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Region: Economics and Sociology

2015 year, number 4

Strategic Planning for the Social and Economic Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation

World Ocean and Arctic Department, Council for the Study of Productive Forces (SOPS), Vavilov st., 7, Official municipal post no.7, Moscow, 117997, Russia
Keywords: Арктика, Арктическая зона Российской Федерации, стратегическое планирование, социально-экономическое развитие, кластерная политика, федеральный закон, Arctic, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, strategic planning, social and economic development, cluster-based policy, federal law

Abstract >>
The article presents an analysis of the current situation in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation by identifying factors that impede the sustainable economic growth of the macro-region, obstruct the implementation of investment policies, and affect the level of economic competitiveness. A special focus is put on an integrated approach to the determination of the macro-region's status, its role in the system of socio-economic development, strategic planning, not only in ensuring the national interests of our country and global competitiveness of Russia in the Arctic, but also in practical forecasting. In addition, we analyze the contemporary experience of state regulation for the development of polar areas in the USA and Canada. The article provides suggestions for further improving the system of strategic planning documents aimed at implementation of the state policy of Russia in the Arctic.

Federalism in russia: from a pop-up slogan to a long-term development strategy

Centre for Federal Relations and Regional Development at the Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskiy av., 32, Moscow, 117218, Russia
Keywords: федерализм, экономические и правовые основы федеративных отношений, Российская Федерация, Конституция Российской Федерации, федеративная реформа, federalism, economic and legal foundations of federative relations, the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federative reform

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The article examines the main sources of Russia's federative statehood and its modern features. We analyze its development in connection with the general evolution trends of the idea and state practice of federalism in the today's world. It is crucial that federative relations in Russia continuously improve, as they are one of the prerequisites for the sustainable economic development of the country and its regions and are necessary to achieve the country's goals in the economic and social spheres. The research methodology is based on the analysis of the main formation stages that federative relations in Russia are passing through. We focus on the fact that legal and institutional foundations of Russian federalism are closely related to the consolidation of its economic base, primarily through the improvement of the Russian model offiscal federalism. The article describes both finished and unfinished tasks associated with the transformation of the economic and legal framework of federative relations, which we define as the main prospects for the Russian federative reform. We have concluded that the federative reform cannot be considered complete. It should be continued, but based on a clear target-setting principle and built in close relationship with other key areas of social and economic transformation in Russia.

Technological basis for the reindustrialization of the country and region

Institute of Economics and Industria1 Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: деиндустриализация, реиндустриализация, инновации, технологический базис, автоматизация, ЗБ-принтинг, большие данные, когнитивные системы, фаблабы, deindustrialization, reindustrialization, innovation, technological basis, automation, 3D-printing, big data, cognitive systems, fab labs

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The article analyzes the reasons and consequences of deindustrialization in Russia and advanced economies. Here we define the prominent features of technological and organizational basis for a new industrialization (robotic automation, additive technologies, new materials, big data, agent-oriented modeling, cognitive systems, distributed and cloud computing, the production differentiation, unmanned technologies, etc.). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of reindustrialization processes in Russia and how they are slowed down by the need to create internal mechanisms for maintaining technological and economic progress.

The estimations of the regional economy diversification (the case of siberian federal district regions)

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: диверсификация региональной экономики, показатели диверсификации, субъекты Сибирского федерального округа, виды деятельности, regional economy diversification, diversification indicators, regions of the Siberian Federal District, types of economic activities

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The article deals with the problem ofestimation ofdiversifying the economy at the level of individual regions. Diversification is one of the strategic objectives of Siberia's development. In order to reach this goal, it must be broadcasted to the level of measurable indicators. To measure and estimate the diversification of the regional economy, scholars put into practice various indicators (variations of Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Entropy Index, etc.). Different indicators reflect the variety of characteristics in the diversification processes. In this article, we compare and analyze the diversification of the economies in the regions of the Siberian Federal District in the period between 2008 and 2013. The study includes different diversification indicators that demonstrate divergence estimates for the various parameters, and identifies contradictory trends of diversification processes development in the regions of the Siberian Federal District. It is shown that there exists a connection between the diversification of the regional economy and its stability.

Internalization of intolerance as a risk to regional development

New Siberian Institute, Obye-dineniya st., 82/2, Novosibirsk, 630027, Russia
Keywords: многонациональное государство, межнациональные отношения, интолерантность, риск в региональном развитии, иностранная трудовая миграция, отношения «свои - чужие», межнациональная напряженность, Красноярский край, multinational state, interethnic relations, intolerance, risk to regional development, foreign labor migrations, insiders-outsiders relation, interethnic tension, Krasnoyarsk Krai

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The article presents the findings of the research on interethnic relations in one of the largest regions of Russia. The paper shows the processes associated with the forms of socialization in a multinational state. It also presents the stance of those individuals who are intolerant to living in such a formation, as well as a social portrait of supporters and opponents of a multinational state. We consider the nature of relations with labor migrants' ethnic groups and state policy measures in this field. We determine the characteristics of interactions within the inner and outer circles, which are based on ethnicity. The article proves the presence of barriers to family relationships related to interethnic ones. The main elements of a potential ethnic conflict are described as follows: positions of participants, an image of an «enemy», and a subject of its development. Based on mapping of the region, we show the locations of tension in interethnic relations. The study results clearly define four centers of such tension. Two of them are on the borders with other two Russian federal subjects. It is fraught with a potential contention, its growth and transformation into an interregional conflict. The feasibility of this risk is confirmed by the intensity of particular organizational activities in social media.

Village-forming enterprise liquidation as a factor of depressiveness of non-diversified rural areas in perm krai

Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Tchaikovsky Branch, Lenin st., 73, Tchaikovsky, 617760, Perm Krai, Russia
Keywords: сельская монопрофильная территория, селообразу-ющее предприятие, сельское население, процессы деградации территории, депрессивность территории, безработица, миграция, бюджет муниципального района, non-diversified rural area, village-forming agricultural enterprise, the rural population, territory degradation processes, depressiveness of areas, unemployment, migration, the budget of the municipal district

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The article suggests introducing a scientific term «village-forming agricultural enterprise)) as applied to agricultural organizations located in non-diversified rural areas. We carried out an analysis of statistical data characterizing the dynamics of social and economic development of rural municipal districts of Perm Krai in comparison with the average regional level. The analysis has revealed that Perm Krai municipal districts where a significant amount of village-forming agricultural enterprises was eliminated take the lowest places in dynamics ratings for the registered unemployment level, migration population decline, reduction of the working-age people per pensioner, agricultural production, and budget balancing. We have concluded that the liquidation of village-forming agricultural enterprises is a prime factor for the degradation of the socioeconomic sphere in rural areas; it aggravates their depression. To increase the attractiveness of rural labor and preserve human capital in agricultural production, we propose to abolish the tax on individual agricultural producers. The article proves the necessity to develop a mechanism that would transfer abandonedfields and timberland ofagricultural designation into forest reserve lands. In order to increase employment and reduce unemployment, it is necessary to organize a publicly funded community service that would take care of forests in these areas. To provide opportunities for labor mobility for the people who find workplaces outside depressed non-diversified rural areas, we propose to improve the organization of intra-settlement pubtic transport. To increase employment, we suggest supporting the development of non-standard employment forms.

The quality of university training: employers' view

Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya st., 6, Kemerovo, 650043, Russia
Keywords: качество образования, качество выпускника вуза, эффективность подготовки специалиста, оценка работодателя, education quality, quality of graduate, effectiveness of spe -cialist training, employer assessment

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The article presents a study of employers' opinion on a range of qualities that a university graduate should possess, as well as on the forms of university-employer interaction. We collected relevant information using a method of unstructured interview. The experts were employers who represented various activities and enterprises of different forms of ownership from Kemerovo Oblast. The research has identified the qualities which, in experts' opinion, a university graduate should have, but are built up insufficiently by universities. Among the growth options for the cooperation between educational institutions and employers' enterprises, the experts particularly suggest changing the approaches to arranging and conducting various types of practical training. The experts also note the need to strengthen the feedback between universities and employers. The research results will be used in the development of educational and training materials, which will help focus on the applicability of university training in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standards.

Spatial clustering of innovative activities: meaning, effects, state support

Institute for Systems Analysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th Anniversary October Revolution av., 9, Moscow, 117312, Russia
Keywords: региональная экономика, инновационное развитие, пространственные кластеры, государственная поддержка инноваций, regional economy, innovative development, spatial clusters, state support for innovation

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In this article, the author investigates the opportunities and limitations of the cluster approach for addressing challenges concerned with the rapid development of innovative entrepreneurship in regions. Не analyzes the phenomenon of spatial innovation cluster as a form offocal spatial integration of geographically close companies and organizations that perform different functions (from research and training to production and transportation), but unified by their voluntary participation in scientific and engineering processes. It results in a high-technology product created by joint efforts of all participants in this specially organized cooperation. The article also considers prerequisites, conditions and consequences related to the use of spatial clusters. It clarifies the meaning, useful effects, requirements and lifecycle phases of the organizational form under analysis. The author emphasizes a crucial role of regional authorities in spatial clustering; he assesses the existing tasks and measures of state support. The article gives a general characterization for the implementation of the government program aimed at developing and supporting innovation clusters in the Russian regions.

On the development of railway structural reform in russia

1Siberian Transport University, Dusya Kovalchuk st., 191, Novosibirsk, 630049, Russia
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: российский железнодорожный транспорт, реформа, институциональная ловушка, управление, эффект гистерезиса, Russian rail transport, reform, institutional trap, administration, hysteresis effect

Abstract >>
After years of reforms, the public railway management entity JSC Russian Railways is in a setting known as the institutional trap. The assumption that other mechanisms of the Russian economy should synchronously transform with this key infrastructural area was proved to be wrong. A functional geographical model of railway management was replaced by a «super centralized)} management model by type of activity. Russian Railways is now a holding that controls rail transport using hierarchy lines from the corporate center to the primary functional unit of the railways. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of railway management based on new models and ways to escape out of institutional traps. We suggest approaches to developing the structural reform of Russian rail transport.

Quantitative evaluation of the demographic response to changes in living conditions in monotowns

V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator st., 1, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: моногорода, историко-географический сравнительный анализ, демографическая реакция, интегрированная опасность жизнедеятельности, социально-экономические условия, monotowns, historical-geographical comparative analysis, de -mographic response, integrated hazard of life activity, socio-economic conditions

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Changes in population dynamics point out the existence of unresolved socio-economic problems in settlements, especially in monotowns of different regions. The article proposes quantitative models and methods of historical-geographical analysis of time series data on the population that allow us to assess the living conditions and the quality of decisions made. The calculations are centered around the determination of how hazardous life activities are, which is based on the demographic response to the impact of multi-level factors of the natural and socio-economic conditions. We compare this reaction in mo-notowns of Russia with a view to identifying transformational features attributable to the spatial organization of the territory over the last decade. The proposed method can be used for comparative analysis of data reflecting the response of a region to various types of exposure.

Hydroeconomic problems of Crimea and their solutions

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Крым, дефицит водных ресурсов, социально-экономические и экологические последствия, пути снижения водохозяйственной напряженности, первоочередные меры по водообеспечению, программы развития, Crimea, water supply shortage, socio-economic and environmental impacts, ways to ease hydroeconomic tensions, premium water supply measures, development programs

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The article characterizes the hydroeconomic situation in Crimea. It is necessary to solve both the problems that have accumulated in the water industry and the new ones emerged from the Ukrainian government's political decisions as a reaction to the reunification of Crimea with Russia. We describe the socio-economic and environmental impacts of a deliberately created water supply shortage. In this paper, we analyzed the ways to ease hydroeconomic tensions and related problems and examined premium water supply measures in Crimea and their implementation results, as well as development programs for the region. The study showed that by redistributing local water resources (river runoff and groundwater) over the territory, the government can ensure the supply of drinking and domestic water in Crimea. However, the region still experiences a problem with agricultural water since it does not have resources sufficient to develop irrigation farming. Large reserves for increasing water resources arise from a reduction of their losses (in housing and communal sector, and during land reclamation) and rational water use (especially by reducing/eliminating the use of clean drinking water for technical needs). We believe that the major way to decrease water shortage and satisfy the needs of agriculture and industry is to desalinate seawater. International experience proves this water supply method is efficient.

Environmental impact of shale oil and gas extraction

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: гидравлический разрыв, фрекинг, сланцевые углеводороды, охрана окружающей среды, водные ресурсы, качество воздуха, hydraulic fracturing, fracking, shale oil and gas, environmental protection, water resources, air quality

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The article considers environmental problems arising from the hydrocarbon production by fracking. It is shown that almost everywhere shale gas and tight oil are being extracted without a preliminary research on the environmental health, which, in its turn, does not allow recognizing ecological deprivation associated with unconventional hydrocarbon resources deve-op-ment. We dramatically lack the scientific knowledge required to assess potential risks of pollution. The declared ecological advantage provided by shale gas flaring versus coal and oil production is groundless. The obtained findings point out the necessity to examine local conditions when assessing the environmental impact of fracking. The reason is that the effects vary by region. In a similar way, the technology and extraction practices applied at a certain deposit will not essentially be applicable at another one. The authors believe that the antipodal environmental impact assessments of shale oil and gas extraction not only reveal the need for serious scientific research in this area, but also expose the importance of studying the past experience in order to manage the newly emerging environmental risks.

Restructuring of the east german industry

Halle Institute for Economic Research, Kleine MarkerstraBe 8, D-06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
Keywords: Восточная Германия, промышленность, трансформация, приватизация, институциональная перестройка, реиндустриализация, реструктуризация, средний класс, East Germany, industry, transformation, privatization, institutional change, reindustrialization, restructuring, middle class

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The article deals with the institutional and real-economic restructuring of industry in the former GDR based on the transformation of society. It shows how the country overcame the difficulties, what were the effects of a transformational crisis and consequences for the property relations. We also discuss the arranged measures aimed at reviving economic growth and the restructuring of industrial production related with the reindustrialization. To analyze the relationship between the institutional restructuring and its impact on the real economy, we use economic statistical methods. The restructuring of institutions has defined the vector of development for the East German industry, which is stipulated by its integration into the all-German economic system but has a very limited potential for growth and catching-up development. The region is currently much less behind West Germany but still not at the same level. The performance of the East German manufacturing industry accounts for about 63% of the West German one, and its increase has slowed down.

Local knowledge based development. What can local governments do for it?

Institute of Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pecs, Papnovelde str. 22, Hungary
Keywords: знания, региональные власти, управление, инновации, развитие экономики, конкурентоспособность отраслей и регионов, knowledge, regional governments, governance, innovation, development of the economy, competitiveness of industries and regions

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The article stresses that foreign public policy literature is focusing on interdependences among producing, expanding and impacts of knowledge. The author uses a complex approach, considering the interrelation of production, transfer and the use of knowledge, setting these phenomena into spatial frames and linking them with development policy. The reason of this specific focus is supported by recent political ambitions in the EU countries to strengthen the role of local economic development aimed at decreasing regional inequalities. The author outlines the theoretical frames of knowledge-based governance and development, like the urban regime theory, local knowledge, and regional innovation theories. Based on her own empirical research experiences, the author introduces the main characteristics of the Hungarian local government system which tends to be limited in its scope and competences in local development due to the legislation in the last years referring. The paper concludes that the European, so-called place-based development policy cannot be implemented in this very centralized governance context.

Mammoth fauna in arctic Yakutia

1State Committee on Geology and Subsoil Use of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Kirov st., 13, Yakutsk, 677892, Russia
2Presidium of Yakut Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrov-sky st., 2, Yakutsk, 677980, Russia
Keywords: Якутия, Арктика, мамонтовая фауна, ископаемая мамонтовая кость, федеральный закон, костеносная провинция, Yakutia, Arctic, mammoth fauna, fossil mammoth ivory, federal law, bone-bearing province

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The subject of this study is mammoth fauna resources in Arctic regions of the Russian Federation, including the bone-bearing locality in the northern part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The article estimates the quantity offossil mammoth ivory of the Northern-Yakut bone-bearing province. It also justifies the creation of federal law on the rational use ofmammoth fauna as an exclusive geocryogenic natural resource traditionally used by indigenous peoples of the North of Russia. We present proposals for inclusion of fossil mammoth ivory in the All-Russian Classifier of Mineral Resources and Subsoil Water.

Regional economy and spatial development

1Center for Northern and Arctic Economies, Council for the Study of Productive Forces (SOPS), Vavilov st., 7, Moscow, 117997, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory st., 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia