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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2016 year, number 9

1.
TSUNAMIS ON THE RUSSIAN PACIFIC COAST: HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION

V.K. Gusiakov1,2
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Computing Technologies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Natural disaster, earthquake, seismotectonics, tsunami, tsunami hazard, tsunami risk mapping

Abstract >>
The Pacific coast, including the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuriles, the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering Sea, is the main tsunami-prone area in Russia. The Far East tsunamis are much more frequent, extensive, and devastating than those in the Black, Caspian, Baltic, and White Sea coasts, as well as in major inland lakes Baikal, Ladoga, etc. The tsunami catalog of the Russian Far East from 1737 to present lists 110 events with mainly near-field and few far-field sources (105 and 5 events, respectively). Most of the catalogued tsunamis (95 cases) were induced by earthquakes, and few events had volcanic (3), landsliding (2), meteorological (3), and unknown (2) triggers. Altogether there were eleven devastating tsunamis for the period of observations, with >10 m heights, two of which were great events in 1737 and 1952, when the waves exceeded 20 m. The wave heights were in the range 2.5-10 m in fifteen hazardous tsunami events and within the tidal range (~1-2 m) in thirteen cases; the other events were small and detectable only instrumentally. Thus, the average recurrence times for tsunamis of different magnitudes in the Russian Pacific coast are 25 years for devastating events and 10-15 years for hazardous tsunamis; small tsunamis occur almost every year, according to statistics for the last sixty years collected at the regional network of tide stations. The topics discussed in the paper concern the completeness and reliability of the Far East catalog; distribution of tsunami events in space and time; correlation between the intensity of tsunami and the magnitude of the causative undersea earthquake; tsunami recurrence; tsunami warning; and long-term hazard assessment and mapping.



2.
DEFORMATION STYLE IN THE DAMAGE ZONE OF THE MONDY FAULT: GPR EVIDENCE (unka basin, southern East Siberia)

O.V. Lunina, A.S. Gladkov, A.M. Afonkin, E.V. Serebryakov
Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Fault, sinkhole, strike slip, normal slip, graben, GPR, southern East Siberia

Abstract >>
The Mondy strike-slip fault connects the W-E Tunka and N-S Hovsgöl basins on the southern flank of the Baikal rift system. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys in its damage zone provide constraints on the thicknesses, dips, and plunges of fault planes, as well as on the amount and sense of vertical slip. Strike-slip faulting in the southern segment of the Mondy fault within the territory of Russia bears a normal slip component of motion along the W-E and NW planes. These motions have produced negative flower structures in shallow crust, appearing as grabens upon Pleistocene fluvioglacial terraces. The amount of normal slip estimated from the displacement of reflection events varies over the area and reaches a maximum of 3.4 m near Mondy Village. In the Kharadaban basin link, left-lateral strike slip displaces valleys of ephemeral streams to 22 m, while normal slip detected by GPR reaches 2.2 m; this normal-to-strike slip ratio corresponds to a direction of ~6 to the horizon. The angles of dips of faults are in the range 75-79; the thicknesses of fault planes marked by low- or high-frequency anomalies in GPR records vary from 2.5 to 17.0 m along strike and decrease with depth within a few meters below the surface, which is common to near-surface coseismic motions. Many ruptures fail to reach the surface but appear rather as sinkholes localized mainly in fault hanging walls. The deformation style in the damage zone of the Mondy fault bears impact of the NW Yaminshin fault lying between its two segments. According to photoelasticity, the stress field changes locally at the intersection of the two faults, under NE compression at 38, till the inverse orientations of principal compression and extension stresses. This stress pattern leads to a combination of normal and left-lateral strike slip components.



3.
SEDIMENTS IN THE GAKKEL RIDGE RIFT ZONE (Arctic Ocean): STRUCTURE AND HISTORY

P.V. Rekant1,2, E.A. Gusev1
1I.S. Gramberg All-Russian Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean, Angliiskii pr. 1, Saint Petersburg, 191120, Russia
2Karpinsky All-Russian Research Geological Institute, Srednii pr. 74, Saint Petersburg, 199106, Russia
Keywords: Rift zone, sediments, Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean, Gakkel Ridge

Abstract >>
The available seismic and magnetic data show the Gakkel Ridge rift zone consisting of the Atlantic and Siberian segments divided by a tectonic suture at 70º E. The two segments have had different histories recorded in their sedimentary cover. Apart from the difference in its morphology, the Siberian segment differs from the Atlantic one in the existence of a series of deposition centers, which might represent a vast Paleogenic basin that formed prior to the Gakkel Ridge. The simple model of North Atlantic spreading fails to explain the long and complex history of the Gakkel Ridge rift and the existence of the depocenters. The particular structure of this zone might have resulted from the growth of rift mountains by accretion of magmatic material during the Paleogene, without significant sea floor spreading.



4.
CARBONATES AND SOURCES OF FLUIDS IN ORES AND METASOMATITES OF THE ERMAKOVKA FLUORITE-BERTRANDITE-PHENACITE DEPOSIT (western Transbaikalia)

G.S. Ripp, I.A. Izbrodin, A.G. Doroshkevich, M.O. Rampilov, E.I. Lastochkin, V.F. Posokhov
Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sak'yanovoi 6a, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Keywords: F-Be ores, skarns, oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions, western Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
We present results of isotope-geochemical study of the Ermakovka F-Be deposit, including data on the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions in dolomite and calcite marbles and in carbonates accompanying skarns, of early and late stages of ore formation and of post-ore parageneses. To elucidate the sources of fluids participated in the ore formation, we calculated the oxygen isotope composition in water and the hydrogen isotope composition in hydroxyl-containing minerals. Phlogopite in marbleized dolomites, vesuvianite and amphibole in skarns, eudidimite and bertrandite in ore parageneses, and bavenite formed during post-ore processes are analyzed. Most of the ore-stage minerals are depleted in heavy oxygen. Their δ18O values are lower than 5-6 (SMOW). Oxygen in carbonate minerals of the initial stage (dolomite and bastnaesite) is heavier (1.3-4.9) than that in calcite (+2.0 to -3.7). The δ18O values of water in equilibrium both with carbonate and with silicate minerals (-4 to -14) suggest the contribution of meteoric water to the mineral formation. A magmatic fluid (δ18O from +6 to +9) participated in the skarn formation at the initial stage, and a meteoric fluid, (δ18O from -1 to -9) at the final stage. A meteoric source is confirmed by the depleted hydrogen isotope composition in combined water in minerals (δD from -119 to -192).



5.
CONDITIONS OF CRYSTALLIZATION OF OLIVINE SHONKINITES IN THE INAGLI MASSIF (Central Aldan)

E.Yu. Rokosova1, L.I. Panina1, Yu.R. Vasilev1,2, F.P. Lesnov1
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Olivine shonkinites, silicate-carbonate inclusions, immiscibility of melts, geochemistry of rocks and melt inclusions, sources of magmatism, Inagli massif

Abstract >>
The olivine shonkinites localized among dunites and alkali gabbroids in the northern part of the alkaline ultrabasic Inagli massif (northwestern part of Central Aldan) have been studied. The obtained data on the chemical and trace-element compositions of the rocks and minerals and the results of melt inclusion study showed that the olivine shonkinites crystallized from alkaline basanite melt enriched in Cl, S, CO2, and trace elements. Clinopyroxene crystallized at 1180-1200 ºC from a homogeneous silicate-salt melt, which was probably separated into immiscible silicate and carbonate-salt fractions with temperature decreasing. The composition of the silicate fraction evolved from alkaline basanite to alkaline trachyte. The carbonate-salt fraction had an alkaline carbonate composition and was enriched in S and Cl. The same trend of evolution of clinopyroxene-hosted melts and the igneous rocks of the Inagli massif suggests that the alkali gabbroids, melanocratic alkali syenites, and pulaskites formed from the same magma, which had a near-alkaline basanite composition during its crystallization differentiation. The geochemical studies showed that the olivine shonkinites and glasses of homogenized melt inclusions in clinopyroxene grains have similar contents of trace elements, one or two orders of magnitude higher than those in the primitive mantle. The high contents of LILE (K, Rb, and Sr) and LREE in the olivine shoshonites and homogenized inclusions suggest the enriched mantle source, and the negative anomalies of HFSE and Ti are a specific feature of igneous rocks formed with the participation of crustal material. The slight depletion in HREE relative to LREE and the high (La/Yb) n ratios in the rocks and inclusion glasses (10.0-11.4 and 4.7-6.2, respectively) suggest the presence of garnet in the mantle source.



6.
POSITION OF THE BASE OF THE QUATERNARY IN WEST SIBERIA (based on paleobotanical and paleomagnetic evidence)

V.S. Volkova, O.B. Kuzmina, Z.N. Gnibidenko
A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Neogene/Quaternary boundary, palyno- and carpofloras, magnetostratigraphy, West Siberia

Abstract >>
This study reviews a possible new position of the base of the Quaternary in West Siberia based on paleobotanical and paleomagnetic data in view of ratification of ICS recommendations by the IUGS Executive Committee and the decision of the Interdepartmental Commission on the Quaternary Stratigraphy of Russia to lower the base of the Quaternary (and, therefore, the base of the Pleistocene) at 2.58 Ma. The paleobotanical and paleomagnetic data from two horizons on the West Siberian Plain (Kulunda, attributed in part to the formerly Neogene Gelasian Stage, and Kochki, attributed to the Quaternary) were used to identify global cooling that occurred synchronously with a regional cooling phase determined at the base of the Gelasian at Monte San Nicola, Italy.



7.
LAKE TELETSKOYE (Altai, Russia): RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND PREDICTION FOR ITS CHANGES ACCORDING TO THE COMPOSITION AND QUANTITY OF DIATOMS IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

E.Yu. Mitrofanova, O.S. Sutchenkova, O.V. Lovtskaya
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Molodezhnaya 1, Barnaul, 656038, Russia
Keywords: Diatoms, bottom sediments, pH-indicating species, reconstruction and prediction of pH, Lake Teletskoye, Altai

Abstract >>
We studied the upper 0-1000 mm of the bottom sediment core from the underwater Sofia Lepneva Ridge of Lake Teletskoye. The core sediments accumulated with a rate of 0.3 mm/year (with regard to their humidity, with a rate of 0.45 mm/year) and have an age of about 2000 years. A total of 194 species (212 varieties and forms) of diatoms have been revealed. Analysis of diatom composition in tanatocoenoses showed prevalence of species inhabiting the bottom and periphyton, widely distributed geographically, indifferent to salinity, and preferring a weakly alkaline environment, as well as beta-mesosaprobionts. The number of diatom valves ranged from 0.86 to 64.4 mln valves/g, with an average of 22.90 0.78 mln valves/g. Over the last millennium, the peaks of the abundance of diatoms, especially representatives of the cold-water assemblage,including the main dominant Aulacoseira subarctica (O. Müll.) Haw., are referred to the periods with low water temperature. The pH value for the period from 172 BC to 2006 AD has been reconstructed from the proportion of the numbers of valves of pH-indicating diatom species, which varied from 7.51 to 7.69, with an average of 7.580 0.003. The pH value predicted up to 2259 AD was estimated by spectral (Fourier) analysis at 7.53-7.63, with a similar average of 7.580 0.001. Analysis of reconstructed and predicted pH values showed their insignificant changes and correspondence to a weakly alkaline environment (7.0-8.5). These pH values suggest stability of the lake environment both in the past periods and in the nearest future.



8.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MATTER OF THE NEOPROTEROZOIC STRATA WITHIN THE BEREZOVKA DEPRESSION (Seralakh Formation, Siberian Platform)

I.A. Ivanova
Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineral Resources, Krasnyi pr. 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
Keywords: Geochemistry of naphthides, Cis-Patom petroliferous area, Berezovka depression, Neoproterozoic, oil source beds

Abstract >>
The results of study of geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic and Lower Cambrian deposits within the Berezovka depression are presented. A mudstone member of the Seralakh Formation is assumed to be an oil source bed. We compiled a series of geochemical maps for this formation and estimated the hydrocarbon generation potential and the scales of oil and gas formation in its mudstone member, using the volumetric-genetic method. The migrated liquid hydrocarbons amount to about 8 billion tons.



9.
ASSESSMENT OF THE DISCOVERED AND UNDISCOVERED OIL AND GAS OF AFRICA

M.S. Modelevsky, M.M. Modelevsky
Scientific Council on Problems of Geology and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 23, bld.1, Moscow, 117312, Russia
Keywords: Hydrocarbons, resources, reserves, oil and gas fields, Africa

Abstract >>
The study presents assessment of the hydrocarbon potential of almost all known sedimentary basins of the African continent and adjacent offshore coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The assessment is based on new data that became available following the well-known monograph of V.I. Vysotsky et al. (1994), which provided the last petroleum potential assessment published in the Russian literature. These data provide a more accurate evaluation of the regional initially-in-place and recoverable hydrocarbon resources, exploration maturity as of the beginning of 2015, the total number of discovered oil and gas fields, and field/resources distribution by basin type and offshore and onshore areas.



10.
INTERPRETATION OF SHALLOW ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY IMAGES OF FAULTS: TECTONOPHYSICAL APPROACH

K.Zh. Seminsky1, R.M. Zaripov1, V.V. Olenchenko2,3
1Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
2A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Fault zone, shallow electrical resistivity tomography

Abstract >>
A new approach to interpretation of shallow electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data discussed for the case of the Olkhon area (western Baikal region) stems from tectonophysical ideas of faulting phases and deformation levels in rocks. The deformation levels, identified statistically from ERT responses, constrain fault boundaries and subboundaries associated with the formation of main and subsidiary fault planes. Information of this kind creates a basis for solving various fundamental and applied problems of tectonics, mineral exploration, and engineering geology.



11.
MORPHOSTRUCTURAL AND TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF STRIKE-SLIP AND EXTENSIONAL FAULT ZONES (results of analog modeling)

A.S. Cheremnykh
Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Strike-slip fault zone, normal-fault zone, analog modeling, digital elevation models, vertical displacement gradient

Abstract >>
The formation of the relief of fault zones is considered in relation to the evolution of their internal structure during faulting. The study was carried out by analog modeling with subsequent digital elevation modeling of the experimental surface of the deformed sample. The vertical displacement gradient was calculated based on the digital elevation models. It has been found that the relief of strike-slip and extensional fault zones depends on their internal structure. Each element of the internal structure makes its own contribution to the relief formation. The process depends on experimental conditions, such as the viscosity of model material and the model deformation rates. The relief of the fault zone is different at each of three main stages of its formation.



12.
PHASE-INDUCED POLARIZATION METHOD BASED ON PROCESSING NOISE SIGNALS OF THE NATURAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF THE EARTH

G.Ya. Shaidurov, V.S. Potylitsyn, D.S. Kudinov
Siberian Federal University, Akademgorodok 13A, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Keywords: Induced polarization, natural electromagnetic field, Earth, dispersion, phase, electrodes, telluric currents

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the physical fundamentals of the phase geoelectric method of induced polarization (IP) based on the extraction of information from the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth (NEMFE) in the frequency range 0.1-20.0 Hz. Scientific and technical justification is provided for the differential measurement circuit parameters of the NEMFE and the algorithm of processing of the received signals with the calculation of the IP coefficient, assuming the identity of the field characteristics in two receiving lines. The method consists in recording random noise signals from two adjacent receiving electrical dipoles with simultaneous memorizing of the amplitudes and their automatic equalization. Then the difference between the signals is calculated, with subsequent energy normalization. The presented theoretical fundamentals for the calculation of the IP coefficient of the NEMFE and the processing algorithm were tested in laboratory experiments. Under the assumption of the complete identity of the medium beneath the receiving dipoles, the IP coefficient was 0.01-0.03, due to the error in the elemental base of the analog input path. The paper also presents the results of field experiments on the Samson iron deposit in the Republic of Khakassia. The experimental work confirmed the effect of IP on the NEMFE in the anomalous area and showed that the results are consistent with theoretical and laboratory predictions and the data obtained using a KEP-M pulse system. It is concluded that this method can be used to detect productive anomalies and has an advantage of eliminating artificial sources of excitation of geologic sections.