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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2015 year, number 6

1.
Investigations of insoluble particles in the snow cover of the Western Siberia from Tomsk to the Ob estuary

V.P. Shevchenko1, S.N. Vorobev2, S.N. Kirpotin3, I.V. Kritskov3, R.M. Manasypov3, O.S. Pokrovsky3, N.V. Politova1
1P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36, Nakhimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Laboratory biogeochemical and remote monitoring techniques environment «BioClimLand, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: snow cover, Western Siberia, sedimentary matter, scanning electronic microscope

Abstract >>
Insoluble particles of snow cover along the meridional profile from Tomsk to the Ob estuary in late winter were investigated. The lowest values of particle concentrations were observed in the north-western part of the Tomsk region and in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (from Gubkinsky village to the east coast of the Ob estuary near Yamburg village). The highest concentrations of insoluble particles were observed near the city of Tomsk and in the Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets autonomous districts in the area from Surgut to Gubkinsky village. Mineral particles were dominated in the samples composition, furthermore biogenic particles (fibers, leaf diatoms, pollen) and particles formed by the combustion of various fuels (ash and black carbon) prevailed. Important sources of black carbon and ash particles are chimney fires of associated gas, motor transport, and heating systems.



2.
Influence of dynamic processes on variations of ozone and other trace gases near the coastal zone of Lake Baikal

A.S. Zayakhanov, G.S. Zhamsueva, V.V. Tsydypov, T.S. Balzhanov
Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str.
Keywords: ozone, small gaseous impurities, breeze circulation, Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of expedition investigation of diurnal dynamics of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide at different altitudes. The measurements were carried out to the south-east of Lake Baikal using a 30-m meteorological mast. Analysis of influence of thermal stratification on ozone content and other trace gases in a breeze circulation near the coastal zone is presented. Features of the altitude distribution of ozone and trace gases are revealed. Important role of breeze circulations in diurnal variations of ozone are noted, which influence transport and distribution of atmospheric impurities in Baikal region.



3.
Forest fires in Siberia and Far East (Russia): Emissions and atmospheric transport of black carbon to the Arctic

A.A. Vinogradova1, N.S. Smirnov2, V.N. Korotkov2, A.A. Romanovskaya2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Global Climate and Ecology of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring and Russian Academy of Sciences, Glebovskaya street, 20b, 107258, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: black carbon, soot, nature forest fires, Russian BC emissions, long-range atmospheric transport, the Arctic

Abstract >>
Black carbon (BC) emissions to the atmosphere from forest fires in Siberia and Far East (Russia) are presented for the period 2000-2013 from official data of Federal Forestry Agency of Russian Federation (http://www.rosleshoz.gov.ru/). The different types of forest fires (crown and creeping fires, fires on nonforested and unforested lands) are analyzed, as well as their seasonal and spatial variations. The total annual BC emission from the territory is estimated as high as (27 8) kt, with annual value variations of (3.5-94) kt from year to year. Seasonal spatial distributions of BC emissions on grid cells (1 × 1) averaged through 14 years were calculated. Despite only 5-time excess evaluation of anthropogenic emissions over the forest fires ones, the BC impact through the atmosphere from the forest fire BC emissions to the Russian Arctic environment is considerably (more than 10 times) less than the anthropogenic contribution.



4.
Ground-based microwave temperature profilers: potential and experimental data

E.N. Kadygrov, E.V. Ganshin, E.A. Miller, T.A. Tochilkina
Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: microwave remote sensing, temperature profiles, troposphere, atmospheric boundary layer

Abstract >>
Calculated and experimental parameters (accuracy, vertical resolution) of ground-based multi-frequency and scanning microwave temperature profilers were analyzed. At the moment single-channel angular-scanning microwave radiometers (MTP-5) are more widely used for atmospheric boundary layer temperature profile measurements, and multi-frequency microwave radiometers (MP-3000A, RPG-HATPRO, Microradcom) are used for tropospheric temperature profiling. With more details are presented data from the Microradcom profiler, which was in operation from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 in Dolgoprudny, Moscow region.



5.
Number and mass concentrations of the pollen component of atmospheric aerosol measured near Novosibirsk during blossoming of arboreal plants

V.V. Golovko1, K.P. Koutsenogii1, V.L. Istomin2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 15, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
Keywords: pollen, atmospheric aerosol, number concentration, mass concentration, daily dynamics

Abstract >>
A study was made of taxonomic composition, daily average concentrations, and daily dynamics of the content of atmospheric aerosol pollen component in the atmosphere of village Klutchi of the Novosibirsk region. During blossoming of arboreal plants the atmosphere contained the pollen of willow, poplar, birch, maple, pine, and fir-tree. The pollen of other arboreal plants (silver fir, alder, sea-buckthorn), grass (cereals, sedge), and the spores of horsetails was registered occasionally. The main contribution (up to 99%) to the mass concentration of the pollen component was made by the pollen grains of birch and pine. The daily average mass concentrations of pollen in the atmosphere varied from 0.3 to 57.8 mg per 1 m3 of air (in some samples of atmospheric aerosol, up to 85 mg), amounting during the mass blossoming of birch to 57% of the total daily average concentration of atmospheric aerosol.



6.
Numerical simulation of forming temperature anomalies in the Laptev Sea due to the heat flow of the Lena River

M.V. Kraineva, V.V. Malakhova, E.N. Golubeva
Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Laptev Sea, water circulation, heat flow of the Lena River, East Siberian Shelf

Abstract >>
Based on the numerical modeling, the existence of the temperature anomalies in the Laptev Sea shelf areas due to the heat flow of the Lena River is investigated. In order to determine the heat flow at the outlet to the sea, the linear regression formulas connecting the river water temperature with the air temperature are used. It is shown that the temperature anomalies caused by the river run-off can reach 2C not only at the surface water but also at the bottom water in the Laptev Sea shelf areas, however these anomalies exist only during the summer season. With the use of the numerical modeling it has been obtained that the increase in the bottom water temperature by 2C in August and September results in growth of the permafrost degradation rate near the Lena Delta.



7.
Photoprocesses on the surface of the deposited aerosol produced by dispersing a CaCO3 crystal in air

V.S. Zakharenko1, E.B. Daibova2,3
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Siberian Research Institute of agriculture and peat Russian academy of agricultural sciences, 3 Gagarin str., Tomsk, Russia, 634050
3Gorno-Altaisk State University, 649000, Gorno-Altaisk, Altai Republic, Lenkina str., 1, Russia
Keywords: calcite crystal, dispersion under ambient air, CaCO3 aerosol, CO2 hotodesorption, N2O photoadsorption, quantum yield

Abstract >>
The investigation of adsorption layer of deposited aerosol particles obtained by dispersion of a mineral calcite crystal under tropospheric conditions (ambient air) was carried out. It was revealed that the nitrous oxide and Freon 22 adsorption occurred on aerosol particle surface under UV irradiation. The quantum efficiency of processes under UV irradiation was determined.



8.
The complex approach to evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors on oil and gas areas

T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: environment, satellite images, geoinformation systems, oil field

Abstract >>
Monitoring of vegetation cover of oil-producing areas of Western Siberia for the period 2000-2012 using topical products MODIS is developed. A method for assessing the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil and gas production areas is based on the remote sensing of vegetation by the value of the coefficient of NDVI. Approbation of the proposed technique performed to technologically disturbed areas of Samotlorsky, Vatinskaya, Vahsky (Khanty-Mansiysk), Soviet (Tomsk region) oil deposits.



9.
The part of microorganism aggressive group in the process of ferroconcrete constructions destruction after oil pollution of landscape

L.K. Altunina, L.I. Svarovskaya, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: oncrete hydraulic structures, bio-corrosion, microorganisms, mapping

Abstract >>
The abundance and diversity of aggressive microflora, sampled in the oil-polluted territory of Ust-Balykskoye oilfield near the destroyed transmission towers and taking an active part in corrosion of oilfield equipment and concrete hydraulic structures, have been investigated. The investigations have shown that on the surface of the destroyed towers, in the polluted water and bottom sediments the number of aggressive microorganisms is by 3-5 orders of magnitude higher as compared to the samples from non-polluted area, where transmission towers were in operating condition. Using GIS-technologies we have made a map of Ust-Balykskoye oilfield.



10.
Estimation of CO2 fluxes in the atmosphere-water system in the South Lake Baikal littoral by the floating chambers method

V.M. Domysheva1, D.A. Pestunov2,3, M.V. Sakirko1, A.M. Shamrin2, M.V. Panchenko2
1Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: carbon dioxide flux, atmosphere–water system, chamber method, Lake Baikal, total flux

Abstract >>
In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the chamber method for measuring the fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and water in the littoral of Lake Baikal. Its advantages and disadvantages are considered as well. A comparison of previously submitted data with observations in 20112014, in which there were dramatically different weather situations, is presented. It is shown that interannual variations of total CO2 fluxes is much less than its seasonal changes. It is shown that the annual flux of carbon dioxide from atmosphere to the water surface in littoral of Lake Baikal is at least 6.57 g per square meter in the "open water" period.



11.
The urban heat island detection in space-time fluctuations of the electromagnetic wave refraction index

V.E. Khutorov, O.G. Khutorova, G.M. Teptin
Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, ul. The Kremlin, 18
Keywords: urban heat island, refraction, atmospheric disturbances, GPS, GLONASS

Abstract >>
This paper considers decimeter radiowave propagation in the troposphere in urban environment. The structure function of tropospheric delay of GPSGLONASSderived decimeter radiowaves was analyzed. It was found that for radiopaths over the city, contribution to the dispersion of decimeter radiowave tropospheric delay is significantly different as compared to the contribution of non-urban radiopaths.



12.
Reconstruction of aerosol fallout fields from a series of sources

V.F. Raputa1, N.P. Akhmatova2, T.V. Yaroslavtseva3
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Academy of Water Transport, 33, Schetinkina Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 7, Parkhomenko Str., Novosibirsk, 630108, Russia
Keywords: impurity, atmosphere, snow, pollution, numerical modeling, reconstruction

Abstract >>
A model of aerosol fallout fields from a series of sources has been developed. probation of the model on data from field studies of snow dust pollution in the vicinity of thermal power station 2 and thermal power station 3 of Novosibirsk was carried out. The magnitude of the random RMS error is between 46 mg/l. The estimate of the total fallouts of dust from sources within a radius of 3 km from TPS 2 and TPS 3 in the winter season 20132014 was 61 and 10 tons, respectively.



13.
Pilot calculations of 10 and concentrations with complex models CHIMERE and COSMORu7

M.I. Nakhaev1, E.V. Berezin2, I.Yu. Shalygina1, I.N. Kuznetsova1, I.B. Konovalov2, D.V. Blinov1, E.A. Lezina3
1Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul'yanov Street , 603950, Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
3Mosjekomonitoring, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: modeling of air pollution, chemistry–transport model CHIMERE, COSMO–Ru7 forecasts

Abstract >>
A brief description of an original chemistry-transport model (CTM) based on technology of modeling and forecasting air pollutant concentrations is presented. Earlier results of evaluation of CHIMERE CTM outputs against measurements in the Moscow region demonstrated the adequacy of the simulation when WRF-ARW meteorological data were used. Initial CHIMERE CTM simulations based on the COSMO-Ru7 meteorological model outputs are presented and compared to the cases of standard and extreme conditions with air pollution monitoring data as well as to simulations based on the WRF-ARW calculations.



14.
Ozone concentration in the ground atmospheric layer in urban, rural, and background areas of the south of Eastern Siberia

O.I. Khuriganova, V.A. Obolkin, V.L. Potemkin, T.V. Khodzher, O.V. Artemeva, L.P. Golobokova
Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: surface ozone concentration, troposphere, active sampling method, passive sampling method, monitoring stations, Irkutsk, Listvyanka, Mondy

Abstract >>
In the paper, results of many years studies of ozone concentration in three regions of Eastern Siberia (background, rural, and urban) are presented. Variations of different temporal scale ozone concentrations are considered: daily, seasonal and yeartoyear, as well as the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on these variations. It was received that ozone concentrations in every three regions have similar seasonal changes: maximum in spring and minimum in autumn. During all joint observation period, ozone concentrations in remote and rural regions had similar values, while in urban conditions the ozone concentration was 1.52 times lower. In addition to seasonal variations there are changes on synoptic scale and most clear daily variations caused by photo-chemical generation under the action of solar radiations. In rural site, short-time non periodical decrease in ozone concentrations was observed under the influence of regional air pollution. In background site during 18 years of observation, the maximal ozone concentrations were observed in 20032005, but from those years till recently the ozone concentrations have tendency to be lower.