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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2015 year, number 1

1.
Areas of Application for the Polymers Based on Ion Liquid Monomers

M. D. IBRAGIMOVA, A. G. AZIZOV, F. M. ABDULLAEVA, Z. N. PASHAEVA, B. F. BAGIROVA
Mamedaliev Institute of Petrochemical Processes, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Khodzhaly Av. 30, Baku AZ1025, Azerbaijan
Keywords: ion liquid, monomer, polymer, copolymer, composition, sorbent

Abstract >>
Literature data dealing with the major areas of application for polymers, copolymers and composite materials based on ion liquid monomers are considered and generalized. Polymers and copolymers based on ion liquid monomers combine the properties inherent to ion liquid monomers, in particular high ionic conductance, electrochemical stability, low inflammability and toxicity, as well as high thermal stability, with such features of high molecular mass compounds as the ability to form gel and films. Due to this fact, they are used as solid electroconductive matrices of various forms (films, fibres, coatings etc .) for batteries and fuel elements, membranes, sorbents for 2 capture, dispersing agents for stabilization of nanomaterials in various solutions (aqueous, organic). Non-volatility of ion liquids and polymer products based on them defines the promising outlooks for their use in making membranes to separate various gas mixtures. The dependence of ion conductance and sorption properties of polymers and copolymers based on ion liquid monomers on the nature of their cation and anion parts, as well as on the length of the fragments between the group participating in polymerization and the cation or anion part of the monomer was established. It was shown that the change of the structure of ion liquid monomer promotes broadening of the area of application of the polymers and co-polymers on their basis. In particular, polymers based on ion liquid monomers found application as a filling for the catalytic systems, coatings for semiconductors, for obtaining optical and plasma materials in the processes of solid-phase extraction and chromatography. So, the observed unique properties of polymers and copolymers based on ion liquid monomers promote expansion of investigations in the area of synthesis and polymerization of ion liquid monomers of various compositions and ensure the promising character of their application in many branches of industry.



2.
Estimation of the Pollution of Water Bodies in the Middle Reach of the Ob Basin According to Satellite and Ground Based Data

L. K. ALTUNINA, L. I. SVAROVSKAYA, I. G. YASHCHENKO
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021, Russia
Keywords: river catchment basins, ecology, oil pollution, petroleum derivatives washout, space photographs, remote probing

Abstract >>
It was established that the major pollutants of the river system at the territory of developed deposits in the Tomsk Region are oil and petroleum products the content of which in water exceeds the maximal permissible concentrations. It was demonstrated that space photographs and the data of remote probing Landsat and ASTER GDEM, SRTM may be used for the purpose of mapping the zones of oil spill, to determine the risk of pollution of water bodies, and to calculate the module of petroleum product washout from polluted basins in order to determine the total annual income in the river system.



3.
Technology of Obtaining Biologically Active Forage Additives from the Wastes of Larch Biomass Processing

V. A. BABKIN, YU. A. MALKOV, E. N. MEDVEDEVA, N. A. NEVEROVA, A. A. LEVCHUK
Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
Keywords: wastes from larch biomass processing, technology, water extracts, forage additives

Abstract >>
Efficient technology was developed for obtaining water extracts and dry additive to mixed feed, containing a complex of biologically active substances, from larch biomass (wood and bark) processing. It was established by means of HPLC, UV, IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy that polysaccharide arabinogalactan dominates in the extracts. In addition, the extracts contain dihydroquercetin, tannins and other polyphenol compounds, as well as pectin compounds. Experimental lots of products were manufactured according to the developed technology; the efficiency of their use for growing young agricultural animals was demonstrated.



4.
Investigation of the Photolytic Activity of 2–TiO2 Nanocompositions Obtained with the Help of Sol-Gel Procedure from Inorganic Salts

V. S. GURIN1, N. M. BOBKOVA2, E. E. TRUSOVA2
1Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, Ul. Leningradskaya 14, Minsk 220030, Belarus
2Belarusian State Technological University, Ul. Sverdlova 13a, Minsk 220006, Belarus
Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide, phase composition, nanocomposites, reflection spectra

Abstract >>
Photocatalytically active nanocompositions CeO2-TiO2 were prepared by means of sol-gel procedure from inorganic salts with different 2/TiO2 ratios. According to the data of X-ray phase analysis and optical reflection spectroscopy, in the case of CeO2 content 5 mol. % and more, nanoparticles with fluorite-type lattice (CeO2) are formed; the lattice spacing decreases with the insertion of titanium. In the case of low CeO2 content (1 mol. %) TiO2 nanoparticles are formed (anatase). Their optical properties are modified in the subsurface region. The obtained nanocompositions exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with individual oxides TiO2 and 2, and can be used to develop the systems of photocatalytic purification.



5.
NMR Spectroscopy of Humic Acids Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Plant Raw Material in Water-Alkaline Media

D. V. Dudkin, I. M. Fedyaeva, A. S. Zmanovskaya
Yugra State University, Ul. Chekhova, 16 Khanty-Mansiysk, 628012, Russia
Keywords: humic acids, elemental composition, functional composition, physiological activity, mechanochemical action

Abstract >>
Humic acids (HA) obtained by the mechanochemical processing of peat and saw wastes at Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug were studied for the first time by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy. Differences in the functional composition of the resulting humic acids depending on the type of base used and the chemical composition of the secondary plant raw material were revealed. The reasons of the increased physiological activity of humic acids obtained as a result of sanitation of the secondary plant raw material in water-alkaline media were established.



6.
Products of Thermolysis of Baganur Brown Coal (Mongolia)

N. I. Kopylov1, Yu. D. Kaminsky1, Zh. Dugarzhav2, B. Avid2, A. K. Golovko3, Yu. V. Patrushev4
1Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128, Russia
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Scienc, Ul. Mira, 4, Ulaanbaatar 210351, Mongolia
3Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021, Russia
4Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 7, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Keywords: thermolysis brown coal, solid residue, sublimates, condensate, hydrocarbons, phenol, phenol derivatives

Abstract >>
The products of thermolysis of brown coal from the Baganur deposit (Mongolia) were investigated. Only residual relics of separate hydrocarbon components of initial coal were detected in the solid residue. The liquid condensate of the sublimates (18–19 % of initial coal), which contains 0.78 mass % organic extract (9698 % phenol and its derivatives) and 92.2 mass % of the aqueous solution, under heating boils off within temperature range 115130 C. The isolated organic extract under heating is transferred into vapour intensively at temperatures up to 360 C. Initial aggregative state (particle size, degree of the action of environment) not only affect the yield of the gas component of coal during thermolysis but also determine the impurity composition of the organic extract of the liquid condensate of sublimates.



7.
Utilization of the Wastes from Polybutadiene Production Containing 4–Vinylcyclohexene

N. S. Nikulina1, L. N. Stadnik2, I. N. Pugacheva2, S. S. Nikulin2
1Voronezh Institute of State Fire Service of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations, Ul. Krasnoznamennaya, 231, Voronezh 394052, Russia
2Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies, Prospekt Revolyutsii, 19, Voronezh 394036, Russia
Keywords: polybutadiene, 4vinylcyclohexene, styrene, copolymerization, oligomer, additive

Abstract >>
Recovery of low mass molecular copolymers based on styrene and unsaturated compounds, present in the bottoms from the purification of recurrent solvent of polybutadiene production, in the presence of aluminium chloride was investigated. It was shown that the toluene solution of low molecular mass copolymers can be used in the production of polybutadiene for the preparation of antioxidant solution.



8.
Method of Depolymerisation of Hydrolytic Lignin for the Purpose of Obtaining Biofuel of New Generation

L. A. OPARINA1, O. V. VYSOTSKAYA1, A. V. ROKHIN2, L. V. KLYBA1, V. V. BELYAEVA1, V. I. SMIRNOV1, N. K. GUSAROVA1, B. A. TROFIMOV1
1Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy, Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
2Irkutsk State University, Ul. Lermontova 126, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
Keywords: hydrolytic lignin, thermocatalytic hydrolysis and hydrogenolysis, supercritical alcohols, ligno-oil

Abstract >>
Hydrolytic lignin is transformed almost completely into liquid (lingo-oil) and gaseous products under the conditions of thermocatalytic hydrolysis and alcoholysis, in particular in combination with hydrogenolysis. The liquid fraction is a mixture of alkyl–and methoxyphenol, esters of carboxylic acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. These products are formed as a result of the destruction of lignin polymeric matrix mainly at і bonds. In addition, depolymerisation of lignin proceeds with substantial decrease in oxygen concentration in the formed liquid products (to 510 %) in comparison with that in initial lignin (30 %). Gaseous products contain carbon oxides and lower hydrocarbons (15).



9.
Investigation of the Sorption of 1,1Dimethylhydrazine by Hydrolytic Lignin by Means of Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry

M. P. Semushina1, S. A. Pokryshkin1, K. G. Bogolitsyn1,2, A. Yu. Kozhevnikov1,2, D. S. Kosyakov1,2
1Lomovosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 17, Arkhangelsk 163002, Russia
2Institute of Ecological Problems in the North, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 23, Arkhangelsk 163061, Russia
Keywords: sorption, rocket fuel, 1,1dimethylhydrazine, asymmetric dimethylhydrazine, hydrolytic lignin, gas chromatographymass spectrometry

Abstract >>
Sorption of 1,1–dimethylhydrazine by hydrolytic lignin was studied by means of gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The effect of sorbent humidity and temperature on sorption was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the process were determined. It was demonstrated that hydrolytic lignin may be used as a sorbent to prevent air pollution in case of detoxication of spilled highly toxic rocket fuel.



10.
Accumulation of Biogenic Chemical Microelements in the Bark of Siberian Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. mongolica Rousi)

G. M. Skuridin1, O. V. Chankina2, A. A. Legkodymov3, N. V. Baginskaya1, K. P. Koutsenogii2
1Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of het Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
3Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Lavrentyeva 11, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Keywords: elemental composition, synchrotron radiation, buckthorn bark

Abstract >>
The elemental composition of the bark of Siberian buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. mongolica Rousi ) growing under endemic conditions of West Siberia was studied. The simultaneous quantitative content of K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pb in bark and in soil was determined by means of XPA–SR (Xray fluorescence analysis involving the synchrotron radiation), and the coefficients of biological accumulation of these elements were established. Species-specific features of the absorption of elements in the bark of Siberian buckthorn were revealed, which is expressed as increased (in comparison with the earth's phytomas) accumulation of vitally necessary iron, molybdenum and chromium, as well as elements with unestablished biological role: niobium, titanium and zirconium. It was shown that the bark of Siberian buckthorn can serve as a source of vitally necessary chromium in the easily digestible biogenic form. It was established that the bark of Siberian buckthorn does not concentrate toxic chemical elements — lead and arsenic.



11.
Obtaining Nanoporous Ceramic Membranes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

V. V. Chesnokov1,2, V. A. Bolotov1, A. S. Chichkan1, V. S. Luchikhina1,2, Yu. Yu. Tanashev1, Yu. D. Chernousov3, V. N. Parmon1
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk 630092, Russia
3Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Keywords: ceramic membranes, carbon nanotubes, microwave heating

Abstract >>
A method of obtaining ceramic membranes containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) is proposed. Gibbsite is thermally activated using the industrial method, and then it is mixed with the CNT–SiO2 composite and lanthanum hydroxide. The resulting mixture is subjected to mechanochemical activation and plasticized with the help of the aqueous solution of nitric acid. The resulting mass is evaporated to the semidry state and pressed in the press mold under a pressure of 100 MPa. The pressed tablets of the composition 80 mass % Al2O3 + 17 mass % (CNTSiO2) + 3 mass % La2O3 are annealed under anaerobic conditions under smooth heating to a temperature of 950 °. Sintering and transformation of initial oxide phases were studied under usual heating in a muffle furnace and under heating through energy input by means of microwave frequency radiation directly to the initial samples Under the microwave heating of the resulting membranes, a stronger transformation and sample agglomeration are observed than those related to the case of heating in a muffle furnace.



12.
Electrochemical Method of the Purification of Aqueous Solutions from Metal Ions

A. N. YURTAEVA1, A. YA. SVAROVSKY1, A. A. KOLESNIKOV2
1Seversk Technological Institute, Branch State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education National Research Nuclear University MEPhl, Pr. Kommunisticheskiy 65, Tomskaya obl., Seversk 636036, Russia
2Tomsk State University, Pr. Lenina, 36, Tomsk 634050, Russia
Keywords: metal ions, wastes, electrochemical cell, concentrating, purification, dissociation

Abstract >>
A method of electrochemical purification of aqueous solutions from metal ions is proposed. The method is based on the use of electrochemical cell separated by a passive membrane, and substitution of metal ions by hydrogen ions. The conditions enhancing the effects of concentrating and removal of metal ions form solutions with low concentrations of the salts of weakly and strongly dissociating acids are determined.



13.
Recovery of Zinc from Aqueous Solutions Using Fine Modified Aluminosilicates

E. V. Ganebnykh, A. V. Sviridov, G. I. Maltsev
Ural State Forestry University, Sibirskiy Trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg 620100, Russia
Keywords: montmorillonite, aluminosilicates, zinc, sorption, intercalation

Abstract >>
The isotherms of zinc adsorption from solutions on natural and modified montmorillonites were recorded. It was shown that adsorption processes can be described with the help of Langmuir and S-like adsorption isotherms; their shape is determined by both the properties of sorbent surface and the forms of zinc occurrence in aqueous solutions. Intercalation of the sodium form of montmorillonite by modifying agents allows a sharp increase in limiting adsorption of zinc ions and broadening of the pH value region corresponding to the high degree of metal recovery.



14.
Investigation of TemperatureTime Characteristics of the Interaction of Modified Silica Gel with Sodium Hydroxide

E. A. Mamchenkov, O. P. Akaev, T. K. Akaeva
Nekrasov Kostroma State University, Ul. 1 Maya, 14, Kostroma 156961, Russia
Keywords: silicon dioxide, liquid glass, kinetics

Abstract >>
Autoclave-free and low-temperature method of obtaining liquid glass from modified silica gel is considered. Silica gel, a side product of the production of aluminium fluoride, is amorphous silicon dioxide with admixture of fluorine and aluminium compounds. The methods of silica gel processing into liquid glass with preliminary acid purification from admixtures are analyzed. The physicochemical composition of silica gel was studied by means of IR spectroscopy and X–ray phase analyse. Activation of silica gel with the use of alkaline solution was used to increase the yield of liquid glass and the silicate modulus of liquid glass. The dependence of aluminium content in silica gel on the concentration of alkali in the activation solution was established. It was discovered that the yield of liquid glass is determined by the concentration of admixtures in activation solution. The effect of the concentrations of F and SiF62 ion content in activation solution on the silicate modulus of liquid glass was studied. It was concluded that it is reasonable to apply alkaline activation solution to obtain liquid glass from silica gel. The dependences of silicate modulus of liquid glass, its density and yield on temperature and time parameters are presented.



15.
Synthesis and Properties of Transparent Conducting Films of Tin Dioxide Doped with Fluorine

S. A. Serenko1, N. F. Uvarov2, V. A. Gavrilenko1
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Ul. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk 630073, Russia
2Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128, Russia
Keywords: thermal decomposition of aerosol, tin oxide, nanoparticles, transparent conducting coatings, FTO

Abstract >>
Transparent conducting thin film coatings based on tin oxide doped with fluorine SnO2-F were obtained by pyrolysis of aerosol. The coatings are characterized by nanocrystals structure with average particle size 14 nm. The kinetic dependences of the changes of film resistance were studied in situ during an increase in coating thickness. The major stages of the film growth process were determined. The regimes of obtaining transparent SnO2-F films with specific conductance more than 103 S/cm were elaborated.