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2015 year, number 4

1.
Effect of ZSM-5 Zeolite Modification with Nickel on Its Activity and Stability in the Isomerization of С5−С8 Alkanes of the Virgin Gasoline Fraction of Petroleum

L. M. VELICHKINA, D. A. KANASHAVICH, and A. V. VOSMERIKOV
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634055 (Russia)
Keywords: цеолит типа ZSM-5, модифицирование, нанопорошок никеля, алканы С5–С8, бензин, изомеризация, конверсия, селективность, активность, стабильность, кокс, ZSM-5 type zeolite, modification, nickel nanopowder, С5–С8 alkanes, gasoline, isomerization, conversion, selectivity, activity, stability, coke

Abstract >>
Russia is strongly behind the leading oil-processing countries in the production of high-octane nonaromatic components of motor petrol (in particular, isomerizate petrol) from light hydrocarbon raw material. One of the possible means to solve this problem is the use of ZSM-5 type zeolites as isomerization catalysts, which allows the process to be carried out under non-standard conditions: without the admission of hydrogen-containing gas into the reaction medium at atmospheric pressure, without the use of precious metals and superacid additives. In the present work, high-silica zeolite of the ZSM-5 structural type with the silica ratio equal to 40 was obtained by means of hydrothermal synthesis and then modified by nanometer-sized nickel powder. The catalytic activity of initial and Ni-containing zeolites and the dynamics of there deactivation were studied in the transformations of n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n -octane, a mixture of pentane and hexane and the virgin gasoline fraction of petroleum. It was shown that the major products of the transformation of light hydrocarbon raw material at the catalysts under study are n - and isoalkanes С48, alkyl benzenes; naphthenes and olefins are formed in insignificant amounts. Zeolite modification with nanometer-sized nickel promotes an increase in the yield of liquid products with increased isoalkane content and makes the stability higher in comparison with the initial sample. This is due to the presence of active Ni-containing centres in the catalytic system; these centres participate in hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. As a result, the rate of the formation of condensed molecules (which are coke precursors) decreases, and catalyst deactivation proceeds slower. The largest amount of carbon deposits having the dense structure is formed in the conversion of n-octane, while the smallest one is formed in the conversion of n-pentane.



2.
Elemental Composition of Water from Melted Snow in the Zone Affected by the Copper and Nickel Industrial Complex and Reconstruction of the Forms of Element Occurrence by Means of Physicochemical Modeling

T. T. GORBACHEVA, S. I. MAZUKHINA, S. V. IVANOV, and T. A. CHEREPANOVA
Institute of North Industrial Ecology, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Fersmana 14a, Apatity 184209 (Russia)
Keywords: аэротехногенная нагрузка, ПК “Селектор”, формы нахождения элементов, aerotechnogenic load, Selektor software, forms of element occurrence

Abstract >>
Expanded investigation of the chemical composition of water from melted snow was carried out at the territories under intense technochemic load from one of the largest mining and smelting enterprises of the Murmansk Region - Kola Miming and Metallurgical Company Norilsk Nikel JSC. The data obtained by direct analytical determination were supplemented by the results of physicochemical modeling using the software complex Selektor within the system Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-H-O-e and have practical significance for the reconstruction of changes in the ion composition of the dissolved part of water from melted snow under different technogenic load and for restoration works under the conditions of operating plant.



3.
Effect of Mineral Fertilizers on Halogen Content in Environmental Objects

G. A. KONARBAEVA and V. N. YAKIMENKO
Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva, 8/2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: минеральные удобрения, содержание галогенов, почва, растения, mineral fertilizers, halogen content, soil, plants

Abstract >>
Changes in the concentrations of ghalogens (fluorine, chlorine, iodine) in soil and in the plants of agrocenosis were studied. It was established that the introduction of fertilizers promotes a substantial (by 29−32 %) increase in the total fluorine content in the upper (0−20 cm) soil layer; the level of water-soluble fluorine increases noticeably within the whole soil layer under investigation (to the depth of 1 m). The introduction of potassium fertilizers causes a substantial increase (by 20−25 %) of chlorine content in the soil of agrocenosis with its uniform distribution over the soil profile. The total level of iodine in the upper soil layer somewhat increased, while the concentration of water-soluble iodine decreased substantially (by 40−50 %). The use of potassium fertilizers in combination with phosphorus-containing ones promotes a decrease in fluorine concentration in vegetable products; the consumption of chlorine and iodine by plants increases substantially under these conditions.



4.
Investigation of the Effect of Preliminary Chemical Treatment of Sapropel on the Properties and Texture Characteristics of Carbon-Mineral Materials

O. I. KRIVONOS, E. N. TEREKHOVA, and G. V. PLAKSIN
Institute of Hydrocarbons Processing, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Neftezаvodskаya 54, Omsk 644040 (Russia)
Keywords: углерод-минеральные материалы, карбонизация, щелочной гидролиз, кислотный гидролиз, деминерализация, сапропель, carbon-mineral materials, carbonization, alkaline hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, demineralization, sapropel

Abstract >>
The effect of alkaline and acidic treatment on the properties and texture characteristics of native sapropel from Lake Gorchakovskoye (the Omsk Region) and carbon-mineral materials obtained from sapropel through carbonization was studied. It was established that acidic treatment with low-concentration HCl solutions causes an increase in the total pore volume with respect to water in carbon-mineral materials up to 0.42 cm3/g; the ash value decreases without any changes in bulk density due to the removal of the organic and mienral part in native sapropel. Alkaline treatment with the aqueous solutions of NaOH allows achieving the developed surface in the carbon-mienral materials up to 106 m2/g. The major fraction of pores in the treated carbon-mineral materials is represented by mesopores 3.4−5.4 nm in diameter, and macropores more than 600 nm in diameter.



5.
Gel Extraction of Thiocyanate Complexes of Metals in Layering Systems “Water - Catamine AB - Potassium Chloride” and “Water - Oxyphos B - Ammonium Sulphate”

A. E. LESNOV1, S. A. DENISOVA2, E. YU. CHUKHLANTSEVA1, S. A. ZABOLOTNYKH1, and N. N. OSTANINA1
1Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Koroleva, 3, Perm 614013 (Russia)
2Perm State National Research University, Ul. Bukireva, 15, Perm 614990 (Russia)
Keywords: гель-экстракция поверхностно-активными веществами, катамин АБ, оксифос Б, тиоцианатные комплексы, фотометрия, gel extraction with surface-active susbtances, catamine AB, oxyphos B, thiocyanate complexes, photometry

Abstract >>
The distribution of thiocyanate acidocomplexes of a series of metals in layering systems “water - catamine AB - potassium chloride” and “water - oxyphos B - ammonium sulphate” depending on the concentrations of NH4SCN and H2SO4 were studied. The cobnditions for quantitative extraction of copper (II), zinc, iron (III), cobalt were determined. The spectrophotometric characteristics of extractable thiocyanate complexes of Cu(II), Co and Fe(III) were studied. A procedure for extraction photometric determination of cobalt was developed.



6.
Evaluation of the Functional State of Marsh Ecosystems in Belarus and in West Siberia on the Basis of Analysis of Peatr Bitumen Composition

O. V. SEREBRENNIKOVA1,2, E. B. STRELNIKOVA1, M. A. DUCHKO1, N. G. AVERINA3, and N. V. KOZEL3
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnical University, Pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
3Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Ul. Akademicheskaya 27, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)
Keywords: торф, битум, ГХ-МС, алифатические соединения, терпены, стероиды, каротиноиды, тетрапирролы, peat, bitument, GC-MS, aliphatic compounds, terpenes, steroids, carotenoids, tetrapyrrholes

Abstract >>
More than 150 compounds represented by n- alkanes, n- alkane-2-ones, n- aldehydes, fatty acids and their esters, as well as isoprenoids including sesqui-, di-, triterpenes, steroids, acyclic compounds and tocopoherols were identified in the chloroform-methanol extract of high-moor and valley peat from native, unwatered and recovered regions of marshes in Belarus and in West Siberia by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry The composition of carotenoids and tatrapyrrhole pigments was determined in the acetone extract of peat by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography in combination with absorption spectroscopy. Chlorofyll a and b, pheophytin a and b, pheophorbide a, bacteriopheophytin b, lutein, α-carotene and neoxanthine were identified. It was demonstrated that the compounds undergoing the most substantial qualitative and quantitative changes during dewatering are sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, steroids, as well as carotenoids and tetrapyrrholes. Unlike for unaffected peat beds, the dominating sesquiterpene in all the studied high-moor and valley peat samples from dewatered and recovered regions is β-cadinene; the derivatives of lanosterol are present among steroids; in dewatered and recovered valley peat of Belarus there are des-A-derivatives of oleane structures, while among triterpenoids of dewatered peat from West Siberia there are oxygen-containing hopanoids. As a consequence of dewatering, chlorophylls disappear from peat pigments, while the concentration of neoxanthine increases. Dienic pentacyclic structures are absent from dewatered and recovered high-moor peat in Belarus, while the overall fraction of hopanoids increases. As a result of repeated watering of dewatered regions of upland bogs in Belarus, betulin and b-amirin appear among five-membered cyclic isoprenoids. Similarly to native peat, keto derivatives of hopene and oleanene are detected in those samples, while these compounds are absent from peat in dewatered region. The differences in the changes of the individual composition of triterpenes accompanying bog dewatering in West Siberia and Belarus may be due to more severe clinmatic conditions and, as a consequence, low rate of oxidative processes taking place in peat deposit. The obtained results may poromote deeper understanding of the processes that take place in peat deposits, prediction of the development of peat marsh ecosystems and reasonable use of peat.



7.
Investigation of the Composition of the Substance of Antibacterial Preparation Bismoverol Obtained by Precipitation of Bismuth (III) Tartrates from the Solutions of Acids

E. V. TIMAKOVA, O. A. LOGUTENKO, V. I. EVSEENKO, A. S. MIKHAILOVA, and YU. M. YUKHIN
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
Keywords: препараты висмута, осаждение из растворов, тартраты висмута, бактериальные инфекции, рентгенофазовый анализ, ИК- КР-спектры, bismuth preparations, precipitation from solutions, bismuth tartrates, bacterial infections, X-ray phase analysis, IR and Raman spectra

Abstract >>
Precipitation of bismuth (III) tartrates from hydrochloric, nitric and acetic solutions depending on the concentration of tartrate ions and process temperature was studied by means of chemical, X-ray phase, differential thermal analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that normal bismuth tartrate with the composition BiC4H3O6 x H2O or bismuth tartratahydrotartrate trihydrate with the composition [Bi(C4H4O6)(C4H5O6)] x 3H2O are formed after the addition of tartaric acid into hydrochloric and acetic solutions of bismuth. Two compounds are formed during bismuth precipitation from nitric solutions with tartaric acid, depending on the concentration of tartrate ions: nitrate-tartrate complex with the composition [Bi(NO3)(H2O)3]C4H4O6 and tartratahydrotartreate trihydrate [Bi(C4H4O6)(C4H5O6)] x 3H2O. As a result of multiple washing with water, the nitrate-tartrate complex is transformed into X-ray amorphous normal bismuth tartrate with the composition BiC4H3O6 x H2O. Normal bismuth tartrate is also formed after the addition of sodium tartrate into the nitric solutions of bismuth for the molar ratio of tartrate ions to bismuth equal to 1−3, and process temperature 23−60 °C. With further increase in sodium tartrate concentration in the system, the degree of bismuth precipitatiuon decreases sharply as a consequence of the formation of water-soluble complex ions. It was demonstrated that normal bismuth tartrate BiC4H3O6 x H2O is identical with the compound known previously as monobismuth tartaric acid. It was shown that the hydroxy bismuth salt of monobismuth tartaric acid, which is obtained by precipitation from lactic-acetic solutions and is recommended as the medical substance of antisyphilitic preparation Bismoverol, is not an individual compound but is a mixture of normal bismuth tartrate with the composition BiC4H3O6 x H2O and bismuth oxoacetate with the composition BiОC2H3O2.



8.
New Cyclic and Isohydric Method for Obtaining Potassium Nitrate

A. V. ELSUKOV and S. A. MAZUNIN
Perm State National Research University, Ul. Bukirev, 15, Perm 614600 (Russia)
Keywords: многокомпонентные водно-солевые системы, фазовые равновесия, циклический и изогидрический способ получения солей, нитрат калия, multicomponent water-salt systems, phase equilibria, cyclic and isohydric method to obtain salts, potassium nitrate

Abstract >>
A novel approach to planning and visualization of the cyclic and isohydric method for obtaining potassium nitrate is considered. The approach is based on the use of the data on phase equilibria in a quaternary mutual water-salt system K+, Na+//Cl, at different temperatures. A key to process visualization ios the joint plotting of the diagram of state and its isohydric sections corresponding to the compositions of reference points. Experimental material balances are presented for this process carried out using retour of sodium chloride and without it. It is demonstrated that the introduction of retour allows one to decrease the losses of return solution at the stage of sodium chloride isolation, and to use sylvinite as the initial raw material for the process.



9.
Normalization of the Concentrations of Heavy Metals with Respect to Lithium in Bottom Sediments of Lakes Ladozhskoye and Chetyrekhverstnoye (Republic of Karelia)

Z. I. SLUKOVSKIY
Institute of Geology, Karelian Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Pushkinskaya 11, Petrozavodsk 185910 (Russia)
Keywords: тяжелые металлы, литий, донные отложения озер, нормирование, антропогенный фактор, heavy metals, lithium, lake bottom sediments, normalization, anthropogenic factor

Abstract >>
Data on the concentrations of heavy metals and lithium in the bottom sediments of Lakes Ladozhskoye (northern region) and Chetyrekhverstnoye (Petrozavodsk) are reported. The dependence of the concentrations of studied microelements on sampling depth and a correlation between lithium and heavy metals in the studied samepls of lake sediments were demonstrated. It was proved that lithium nay be used for granulometric normalization of the concentrations of heavy metals in the studied water objects and thus it may be used to evaluate the level of techynogenic pollution of lakes in Karelia. Higher level of the pollution of bottom sediments in the city Lake Chetyrekhverstnoye by lead, copper and nickel in comparison with the sediments of Lake Ladozhskoye was detected, while the sediments in Lake Ladozhskoe were found to be polluted with zinc to a higher extent.



10.
Effects of Self-Organization of the Products of Catalytic Thermolysis of Polyvinyl Chloride on Bulk Iron

D. V. SHUTILOVA1,2, A. M. VOLODIN1, and V. V. LARICHKIN2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Ul. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russia)
Keywords: поливинилхлорид, железоуглеродистая сталь, термолиз, углеродные нановолокна, хлорид железа, переработка отходов, каталитическая коррозия, процессы самоорганизации, метод RAPET, polyvinyl chloride, ferricabonic steel, thermolysis, carbon nanofibers, iron chloride, waste processing, catalytic corrosion, self-organization processes, RAPET procedure

Abstract >>
It is demonstrated for the first time that the reaction carried out under the conditions of RAPET (Reaction under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperatures) is accompanied by the interaction of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decomposition products with bulk metal and causes its self-dispersion. Thus formed nanoparticles act as a catalyst on which the growth of carbon nanofibers occurs. The mechanism of this self-dispersion is due to oxidation-reduction transformations participated by the components of reaction medium formed as a result of PVC thermolysis. Technologically easy method to process PVC wastes in the presence of self-organising catalysts is proposed. As a result of this process, the plastic matter is completely decomposed with the formation of carbon nanofibers. The literature data on the catalytic corrosion of bulk metals and alloys are generalized. On the basis of analysis, the optimal process parameters were chosen. The evolution of resulting materials within temperature range 420 to 1000 °С was studied by means of electron microscopy. The morphology of the formed product was studied and its chemical analysis was carried out. The dependence of the chemical composition and morpholopgy of the formed products on synthesis temperature was established. The SEM images of structured synthesis products formed at different temperatures are presented.



11.
Analysis of the Position of Russian Universities in the Rating of BRICS Countries

V. M. BOUZNIK1,2, V. V. KOZIK1, and A. N. DYACHENKO3
1National Research Tomsk State University, Pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
2All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Aviation Materials, SSC, Ul. Radio 17, Moscow 105005 (Russia)
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnical University, Pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
Keywords: рейтинг, страны БРИКС, сибирские университеты, библиометрическое ранжирование, rating, BRICS countries, Siberian universities, bibliometric ranging

Abstract >>
The ratings of 100 leading universities of BRICS countries are analyuzed. The positions of Russian Universities are discussed. Attempts are made to reveal the reasons of the existing situation and to determine the actions that can improve the positions of Russian Universities. Siberian universities included into the hundred leading universities under discussion are considered in detail.



12.
Physicochemical Properties of Coal from the Usinsk Deposit of the Pechora Coal Basin

N. I. FEDOROVA1, L. M. KHITSOVA1, V. YU. MALYSHEVA1, Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2, N. V. ZHURAVLEVA3, and R. V. POTOKINA3
1Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
2Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3West Siberian Test Center, Ul. Ordzhonikidze 9, Novokuznetsk 654006 (Russia)
Keywords: каменные угли, элементный состав, термогравиметрический анализ, 13С ЯМР-спектроскопия , black coal, elemental composition, thermogravimetric analysis, 13C NMR spectroscopy

Abstract >>
Coal from the Usinsk deposit of the Pechora coal basin was studied using a set of chemical and physicochemical analysis methods (technical and elemental analysios, ash composition analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy etc .) to evaluate coal composition. It was shown that coal belongs to the medium metamorphized group and is characterized by aromaticity factor 71 to 77 %. Total sulphur content in coal is within the range 0.3 to 2.8 %, the mineral part of coal is represented mainly by the compounds of silicon and aluminium.



13.
Structural Group Composition of Humic Acids in Brown Coal and Their Physiological Activity

S. I. ZHEREBTSOV1, N. V. MALYSHENKO1, O. V. SMOTRINA1, S. YU. LYRSHCHIKOV2, L. V. BRYUKHOVETSKAYA1, and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,3
1Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
2Kemerovo Scientific Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Sovetskiy 18, Kemerovo 650000 (Россия)
3Kuzbass State Technical University, Ul. Demyana Bednogo 4, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
Keywords: бурый уголь, гуминовые кислоты, физиологическая активность, brown coal, humic acids, physiological activity

Abstract >>
The functional composition of humic acids (HA) in brown coal and its natural oxidized form was studied, as well as their activity as growth-promoting agents for agricultural crops. The samples of coal and HA were characterized using instrumental methods (NMR, IR, EPR spectroscopy), elemental and technical analyses were carried out. It was established that the physiological activity of HA is directly proportional to a number of structural parameters: aromaticity factor, hydrophilic-hydrophobic parameter and the ratio of aromatic to aliphatic fragments in the organic mass of HA.



14.
Investigation of the Acid-Base Properties of Sodium Humate from Brown Coal of the Kaychak Deposit (Kemerovo Region) by Means of Photometric Titration

M. G. KORZH1, M. P. PIDGIRNY1, A. A. ZVEKOV2, O. N. BULGAKOVA1, A. S. NIKITINA3, and M. M. KOLOSOVA3
1Kemerovo State University, Ul Krasnaya 6, Kemerovo 650043 (Russia)
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
3Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute, Ul. Markovtseva 5, Kemerovo 650056 (Russia)
Keywords: гуминовые кислоты, бурый уголь, фотометрическое титрование, рН-метрическое титрование, humic aicds, brown coal, photometric titration, рН metric titration

Abstract >>
The application of photometric titration to the studies of acid-base properties of humic acids is considered for sodium humate obtained from brown coal of the Kaichak deposit (Kemerovo Region, Tisul District) titrated with hydrochloric acid. The appearance of the curve of photometric titration corresponds to the case of coloured initial substance and reaction product, and uncoloured titrant. The concentration of acid centres and dissociation constant were determined as a result of titration curve treatment. To verify the results, pH metric titration was used. It was concluded that photometric titration allows more precise determination of the parameters of humic substances than the direct use of Bouguer−Lambert−Baer law and Henderson−Hasselbach equation.



15.
Sorption of Zinc Cations by Modified Humic Acids

N. V. MALYSHENKO1, S. I. ZHEREBTSOV1, O. V. SMOTRINA1, L. V. BRYUKHOVETSKAYA1, and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2
1Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
2Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: нативные и модифицированные гуминовые кислоты, сорбция катионов цинка, емкость, ионный обмен, native and modified humic acids, sorption of zinc cations, capacity, ion exchange

Abstract >>
Sorption of zinc cations by native and H2O2 modified humic acids obtained from brown coal of the Tisul deposit of Kansk-Achinsk coal basin was studied using IR Fourier, EPR, 13С NMR spectroscopy in the solid state. It was demonstrated that sorption proceeds according to ion exchange mechanism. Modification of humic acids causes an increase in sorption capacity by a factor of 2−4.



16.
Investigation of the Effect of Cation and Anion Modification on the Activity of CuZnAlO Catalyst in Oxidative Desulphurization of Dibenzothiophene in Model Diesel Fuel

S. A. YASHNIK1, A. V. SALNIKOV1, M. A. KERZHENTSEV1, Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2, YAMING JIN3, and O. R. KOSEOGLU3
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
3Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center, Bldg. 9172, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)
Keywords: дибензотиофен, десульфуризация, окислительное обессеривание, CuZnAlO-катализаторы, модифицирование, dibenzothiophene, desulphurization, oxidative desulphurization, CuZnAlO catalysts, modification

Abstract >>
The activity of catalyst samples obtained by means of modification of the CuZnAlO catalyst by various anion and cation additives was studied in oxidative desulphurization of dibenzothiophene dissolved in toluene for the purpose of searching for active catalysts for obtaining Diesel fuel with low sulphur content. It was demonstrated that the joint modification by anion additives BO2 and MoO42− promotes an increase in the efficiency of oxidative desulphurization of dibenzothiophene due to its oxidation by atmospheric oxygen in the vapour phase.



17.
Processes for the Removal of Sulphur Dioxide from the Gaseous Emissions from Nonferrous Metallurgy Works. Technologies and Catalysts

S. R. KHAIRULIN1, M. A. KERZHENTSEV1, S. A. YASHNIK1, A. V. SALNIKOV1, T. N. TERYAEVA2, I. V. ILYUKHIN3, R. R. SADYKOV3, and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,4
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technological University, Ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
3MMC Norilsk Nickel PJSC, 1-y Krasnogvardeyskiy Proezd 15, Moscow 123100 (Russia)
4Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
Keywords: SO2-катализатор, восстановление, SO2 catalyst, reduction

Abstract >>
The major technologies used for gas purificationf rom sulphur dioxide are described. On the basis of data analysis, it is concluded that the promising methods of sulphur dioxide neutralization in the gas emitted from metallurgic works involve catalytic reduction of SO2 by methane or synthesis gas. Requirements to reduction catalysts are formulated. Different classes of catalytic systems are described.



18.
Calculation of Thermodynamic Constants of Sulphur Dioxide Reduction with Varied Nature of Reducing Agent, Process Temperature, Reagents Ratio

M. A. KERZHENTSEV1, S. R. KHAIRULIN1, S. A. YASHNIK1, A. V. SALNIKOV1, and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
Keywords: диоксид серы, восстановление, термодинамика, sulphur dioxide, reduction, thermodynamics

Abstract >>
Results of the thermodynamic analysis of industrially significant low-temperature reduction of sulphur dioxide by different reducing agents (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, synthesis gas) are reported for variations of reducing agents, temperature and the ratio of СО/Н2. The compositions of equilibrium mixtures and the dynamics of their changes depending on process temperature are presented.



19.
Development of the Proces of Low-Temperature Catalytic Reduction of Sulphur Dioxide and Pilot Tests

N. V. SHIKINA1, S. R. KHAIRULIN1, M. A. KERZHENTSEV1, S. A. YASHNIK1, A. V. SALNIKOV1, and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
Keywords: SO2-катализатор, синтез-газ, восстановление, железомарганцевые конкреции, SO2 catalyst, synthesis gas, reduction, iron-maganese concretions

Abstract >>
For the process of low-temperature reduction of sulphur dioxide, the catalyst based on natural iron-manganese concretions was developed and tested in the target process for obtaining adsorbents in the processes of gas purification from sulphur dioxide. Under the chosen process conditions and the ratio SO2/(CO + H2) = 0.5, the catalyst provides 100 % degree of sulphur dioxide transformation and sulphur yield at a level of 96 %.