federation for the implementation of the constitutional rights and legal interests of Russian citizens.


E. P. Petrashent
St. Petersburg State University, 191186, Russia, Sankt-Pitersberg, st. Bolshaua Morskaua, 18
Keywords: ландшафтное проектирование, дизайн среды, формирование компетенций, дизайн-образование, landscape design, environmental design, formation of competencies, design education

Abstract >>
Formation of professional competence of the broad profile environmental designer in a two-level Bachelor and Master system is a difficult and complex task. The key factors in achieving this objective are forming of project thinking, creativity, general cultural competence and self-education skills required for further independent professional growth. In this approach, each narrower profile direction in design should be integrated into the complex educational objectives of each project, sometimes as a major, sometimes as a minor part of the course projects. In the article, this methodical principle is considered on the example of landscape design as an essential component of education of the environmental designers at St. Petersburg State University.


N. S. Zhdanova
G.I. Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, 455000, Russia, Magnitogorsk, av. Lenina, 38
Keywords: ценностные ориентации, мировоззрение, региональная архитектура, реконструкция, процесс обучения и исследования, values, worldview, regional architecture, reconstruction, learning and research

Abstract >>
The paper presents the multi-year experience of teachers in the formation of value orientations of students studying the traditional architecture of the Ural region. The author emphasizes the importance of the process of value upbringing as a basis for the formation of the young generation’s worldview, especially when it comes to patriotic values, so necessary in our time. An effective way, according to the author, is familiarizing students with the history and culture of their native land, in particular, during the study of the traditional regional architecture. In addition to the conventional methods of training, it is proposed to make emphasis on the activity approach and organize research so that students carry out modernization of the existing facilities or reconstruction of the lost monuments in the layouts. According to the author, this training leads to obvious objectification of the results of theoretical studies, increases their importance not only in the eyes of the authors, but also those students who are observing the work or look at the layouts in the exhibition.


K. A. Kravchenko
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: эстетическое восприятие, эстетическая выразительность, гармония, академический рисунок, esthetic perception, esthetic expressiveness, harmony, academic drawing

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the role of esthetic component in the course of training in the academic drawing. The esthetic perception of objects for imaging in the academic drawing is formed in the course of contact of the student with esthetically significant objects and phenomena, expressed in finding the characteristics, harmony and beauty of the represented that is one of elements of esthetic development of the world. In the article, it is noted that any image can be based on knowledge and understanding of the beauty of the world around and the culture of graphic expressiveness. The practice of training in the academic drawing is based on identification of essence of esthetic process, determination of its place in art, as well as determination of the basic principles of esthetic shaping. In the course of imaging, the esthetic assessment of objects and phenomena is always connected with possible means of imaging. In this case, the esthetic taste and the sense of proportion serve as a certain reference point for the artist during transferring of a contemplative artistic image to a concrete material form. Therefore, the formation in the course of training of such esthetic categories as esthetic taste and the sense of proportion has a paramount value. In the article, it is especially noted that the academic drawing is a type of esthetic expediency, and it is created by the principle of esthetic harmonization. Harmony is considered as one of the main categories of esthetics. The specificity of esthetic harmony is that it is inseparably linked with the qualities and characteristics of a subject (measure, symmetry, proportionality, harmony, integrity, etc.). Esthetic harmony is the sensory perception of an object for imaging according to the values, requirements, artist's opportunities; it is also inseparable from the process of graphic activity, which task consists in creation of esthetic expressiveness on the picture plane.


O. V. Shalyapin
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: рисунок, конструкция, объемная форма, методические приемы, drawing, design, volume form, methodical techniques

Abstract >>
In the article, the issues concerning some problems of a volume form in the educational drawing are brought up. The author notes that the beginning artists are usually confused by irregular shape of the head. The problem is that students do not draw analogies between the principles of transfer of a volume form learned in the course of imaging a still life and irregular shape of the head of the person though they are obvious. In the course of imaging the head of the model, the same principles of creation of a volume form and a volume-spatial design are underlain, as at the imaging of various solids and household items; only in a portrait these fundamental principles are not so obviously read. In the article, it is considered that a feature of the drawing for a picturesque etude of the head is that, with the similarity of the general principle of imaging of the head by pencil or brush, we observe a difference in the realization technique: a sharpened pencil and a rather wide, flat brush differently solve a form. It should be noted that oftentimes the beginning artists, drawing by pencil, create the image by a contour line that excludes space and illumination of nature which are also presented conventionally with the help of the so-called «tonal scale». The form and design in the pencil drawing can sometimes be reproduced linearly, without background. On the other hand, during the work with the brush, the form should be represented not separately, irrespective of the environment, from a background, but necessarily together with the environment where the model is situated. The perfection of both the pencil drawing and the «picturesque» one consists not in the fine finishing of work, but in the persistent aspiration to integrally and expressively transfer the nature.


E. S. Lykova
Omsk State Pedagogical University, 644099, Russia, Omsk, st. Naberegznaua Tuxathevskogo, 14
Keywords: композиция, средства художественной выразительности, детский рисунок, composition, means of artistic expression, child's drawing

Abstract >>
Modeling nature of graphic activity creates conditions for child learning of the world and the choice of ways to draw world’s images. The realization of these possibilities in Arts studies is more intensive during the composition lessons. The article describes compositional means of artistic expressiveness. The author considers these possibilities from the perspective of educational problems in the composition lessons for younger children. There are the following means of artistic expressiveness during the art lessons: the format of paper, image size, image balance, symmetry and asymmetry of composite construction, the location of the primary and secondary objects in the composition, choice of the composite center, line usage in the construction of the composition for the depiction of motion. The article analyses the specificities of perception and drawing potential of children in artistic expressiveness.


G. A. Kasatova, Yu. S. Sedova
Magnitogorsk State Technical University, 455000, Russia, Magnitogorsk, av. Lenina, 38
Keywords: ценность, ценностные ориентации, художественно-творческая деятельность, бакалавры, художественная обработка материалов, интериоризация, экстеоризация, value, value orientation, artistic and creative activity, Bachelors, art processing of materials, internalization, exteriorization

Abstract >>
In the article, the questions of the value development of the bachelors in the period of University training are considered. The relevance of this article is due primarily to the fact that the true values have lost their importance in modern society and the false ones have become widespread. We can state the fact that material values are predominant in the choice of the future profession for today's young people, in the choice of means to achieve the goal, in general, in determining the vector of development of personality, self-determination in the world. There arise contradictions between the need of internalization of the true values by the person and the modern bogus values. In connection with this, the formation of value orientations in the modern world acquires an important role in the development of personality in axiological terms. The professional training of bachelors is based on the values accumulated by generations in the field of artistic processing of materials, the internalization of which contributes to self-determination of the person. It concerns the values-knowledge in these areas, and the values-technologies developed by the predecessors, and the values-images made of various materials. Learning and mastering these values, having certain abilities and talents, value orientations, one can later exteriorize the values in this field. This article considers the process of formation of value orientations in artistic and creative activities, which is realized beginning from the second year of studying at the higher education institution and permeates the entire professional training of Bachelors. The authors show the role of artistic and creative activities in the development of personality, in the formation of values-knowledge, values-attitudes, values-qualities that form the basis of value orientations of the person. All the personally-important values are formed in the process of the person’s own activities, in our case, in the artistic and creative activities. The results of this process are realized in the objects of this activity. However, the process of artistic and creative activities is aimed at creation of material values both in the field of artistic processing of materials and in the spiritual field. It is in the process of artistic and creative activities that the understanding and acceptance (or rejection) of the values of artistic and creative activities take place. The process of formation of value orientations and the process of artistic and creative activities are closely related; as a result of this integration, the value orientations are formed most fully.