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2016 year, number 2

1.
SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS IN THE STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

N. A. Knyazev1, R. G. Buyankina2, R. A. Zukov2
1Siberian State Space University, 660037, Russia, Krasnoyarsk, av. Imeni gazeti Krasnoyarskii rabothii, 31
2Krasnoyarsk State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, 660022, Russia, Krasnoyarsk, st. imeni Partizana Zhelezbyaka, 1
Keywords: философия образования, научные основания, интеграция научного знания, методология исследования, рационалистические ценности современной науки, philosophy of education, scientific bases, integration of scientific knowledge, research methodology, rationalist values of modern science

Abstract >>
The authors examine the scientific foundations in the structure of disciplinary development of the philosophy of education. The foundations are considered as its attributive characteristics, which are the «genetic» guarantors of reproduction of a high quality result and the disciplinary originality. One of the main theoretical sources of the substantive content of both the philosophy of education itself and its subject-methodological foundations is the integration processes involving the entire system of modern scientific knowledge. The purpose of this article is to establish the diversity of forms of integration processes in the field of philosophy of educa-tion, the possibility of their interaction with the latest «products» of the methodology of scientific knowledge and new ways of methodological support in the field of increment of new scientific knowledge. A comprehensive and constructive approach to solving the integration prob-lems in the framework of the philosophy of education inevitably opens up another very important and relevant aspect of interdisciplinary processes. This aspect con-cerns the integration unity of the methodological and scientific aspects of the exist-ence of scientific disciplines taught in modern Russian universities. Primarily, this concerns the vocation-related subjects in the curriculum of the future specialists, re-search engineers and Masters. Organic relationship between the methodological and scientific-methodical levels of cognition allowed us to formulate in the article a number of problems, addressing the fundamental issues of training the first-class professionals. One such problem is the need to overcome a gap between the realities of integration within a disciplinary existence of scientific knowledge, with which the future specialist or engineer-researcher is dealing, and the philosophical-methodological aspects of understanding these realities. This scientific-methodological gap in the educational process of the higher education institution cannot be underestimated, because a generalized philosophical aspect of this prob-lem involves its revealing on the basis of the most stable and deepest development regularities of modern scientific and technical knowledge. The philosophical aspect of solution of the described educational problem not only arms the specialist with significant methodological and philosophical competences, but it also forms, in the process of theoretical and creative activity of the specialist, a very valuable compo-nent: an expansive (and therefore adequate) ability to think from the positions of modern rationalist values of science. It is exactly from the perspective of integrative unity of methodological and scientific-methodological parts of the educational process that the methods of training of engineers and researchers must change. Such methods allow taking into ac-count qualitative changes in the motivation of education (self-education) of future specialists, new criteria for evaluation of research activity, as well as new ways of implementing creative stages in the research process. This complies with the latest requirements to educational process in Russian universities taking into account the practice-oriented training.



2.
INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION AS A WAY TO ESTABLISH DIALOGUE OF CULTURES

B. M. Fisenko
Altai State Technical University, 656038, Russia, Barnaul, av. Lenina, 46
Keywords: глобализация, диалог культур, интеркультурное образование, воспитание, язык, локальность, контекстуальность, плюралистичность, globalization, dialogue of cultures, intercultural education, up-bringing, language, locality, contextuality, plurality

Abstract >>
The article deals with the analysis of contradictions of globalization processes and conditions which are necessary to smooth over these contradictions. The problem of dialogue of cultures today is urgent, that is why society is searching for the answers to the questions which are vital to many people in Russia and in the world as well. This paper has become an attempt to explain significance of education for bringing up society which will be tolerant towards other cultures and at the same time not alienated from the culture of its own nation. It enables us to draw a conclusion that education must be intercultural. As a result of the analysis made it was revealed that the main characteristics of intercultural education are: locality, contextuality and plurality. One more aspect of intercultural education is learning local languages as well as Russian and English. This conclusion has been made proceeding from the analysis of the main difficulties which can occur when a person wants to study some other culture



3.
EDUCATION IN THE SEARCH OF MEANING

E. B. Baboshina
Kurgan State University, 640669, Russia, Kyrgan, st. Gogolya, 25
Keywords: образование, культура, общество, человек культуры, смысл, культуросообразность, education, culture, society, the person of culture, meaning, culture-conformity

Abstract >>
The author notes the growing aspiration of modern scientists to objectify the processes in education in the socio-cultural dynamics, while recognizing as true, in this context, the idea of priority of the principle of culture-conformity in modern education. The author performs a social-philosophical substantiation of the principle of culture-conformity as a leading meaning-forming trend in the philosophy of modern education. Culture-conformity as a principle of philosophy of modern education is defined at the level of ideal-forming aspect of the human life-activity. The image of the person of culture is revealed as a leading educational model of personality, expressing the trends and meanings of modern society. The author derives a socio-philosophical justification of the content of the culture-conformity principle, analyzing the major socio-cultural trends and building on the works of a number of contemporary philosophers and classical authors. In the article, a scientific analogy is made between the development of ideas about the person in education and arts, particularly in literature; a vision of man is proposed as a special image of the epoch, the personality in the context of time; the ambiguity of the person’s connection with the epoch is shown, a defining concept of a «cultural model of the human being» is revealed. In addition, the difference is analyzed between the concepts of «nature» and «essence» of the human being; the idea of non-randomness of the turn to a culture-conformal paradigm of education in the modern world is justified. The author examines the relationship between the development of the doctrine of individuality and the social concepts in pedagogy, in spite of their external opposition. The practical significance of the materials presented in the article lies in promoting understanding of the contemporary social situation in education. The content of the work may serve as an auxiliary material for the revealing the idea of culture-conformity in the philosophy of education and the practice of pedagogy. The methods of theoretical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, comparison, extrapolation and modeling are used in the work. As a result of analysis, the author concludes that the image of the person of culture is a leading educational model of personality, expressing the trends and meanings of modern society. The need to reorient the purposes of education in the proposed culture-conformal direction is dictated, by the author's opinion, by a new understanding of the role of not only human being, but also his/her essence in the culture of modern society.



4.
HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM: FROM QUANTITY TO QUALITY

M. A. Abramova1, V. V. Krasheninnikov2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS, 630090, Russia, Hovosibirsk, st. Hikolaeva, 8
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Hovosibirsk, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
Keywords: оценка эффективности университетов, количественные и качественные показатели, экстенсивное и эволюционное развитие системы образования, массовизация высшего образования, evaluation of effectiveness of universities, the quantitative and qualitative, extensive and evolutionary development of the system of education, mass character of higher education

Abstract >>
The authors analyze the use of quantitative indicators from the point of view of possibilities of adequate reflection of the improvement of efficiency of universities. We discuss various quantitative parameters: the number of incoming students who graduate and more, the dependence of this indicator on the demographic characteristics of the region, the number of the university graduates and the share of population with higher education to estimate human capital of the country, the number of the entered to the University winners of competitions, the number of teachers with a degree and the specifics of their accounting depending on the primary place of work or part-time, cooperation with scientific institutions in the region, migration flows and other indicators. The authors come to conclusion that the socio-economic situation in the country and the use of quantitative indicators to assess the effectiveness of universities leads to increasing the mass character of education. Education, fulfilling the role of a social lift, becomes a mandatory social-cultural resource. To save the potential of the Russian education system, and the higher education in particular, it is important to review the emphasis in the performance indicators of the education system from quantitative to qualitative. This will create the preconditions not for extensive, but for evolutionary development of the education system. One of the evidences of manifestation of this trend is the increased competition between universities for talented graduates in the market of intellectual labor, creation of a «portrait» of the school graduate, studying the educational strategies chosen by them. Improving the quality of scientific and methodological training of the teaching staff of the universities is also of strategic nature, as well as preserving cooperation of research institutions in the region, and the review of the role of universities in shaping socio-economic development strategies of the regions.



5.
HUMAN BEING, CHALLENGES OF NBIC-CONVERGENCE AND SCIENCE Article 1. Spiritual foundations of human-maintenance and NBIC-technologies

A. A. Gordienko
Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS, 630090, Russia, Hovosibirsk, st. Hikolaeva, 8
Keywords: НБИКС-технологии, биологическая составляющая природы человека, трансцендирование, предельный прорыв, человеческое в человеке, опорные интуиции, трансцендентная реальность, субъективная реальность, человекообразующий цикл, человекообразующий контур, человекостояние, первокультура, телесные предпосылки первокультуры, освоение/развитие первокультуры, NBIC- technologies, the biological component of human nature, transcending, ultimate breakthrough, the human in human-being, basic insights, transcendent reality, subjective reality, hu-man-forming cycle, human-forming circuit, human-maintenance, pre-culture, physical preconditions of pre-culture, evolvement/development of pre-culture

Abstract >>
In connection with the introduction of NBIC-technologies, within the framework of which the biological component of human nature and human identity can be subjected to transformation, the problem of preservation of human nature is being actively discussed, which has become a global problem. However, in search of conceptual bases of human nature and the human prospects, the spiritual meanings of human-forming and its history are often ignored. They are substituted by the informational reflection of these processes, resulting in losing the spiritual content of the human being and his/her culture. To understand the events and find reference points, it is necessary «to look at the surroundings from a height». This seems to be the height associated with turning to that space and time, in which the human was germinating in the human being and the human formation process was taking place. The article formulates ideas about a primary human- forming process, in which the evolvement and development of the human in the human being occurred, a pre-culture was originated. It is assumed that the preconditions of the human are beginning to take shape in transcending, which occurs among primitive people in an ultimate breakthrough when their very existence is threatened. It is shown that in precedents of ultimate breakthrough, the primitive man experienced something that is on the «other side» of externally sensed, i.e. macro-captured givenness: a transcendent reality. First of all, the human community in the post-ultimate transition is established as a spiritual team, being a way of penetration of eternity into the person and the person, into eternity. There appears a human-forming circuit with the core in the spiritual team, which extends into the World, Nature and Cosmos. Here the human-forming phenomena are constructed: the Good, True (Truth), Beauty; whereas a primitive man acquires the ability to partnership, love and spirituality. In process of expansion of contacts between inner feelings and transcendent reality, internal corporal structures which have the status of human base in the person are developed. It has been shown that human development in the context of modern challenges is associated with the treatment and development, and therefore the increase of pre-culture. The development of the person can only be described as a self-improvement, the fundamental basis of which is the ability to overcome oneself by means of transcending in harmony with the Other. The planned trans-human transformations in the absence of this context not only destroy, but exclude from being «those invari-ants of human vital world, which makes us human». Referring to the process of formation of corporal prerequisites of pre-culture, the author shows that the technological improvement of human should be considered only in the context of transcendence. This means that the biological component of human nature can be subjected to transformation in such forms and ways, that it does not interfere with human-maintenance of each individual.



6.
INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AS A FORM OF FASCISM: A SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS

V. V. Pavlovskiy
Krasnoyarsk State Agricultural University, 660049, Russia, Krasnoyarsk, av. Mira, 90
Keywords: терроризм, международный терроризм, фашизм XXI в, фундаментализм, неоимперализм, неолиберализм, творческий марксизм, социальная философия, философия образования, terrorism, international terrorism, fascism of the XXI century, fundamentalism, neoimperialism, neoliberalism, creative Marxism, social philosophy, philosophy of education

Abstract >>
In the article, there is considered from the standpoints of social philosophy an extremely urgent problem of combating the international terrorism, which challenges humanity and which is essentially an Islamic form of fascism. The main stages of development of terrorism, conditioned by the evolution of specific historical societies and their states built on private property and war, are shown. The trigger mechanism of the formation of modern international terrorism is the geopolitical catastrophe of the late 80-th - early 90-th of XX century, organized by anti-socialist forces, which led to a change in social order in some countries of people's democracy and the collapse of USSR, the second superpower of the world. In condition of political, economic and social chaos in these countries, destruction of the world's strategic parity, a series of regional wars and armed conflicts, ter-rorism, encouraged by reactionary forces, has acquired an international character. Among the publications on this topic, a paper by A. Lebedev and V. Inozemtsev about the lessons of terrorism, written from the standpoint of neoliberalism, is critically analyzed. In this regard, the author of this article suggests searching the trustworthy statements and conclusions and, on the basis of dialectic-materialistic understanding of modern society, studying neoimperialism as an antagonistic reality which engenders international terrorism and often just imitating fighting it. Social philosophy and philosophy of education are called, in accordance with its objects of studying, to contribute to the fight against this global evil.



7.
«COLLISION OF CIVILIZATIONS» AND MODERN TERRORISM: MYTHS AND REALITY

Tamara A. Rubantsova, Vladimir V. Chebotaryov
Siberian State University of Communications, 630049, Russia, st. Dysi Kovalthyk, 191
Keywords: терроризм, столкновение цивилизаций, этнические конфликты, религиозные конфессии, terrorism, clash of civilizations, ethnic conflicts, religious con-fessions

Abstract >>
In the article, the problems of modern terrorism, which is insufficiently studied as a socio-cultural phenomenon, are considered from the point of view of the social-philosophical analysis. In the scientific circles, three points of view concerning the nature of terrorism prevail now: the research, practical and critical points of view. The first point of view relies on the approach according to which it is necessary to reveal the fundamental principles of terrorism, its sources, because only having understood them, it is possible to find an effective mean to fight it. The second, practical approach denies the need of searching for the prime causes of terrorism, considering that it only distracts from the fight against this evil. The representatives of the third approach to the analysis of terrorism deny the first two approaches, considering them as the links of one chain. These are the most furious critics rejecting the idea of terrorism as consistent actions of the USA. S. Huntington has predicted «collision of civilizations»; however it has not become objective reality, and cannot be considered as a basis of modern terrorism. It is possible to call this approach a confrontational model of «collision of civilizations», which, as a negative scenario, can result in antagonism in Russia of two irreconcilable camps: Orthodox Christians and followers of other religions. In order that it does not happen, it is necessary to develop an ideology of «social responsibility» of the representatives of all religious confessions of multinational Russia.



8.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SPHERE IN PRESERVING THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE

Damir R. Vakhitov1, Tatiana N. Kondratyeva2, Nail M. Gabdullin3
1Russian Academy of Justice, 117418, Russia, Moscow, st. Novotheremyshkinskaya, 69
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
3Kazan Federal University, 420008, Russia, Kazan, st. Kremlevskaya, 18
Keywords: образование, система образования, двухуровневая система, глобализация, санкции, бюджетные обязательства, конкуренция, реформы, критерии эффективности, суверенитет, education, education system, two-level system, globalization, sanc-tions, budgetary obligations, competition, reforms, criteria of efficiency, sovereignty

Abstract >>
In the article, the value and role of education in the socio-economic development of the country, in preserving the sovereignty of Russia are considered. The article is devoted to possible consequences of the influence of external economic factors on education; this will allow formulating, in the long term, the actions for protection of the economic and political sovereignty of Russia. In the conditions of globalization of the world economic system, the dependence of national economy on the external economic factors and the universal tendencies becomes not only pronounced, but also testifies to the loss of sovereignty by the states, that is, the loss of independence in decision-making, including in the sphere of education. The external problems and the pressure of sanctions are combined in a certain way with the internal problems caused by many years of government’s ignoring the problems of education and the contradictory nature of the ongoing reforms. As a result of their reflections, the authors come to conclusion about the need of developing the immediate measures for overcoming, correction of the negative tendencies, and, in some cases, preservation of the positive that was created in the domestic education system.



9.
IMPORTANCE OF VOLITIONAL POWERS OF AN OFFICER IN PEDAGOGICAL PREVENTION OF UNLAWFUL BEHAVIOR OF MILITARY PERSONNEL

O. A. Kharchenko
St. Petersburg Military Institute of Interior troops of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 198206, Russia, Sankt-Peterbyrg, st. Liothika Pilytova, 1
Keywords: педагогическая профилактика, противоправное поведение, военно-педагогический процесс, гуманитарная культура, воля, волевые качества офицера, учебно-воспитательная деятельность, pedagogical prevention, unlawful behavior, military pedagogical process, humanitarian culture, will, volitional qualities of officer, training-upbringing activity

Abstract >>
This article discusses the problem of increasing the efficiency of pedagogical prevention of illegal behavior of military servicemen. The author reveals the condi-tions that improve the effectiveness of teaching the prevention of unlawful behavior of military personnel. The article shows the conditions fostering the increase of effectiveness of pedagogical prevention of unlawful behavior of the military personnel, and also various aspects of organization of preventive work, discussed in the publications of modern pedagogues dedicated to organization of the military pedagogic process and pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior among adolescents and young people. Besides, a topic is touched upon of the impact of humanitarian culture, determined by the specifics of socially conditioned characteristics of professional military activity, on pedagogical prevention of unlawful behavior of the military personnel. Attention is paid to a complex of preventive educational activities aimed at the creation of military-cultural legal living environment of the servicemen. There are distinguished and described the principles of personal orientation, prevention and systemic character, based on which the work is structured of pedagogical prevention of illegal behavior of military personnel. The main attention in the paper is paid to the role of volitional powers of an officer, which play an important role in solving the prophylactic-pedagogical problems. The author concludes that the manifestations of volitional qualities of officers are determined not only by the motives of their moral principles, but also by the inherent characteristics of the manifestations of the properties of higher nervous activity. The author examines the role of will as a mechanism to overcome the obstacles and difficulties, manifested in different ways in different situations. Also, there are revealed in the article the concepts of determination, dedication, perseverance, courage, discipline, endurance, self-reliance as a foundation of the volitional powers of an officer. The problem of upbringing the volitional powers of an officer will be of interest to researchers engaged in the search for management solutions in the field of military-pedagogical knowledge. The main content of the research is formed by an analysis, carried out in military units, of the persistence of unit commanders in achieving the set prophylactic-pedagogical goals. Improving the efficiency of pedagogical prevention of illegal behavior of military personnel is revealed by the author in the light of the teaching process tasks included in the logic of educational-upbringing activities of unit commanders. In conclusion, there is revealed the importance of training the commanders of units, so that the public importance, duty, morals become their objectives and the moral content of their consciousness and will.



10.
A PARADIGM OF «NONLINEAR DYNAMICS» IN THE IMPROVING OF VOLITIONAL SELF-REGULATION OF STUDENTS (A PHILO-SOPHICAL ANALYSIS)

Irina V. Yakovleva
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
Keywords: волевая саморегуляция, нелинейная динамика, волевой импульс, активатор, ингибитор, самоорганизация здорового образа жизни, возможности развития, модель нелинейной динамики, volitional self-control, nonlinear dynamics, volitional impulse, activator, inhibitor, self-organization of healthy lifestyle, possibilities of development, a model of nonlinear dynamics

Abstract >>
The article presents an analysis of the educational process for the students of special medical groups. This research has been conducted over three years at the Department of Physical Education of the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. The author focuses on the fact that students with poor health are a special contingent, characterized by a lack of fitness and physical activity, as well as negative attitudes to the PE discipline. A large part of the students of this category have complete exemption from the PE lessons, and they are only supposed to do a written work on the health preservation problems. The author believes that the students of special medical groups are in need of motor activity even to a greater degree than the healthy students. Taking into account the volitional characteristics of this category of students and assessing the structural organization of physical education as a weakly dynamic and unstable system, the author make a conclusion that there is a need for a special organization of the education process for the students with poor health. This educational process should be fundamentally different from the one concerning the students of the main group in the department of physical education. The article discusses a nonlinear dynamics model, which is a synthesis of sci-ence and natural philosophy statements by Haken, Prigogine, Poincare, and A. A. Andronov - the people considered as the founders of synergetics. According to the given model, the organization of educational process can affect the improvement of students’ volitional self-regulation, and, under certain conditions, it can affect the self-organization dynamics of their own health preservation. In the view of the non-linear dynamics paradigm, the self-organization is possible in the presence of the new types of objects - the so-called auto waves. Unlike classical waves associated with normal environment, the sustained waves can be considered as the generation of active media filled with rich energy, which sustained waves can get as much as they «need». The author suggests filling this given active "medium" or space with some new ways of physical, psychological and intellectual impact on the students. This comprehensive support is able to affect the worldview, sense-motivation and activity regarding students’ personal health.



11.
CHANGE OF THE EDUCATION PARADIGM BY ITS INSCRIBING INTO THE WORLD OUTLOOK MATRIX OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

Sergey A. Novosadov
St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations of Economics and Law, 191014, Russia, Sankt-Peterbyrg, av. Liteiinii, 42
Keywords: парадигма, концепция, методология, образовательный вектор, образование, матрица, мировоззрение, бескризисное управление, устойчивое развитие, процесс, человечность, справедливость, paradigm, concept, methodology, educational vector, education, matrix, outlook, critical management, sustainable development, process, humanity, justice

Abstract >>
In the article, an attempt is made of redirecting the existing educational paradigm and forming a new educational vector of the purpose for implementation of the crisis-free sustainable management of the education system by way of its inscribing into ae world outlook matrix of the social development of society. A room analysis is carried out of the tendencies of existing alternatives of evolution of the education system offered by liberal economy, and a conclusion is made about the need of its transformation. A methodology of formation of a new educational vector, proceeding from the world outlook concept of understanding of the world and the role of the human being in it, is offered. On the basis of new conceptual thinking, the existing problems of educational system and educational paradigm are revealed and the ways of their solving and forming of a correct educational vector are offered.



12.
UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE IN EDUCATION AS A SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM

Kalimash K. Begalinova1, Tatiana S. Kosenko2, Nina V. Nalivayko3
1Kazakh National Satpaev Technical University, 050013, Kazaxstan, Almati, st. Saptaeva, 22a
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
3Institute of Philosophy and Law of the RAS, 630090, Russia, Bovosibirsk, st. Nikolaeva, 8
Keywords: принцип, неопределенность, образование, воспитание, модернизация, uncertainty principle, education, upbringing, modernization

Abstract >>
The ability of the human being to find a way out of non-standard situations and, at the same time, to act in accordance with the generally accepted rules, regulations and the basic principles of society has attracted the attention of scientists from the earliest times. However, only recently the scientific terminology has started to accommodate such notion as the «uncertainty principle»; and this is not accidental, but conditioned by the reality. In the opinion of the authors, the uncertainty principle has deep historical roots. The basis of uncertainty is in the human nature itself. It is exactly the «uncertainty» that encourages people to think and then to act. Thus, it serves as a certain «engine». The state of uncertainty in the education system arises both for the teacher («how to teach?», «what to teach?») or the student («what to study?», «how to study?») and for the education system as a whole. It is not right to consider only the negative aspects of the uncertainty principle. Among the important positive trends there are democratization of school systems, differentiation, humanistic orientation of upbringing and training, increasing activity and independence of students, the opportunity to actively participate in the international cooperation, and so on. Presently, the uncertainty principle is actively developed by modern scientists, in particular, for solving the problems of modernization of contemporary education.



13.
LOGIC AND METHODOLOGY IN UPBRINGING AND EDUCATION OF THE PERSON

Nina A. Kornienko
Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Dobrolybova, 160
Keywords: образование, воспитание, развитие, личность, нравственность, антропопрактика, магистр, научно-исследовательская работа, национальный идеал, education, upbringing, development, personality, morality, anthropopraxis, Master, research work, national ideal

Abstract >>
There are identified and described the levels of implementation of the priorities identified in the Concept of the spiritual and moral development and upbringing of the personality of the citizen of Russia in the field of education. A comparison is carried out of the technocratic, humanistic and anthropological models of education. The pedagogical activity is considered as a form of anthropo-practice, the practice of «humanization of man». The necessity to introduce children to the traditional spiritual culture is substantiated. Some problems are revealed in the student training in the Master’s Degree programs, the necessity is proved of opening the research laboratories and centers, where the Master’s Degree students would receive the skills of development and implementation of projects. The creation of research laboratories and centers with the participation of Master’s Degree students and their involvement into research teams can eliminate the paradox that has emerged today in the training of Masters’ Degree students. Currently, science is being developed by the teams of researchers, whereas Masters’ Degree students work alone. It is advisable to introduce a gradation of the Master degrees, for instance, allocating 5-10% of the total number of Masters as the Masters of a high category. This will create the conditions for the selection of the most talented graduates and turn the attention of the business leaders of the enterprises, where these Masters will work, to their potential. In essence, Specialists and Masters belong to the same level of education. For many people, therefore, the question arises: is Master «below» or «above» Specialist? Of course, there are structural differences in educational programs, providing much greater volume of research and independent work for the Masters in comparison with the Specialists, but today it is more of a disadvantage than advantage, because these kinds of activities became a weaker link in the educational process, as it remains poorly organized and poorly provided with methodology. Therefore, the main directions of improving the quality of education at the Masters’ courses should be the following key activities: - Improving the organization of independent work of Masters’ Degree students; - The search for optimal forms of organization of scientific research at the Masters’ courses and its personnel, information, technical, financial and administrative support; - Increase the level of theoretical training of Masters’ Degree students, especially not specialized ones. Thus, within the framework of the Bologna educational scheme, where the Master is a connecting link between scientific research and higher education, Master's degree should have a different focus, while professional Masters’ courses will be considered as the final level of higher education.



14.
THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL ETHICS

Olga D. Oleinikova, Boris V. Saprygin
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
Keywords: экологическая этика, экофильный, экофобный, экология человека, экологическая нравственность, экологическое воспитание, нравственный экологический закон, глобальный экологический кризис, глубокая экология, этический космоцентризм, протоэкология, ноосфера, ecological ethics, ecophilic, ecophobic, human ecology, ecological morality, ecological education, ecological moral law, global environmental crisis, deep ecology, ethical cosmocentrism, proto-ecology, noosphere

Abstract >>
The article discusses the need for ecological ethics, which should teach to treat nature as our mother with loving and grateful attitude. The subject of ecological ethics is moral standards and ethical behavior in the man-society-nature relationship. Eсоlogical education should involve developing one’s ability to see nature as a spiritual beauty of the objective world. Human ecology ought to be the recuperation and enhancement of the spiritual world of society, the development of high culture and humanistic morality. Traditionally, the term ‘ecology’ refers to the field of science dealing with the study of multiple relationships of living organisms with their environment. However, the term ‘ecology’ has overstepped the boundaries of its original scientific meaning and is used in various spheres of human activity. In the public mind, the term is usually associated with the scandals related to pollution of the biosphere with toxic wastes and the damage of natural ecosystems. Therefore, the word ‘ecology’ has acquired moral overtones. The term ‘ecological’ is now equivalent to the terms ‘clean,’ ‘safe,’ ‘moral’, and ‘humane’. It is important to form a harmonious relationship between the components of the ecosystem of ‘man-natural environment’, ‘society-natural environment’, and to control therefore the processes engendered by man and dangerous to all living things. Mankind is facing the need for ecological morality, the basis of which should be man’s creative activity aimed at harmonization of the relations with nature. In the technogenic culture of the West, nature is understood as a material for the transforming activity of man. Human activity in Western culture is directed at the outside world, its transformation and submission to human objectives. A predatory attitude to nature is destructive to it and therefore immoral. In the modern period, the socio-economic orientation of human activity is changing and acquiring a universal character. This is why ecological moral standards are meant to regulate the interaction between society and the environment, both natural and cultural. This is how ecological ethics ought to be formed. The basic principle of ethical conduct was established at the dawn of civilization. It was recorded in the laws of the Babylonian king Hammurabi and the Old and New Testaments. This is the reciprocity principle: Do to others whatever you would like them to do to you. In relation to nature, this principle can be defined as the commandment of the Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates: Do no harm. The turn of the twenty-first century poses the issue of the formation of personality capable of giving an adequate response to the challenges of our time. The humanistic ideas of environmental ethics, entering pedagogy, are able to be of methodological assistance in tackling this task.



15.
AXIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION

Liliya A. Fedorova, Liliya Yu. Korshikova
Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Dobrolybova, 160
Keywords: философия образования, ценности, глобализация, кризис, модернизация, аксиологический подход, инновационное образование, дуальная система профессионального образования, практико-ориентированное обучение, философско-образовательный анализ, philosophy of education, values, globalization, crisis, modernization, axiological approach, innovative education, the dual system of vocational education, corporate education, continuous education, practice-oriented education, philosophical-educational analysis

Abstract >>
It is known that the system of education is given a special role in the process of reforming the economy and the education system itself, especially in the period of recovery from the crisis. This is due to the fact that education is the most important source of socio-economic and scientific-technical development, the progress of all aspects of the society life. The relevance of the study is determined by the increase of attention today to the problems of education and strengthening of measures to resolve the contradictions in the education system at the state, public and personal levels. The aim of the article is to analyze the special features of value components of modern education. On the basis of axiological approach and reflective analysis of the philosophy of education, the dialectical understanding of education as a value is shown, and the values of the education system are considered. The dual education as a form of practice-oriented vocational training is analyzed.



16.
NEW STANDARDS OF THE MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAM (PEDAGOGICAL DIRECTION) IN TERMS OF COMPETENCIES

Akryam Zh. Zhafyarov, Tatiana A. Chugunova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Vilyiiskaya, 28
Keywords: магистр, компетентностный подход, компетенция, компетентность, новые государственные стандарты магистратуры, Master, competence approach, competence, competency, new state standards of the Master's Degree program

Abstract >>
The article reveals the essence of the key concepts of «competence», «competency». Based on the definitions of «competence», «competency», the authors, on the basis of the analysis of the existing Master's Degree program written in terms of competencies, concludes that the program only contains a list of things that the graduates have to do after having successfully mastered the program. There are a number of inaccuracies in the exiting Master's Degree program: there is no definition of the key concept of competence, which significantly reduces the scientific presentation of the state standards. In addition, the wordings in terms of competences are heavy and uncomfortable to read, so it is best to use the terms of competencies. The main purpose of the article is: 1) to clarify the concepts of «competence» and «competency»; 2) to write new state standards for the Master's Degree program of the pedagogical direction in terms of competencies. In the article there are presented comments, observations and counterexamples.



17.
FRACTAL PEDAGOGY: ONTOLOGICAL MEANINGS AND METHODOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES

Anatoly G. Madzhuga1, Irina A. Sinitsyna1, Guzel G. Kagarmanova1, Zugura I. Salyakhova1, Natalya N. Malyarchuk2
1Bashkir State University, 450076, Russia, Yfa, st. Zaki Vladi, 32
2Tumen State University, 625003, Russia, Tymen, st. Volodarskogo, 6
Keywords: фрактал, фрактальный подход, фрактальная система, холономный подход, фрактальная педагогика, фрактальный принцип структурной организации мира, самосозидание, принципы фрактальной педагогики, фасилятационная модель образования, здоровьесозидающий потенциал, интеллектуально-творческий потенциал, fractal, fractal approach, fractal system, holonomic approach, fractal pedagogy, fractal principle of structural organization of the world, self-creation, principles of fractal pedagogy, facilitation model of education, health- creative potential, intellectual-creative potential

Abstract >>
The article presents the theoretical and methodological preconditions of formation and development of a fundamentally new integrative field of knowledge, the fractal pedagogy. The authors examine and give a scientific substantiation of the principles of fractal pedagogy, for the first time present a definition of fractal pedagogy. A special attention is paid to the characteristics of the fractal principle of structural organization of the world and the description of the modern model of education based on the conceptual ideas of holographic, holonomic and fractal approaches. Describing the regularities of organization of educational process from the positions of the fractal approach, the authors emphasize the internal mechanism of actions of the educational process participants for self-creation, reveal the essence of the mechanism of management of the subject by fractal dynamics and present the specificities of manifestation of the intentional nature of the human psyche through the integration of the health-creative and intellectual-creative potentials.



18.
INTERACTION OF THE CONTENTS AND FORM IN THE COURSE OF DRAWING

Kseniya A. Kravchenko1, Natalya P. Golovacheva2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
2Omsk State Pedagogical University, 644099, Russia, Omsk, st. Naberezhaya imeni Tuxathevskogo, 14
Keywords: содержание, форма, ритм, академический рисунок, гармония, художественный образ, contents, form, rhythm, academic drawing, harmony, artistic image

Abstract >>
The authors analyze the specifics of dialectic unity of contents and form in relation to the process of drawing and note that the relationship of contents and form is inseparable and is in synthesis with such important links of art process as creativity and esthetic perception which act in respect of formation, differentiation and synthesizing of form. In the article it is noted that the form of any concrete work of fine arts is complete and figurative, and also is unique depending on the originality of the contents. Thus the greatest activity of the internal and external form is manifested in the course of art harmonization of spatial, constructive and plastic elements into a complete graphic representation. The form in the academic drawing is a means of solving this problem; that is, the form is a graphic «language» which is used to express the contents. At the same time, the form has also its own esthetic value; it not only manifests the skill of the artist, but also makes the return impact on the contents. Therefore the unity (harmony) of contents and form is usually considered as a criterion of artistry. Thus it should be noted that the contents possesses an art value, and the form is an esthetic value; otherwise, their organic merge in the image is unattainable. The authors note that the form of an artistic image in drawing evolves from synthesis of the phenomena of prospect, design and rhythm; thus an object of re-search drawing is an integral multilevel value-semantic structure of contents and form of drawing, where synthesis of the rhythms imposed on each other becomes a means of achievement of not only structural integrity of drawing, but also its greatest expressiveness.



19.
PHILOSOPHICAL INFOGRAPHICS - VISIOSOPHY: A NEW DESIGN OF INTERACTIVE METHODS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Artem V. Makulin
Northern State Medical University, 163000, Russia, Arxangelsk, av. Troitskii, 51
Keywords: цифровая гуманитаристика, визиософия, визуализация философии, философская инфографика, digital humanities, visiosophy, visualizing of Philosophy, philosophical infographics

Abstract >>
In the article, there is proposed a comprehensive description and philosophical-pedagogical interpretation of modern software applications, the goal of which is the dynamical and visual representation of different aspects of philosophy as a database, on the basis of which one can build graphical visualizations, efficiently carry out interactive search and retrieve new nontrivial information for the system of philosophical knowledge. The article shows that, in the framework of the evolution of the digital means of the philosophy visualization, there is a fairly deep isomorphism between intelligible activity on building philosophical networks and the ways of their visualization. In the article, the author performs a comparison between digital and other (art-graphic, table-schematic) means of visualization of philosophical knowledge. A distinctive application-related path is traced of digital imaging, which corresponds to the changes if modern methods of explication of the network structures of philosophical knowledge, in the framework of which the relationship between philosophical ideas and concepts appears in a new form which has been previously hidden from the eyes of researcher. Сhoosing a digital visualization of philosophy as a key subject of research is justified by the author by a few assumptions: on one hand, the novelty of the approach which offers the inherent in the computer technologies opportunity to accelerate the identification and extraction of new knowledge from various databases (in our case, the philosophical ones) and, on the other hand, the lack of philosophical and pedagogical reflection of this method. As a leading paradigm, author uses the common ideological position of Digital humanities, as well as the approach known in the Western intellectual tradition as pancomputationalism, which presupposes the active using of computer-aided instruction (CAI) in the process of teaching philosophy. The author concludes that the explication is necessary of the essence and conditions of the digital methods of philosophy visualization, because the data obtained from different databases can be considered appropriate for the needs of philosophical analysis. In the context of transformation of the national education system, as well as the increasing role of online sites of mass education, the author has shown the relevance of a so-called «computational turn» in the framework of development of the traditional sections of philosophy and its teaching. According to the author's position, pancomputationalism is only an important addition to the traditional philosophical work of researchers, but this approach cannot force a personal-heuristic dimension out of research work. On the contrary, «Computational turn» contributes to a more complete disclosure of the spectrum of the author's research position, as well as it contributes to a significant acceleration of the work with new philosophical data.