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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2014 year, number 3

1.
Bistorta Scop. Genus (Polygonaceae): Chemical Composition and Biological Activity

M. S. VORONKOVA andG. I. VYSOCHINA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: bmc_87@mail.ru
Keywords: Bistorta Scop., phenolcarbonic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, biological activity
Pages: 207212

Abstract >>
A review of the data on the chemical composition and biological activity of species of the genus Bistorta Scop. of the world flora was carried out. It was shown that species of the genus Bistorta were of interest as the source of raw materials containing valuable biologically active compounds phenolcarbonic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and steroids.



2.
Environmental Pollution when Burning Associated Petroleum Gas on the Territory of Oil Producing Enterprises

L. K. ALTUNINA,L. I. SVAROVSKAYA,I. G. YASHCHENKO andM. N. ALEKSEEVA
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
E-mail: alk@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: associated petroleum gas, atmosphere pollution, space images, digital maps
Pages: 213218

Abstract >>
On the territory of oil fields around torches of flared associated petroleum gas, large plumes of aerosol pollution are formed. The method of mapping thermal anomalies and environmental risk of the defeat of plant communities when burning gas in flares was developed based on the space images of Landsat and products of MODIS. We studied the possibility of the application of such maps for ecological monitoring the anthropogenic action on the vegetation of territories oil fields of West Siberia.



3.
Effect of the Nanoaerosol Form of Medicinal Preparations on Their Basic Activity

S. V. AN'KOV1, T. G. TOLSTIKOVA1, M. V. KHVOSTOV1, A. A. ONISCHUK2, A. M. BAKLANOV2 and V. V. BOLDYREV3
1Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: tg_tolstikova@mail.ru
2Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: onischuk@kinetics.nsc.ru
3Novosibirsk State University, Research and Education Centre for Molecular Design and Ecologically Safe Technologies,
Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: boldyrev@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: nanoaerosols, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, barbital
Pages: 219223

Abstract >>
The pharmacological effect of the nano aerosol form of diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine and barbital in vivo was studied. It was established that such a delivery way allowed significantly decreasing the dose not only preserving the base activity, but also elevating it.



4.
Chemical and Phase Structure of Technogenic Aerosols in the Region of the Siberian Chemical Plant (Tomsk Region)

S. YU. ARTAMONOVA1,2
1Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: artam@igm.nsc.ru
2Tomsk Polytechnical University, Ul. Lenina, 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
Keywords: technogenic aerosols, rare-earth elements, technogenic minerals, ecological risk
Pages: 225236

Abstract >>
Results of the study of aerosols in the region of the Siberian chemical combine (Seversk, Tomsk Region) performed in 2010 using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry are given. GIS methods allowed revealing features of the spatial distribution of the aerosol contamination. The decrease of sizes of technogenic aerosol particles with the removal from their source was assessed. Mineral phase indicators of the emissions of the Siberian Chemical Plant (SCP) were determined and their major allocation forms were described.



5.
Effect of Silicate Modulus and Modifying with Metals on the Acidic and Catalytic Properties of ZSM-5 Type Zeolite in the Isomerization of n-Octane

L. M. VELICHKINA,D. A. KANASHEVICH,L. N. VOSMERIKOVA and A. V. VOSMERIKOV
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
E-mail: mps@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: zeolite, pentasil, ZSM-5, n-octane, isomerization, conversion, selectivity, modification, metal nanopowders
Pages: 237245

Abstract >>
High-silica pentasil zeolites with the silicate module from 20 to 200 were synthesized. Basing on them, catalysts have been prepared those contain nickel, zirconium and platinum introduced using various ways. An effect of the zeolite silicate modulus and modifying exerted on the acidity and activity of zeolite catalysts in the course of n-octane isomerization were studied. Optimal conditions for the isomerization of n-octane in the presence of catalysts under investigation have been determined.



6.
Oxidative Neutralization of the Commodity Form ofthePesticide Zineb

T. N. VOLGINA,V. T. NOVIKOVandA. I. TATARKINA
Tomsk Polytechnic University,
Prospekt Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
E-mail: Volgina_t@mail.ru
Keywords: neutralization, zineb, indirect electrooxidation, electrolysis of sulphuric acid, hydrolysis, mineralization, deep oxidation
Pages: 247251

Abstract >>
The way of oxidative mineralization of the commodity form of the pesticide zineb under mild conditions was investigated. The destruction of organic components of the drug of the second class danger up to low-toxic compounds occurs in the bulk of the electrolyte under the action of oxidants formed electrochemically in situ in sulphuric-acid solutions of zineb. Simultaneously with this, on the cathode, more than on 90 % zinc ions formed as a result of hydrolysis of the acting substance zineb that is zinc salt of N,N'-ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamic) acid, were reduced.



7.
Study of the Composition and Structure of Microspheres of Fly Ashes of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk GRES Power Plant and Their Sorption Properties for the Extraction of Petroleum Products from Contaminated Water

N. V. ZHURAVLEVA1, R. R. POTOKINA1, Z. R. ISMAGILOV2,3,4, N. V. SHIKINA5 and G. V. BOLDYREV5
1PC West Siberian Testing Centre,
Ul. Ordzhonikidze, 9, Novokuznetsk 654006 (Russia)
E-mail: main@zsic.ru
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul Vesennyaya, 28, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
E-mail: IsmagilovZR@iccms.sbras.ru
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
-mail: zri@catalysis.ru
4Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technological University
Ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
E-mail: IsmagilovZR@iccms.sbras.ru
5Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: geboldyrev@yandex.ru
Keywords: fly ash, microsphere, sorbent, water purification, purification from petroleum products
Pages: 253261

Abstract >>
Physicochemical properties of microspheres of fly ashes of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk GRES Power Plant were studied. The phase composition of the samples of the microspheres is represented by a mixture of phases of mullite Al6Si2O13, quartz SiO2 and amorphous glass phase with a predominance of the phase of mullite. The possibility of the use of this material as a sorbent was considered. The maximal capacity on petroleum products that reaches 100 mass % was determined. Experiments on the extraction of petroleum products from model contaminated water were performed. The degree of water purification from the surface layer of petroleum products is 99.99 mass %. The effect of the high temperature treatment of the microsphere on the sorption capacity on petroleum products was studied. It was shown that the optimal temperature of the thermal treatment was equal to 250 and after calcination at the temperatures of 400 and 600 , the material lost the ability to collect the petroleum film from the water surface.



8.
Geochemistry of Drainage Water of Mining Objects at the Tungsten Deposit Bom Gorkhon (Transbaikalia)

L. V. ZAMANA and L. P. CHECHEL
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Ul. Nedorezova 16a, Chita 672014 (Russia)
E-mail: l.v.zamana@mail.ru
Keywords: acidic water, chemical composition, metals, fluorine, aluminium-fluoride complexes, rare earth elements
Pages: 263269

Abstract >>
The results of the determination of a wide range of macro- and microcomponents of drainage water of mining objects (quarry, adits, and tailing dump) of the operating tungsten mine Bom Gorkhon (Transbaikalia) were enunciated. A strongly acidic character of water of the tailing dump, abnormally high level of the concentrations of aluminium, fluorine, chalcophilic, rare earth and other elements was established. The data on forms of aluminium and fluorine were presented. In profiles of REE normalized for shale, the most acidic water of the tailing dump is distinguished by the maximum on cerium.



9.
Study of Sorbents Obtained from Sapropel of Lakes Kachkulnya and Barchin (Novosibirsk Region)

I. P. IVANOV1, V. I. SHARYPOV1, A. V. RUDKOVSKIY1, O. P. TARAN2,3, V. D. STRAKHOVENKO4 and B. N. KUZNETSOV1,5
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia)
E-mail: bnk@icct.ru
2Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Novosibirsk State Technical University,
Ul. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russia)
4Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
5Siberian Federal University,
Prospekt Svobodnyi 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russia)
Keywords: lacustrine sapropel, thermo-alkaline activation, carbonization-activation by water vapour, porous materials, sorbents
Pages: 271277

Abstract >>
Porous materials from sapropels of lakes of the Novosibirsk Region of the organic (Lake Kachkulnya) and organomineral (Lake Barchin) types, as well as from solid residues of their thermal dissolution in ethanol were obtained by thermochemical activation methods with potassium hydroxide and one-step carbonization-activation by water vapour. Textural and adsorption properties of porous materials were studied. It was established that porous materials with the specific surface up to 618 m2/g, total volume of pores of 0.26 cm3/g (according to BET), sorption activity on iodine and methylene blue of 58.9 % and 189.1 mg/g, respectively, could be obtained by the thermochemical activation of sapropels of the organic type. It was shown that these materials could be used as organomineral sorbents in technologies of the sewage treatment from ions of heavy metals and air from vapours of low molecular mass hydrocarbons.



10.
Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols as the Global Invariant

S. Z. KARDANOV
All-Russian Research Institute for Metrologic Service,
Ul. Ozernaya 46, Moscow 119361 (Russia)
E-mail: savatage08@mail.ru

Keywords: atmospheric aerosol, ALSB
Pages: 279284

Abstract >>
Examples of the elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols in various points of the Earth were considered and the connection with the average level of the suburban background (ALSB) was established. The data on concentrations of ALSB for 49 elements and calculation data of the regression analysis were given. It was shown that, as a whole, the global atmospheric aerosol was characterized by the constancy of the elemental composition and differs only by the dilution degree (or concentrating) depending on the region under study.



11.
About the Mechanism of the Analgesic Activity of Highly Efficient Analgesics of the New Structural Type: in vitro Experiments

E. A. MOROZOVA1, T. A. ZAPARA2, A. S. RATUSHNYAK2, S. O. VECHKAPOVA2, T. G. TOLSTIKOVA1 and E. E. SHULTS1
1Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: morozova@nioch.nsc.ru
2Design and Technological Institute of Computer Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Rzhanova 6, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: pyrrolidinomorphinanes, membrane potential, isolated neurons, opioid receptors
Pages: 285289

Abstract >>
The effect of pyrrolidinomorphinane derivatives possessing an analgesic activity on the membrane potential of isolated neurons of a mollusc treated with selective antagonists of opioid receptors was studied. The results confirm the opioid mechanism of the action of these compounds shown earlier in experiments in vivo on mice and indicate the nonselectivity of the interaction of the agent T-11 with all types of opioid receptors, as well the preference of the interaction of the agent Sh-42 with κ-receptors.



12.
Content of Some Groups of Compounds in the Vegetative Organs of Colchicum autumnale (Melanthiaceae)

L. L. SEDELNIKOVA and T. A. KUKUSHKINA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: lusedelnikova@yandex.ru

Keywords: bulbotuber, leaf, storage compounds, Colchicum autumnale, Siberia
Pages: 291296

Abstract >>
The quantitative composition of storage compounds for Colchicum autumnale was determined. It was established for the first time that under the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the West Siberia in the vegetation period in leaves and bulbotubers of the introduced species Colchicum autumnale, sugars, starch, saponins, ascorbic acid, pectins, protopectins, catechins, and flavonols are accumulated.



13.
Elemental Composition and Intensity of the Accumulation of Chemical Elements in the Leaves of Siberian Sea Buckthorn (Hippiophae rhamnoides L.)

G. M. SKURIDIN1, O. V. CHANKINA2, A. A. LEGKODYMOV3, N. V. BAGINSKAYA1 and K. P. KOUTSENOGII2
1Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science,
Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: skuridin@bionet.nsc.ru
2Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: elemental structure, synchrotron radiation, leaves of sea buckthorn
Pages: 297301

Abstract >>
The elemental structure of green leaves of Siberian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. mongolica Rousi) growing under endemic conditions of the West Siberia was studied. The simultaneous quantitative content of K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rd, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pb in green leaves and soil, as well as coefficients of biological absorption of these elements were determined by the method of RFA-SR (X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation). Species-specific absorption features of elements by leaves of sea buckthorn were revealed, what was expressed in the increased accumulation of vitally necessary chrome and elements with unidentified biological role: niobium, scandium, titan, zirconium and strontium, relatively to the terrestrial phytomass. It was shown that leaves of Siberian sea buckthorn could serve a food source of vitally necessary chromium and manganese in the form of the easily digestible biogenic form. It was established that fruits of sea buckthorn do not concentrate toxic chemical elements: lead and arsenic.



14.
Changing the Structural and Mechanical Properties of Hydrocarbons after a High-Frequency Acoustic Impact

R. V. ANUFRIEV1 and G. I. VOLKOVA1,2
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
E-mail: slaymer89@mail.ru
2National Research Tomsk State University,
Prospekt Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
E-mail: pat@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: resin, oil paraffin, ultrasonic treatment, viscosity, hydrodynamic drag reduction, microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography
Pages: 303308

Abstract >>
An effect of ultrasonic treatment exerted on the structure and mechanical properties of polyacrylamide, polyhexene, polyethylene and oil paraffin solutions was investigated. Schemes are proposed for the destruction of polyhexene and polyethylene via a radical mechanism. It has been found that the acoustic impact on the oil paraffin solution in decane does not affect the nature of the molecular mass distribution for n-alkanes, but results in increasing the temperature of phase transitions and changing the shape of crystallites.



15.
Study of the Reaction of Ozonolysis of Coal-Tar Crude Benzene

E. S. MIKHAILOVA1,2, S. YU. LYRSHCHIKOV1 and Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2,3
1Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Sovetskiy Pr. 18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
E-mail: MihaylovaES@iccms.sbras.ru
2Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technological University
Ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Sovetskiy Pr.18, Kemerovo 650000 (Russia)
E-mail: IsmagilovZR@iccms.sbras.ru
Keywords: coal-tar benzene, ozonation
Pages: 309314

Abstract >>
The effect of ozonation on the change of the componental composition of coal-tar crude benzene was studied. It was established that ozonation facilitated the decrease of the amount of unsaturated sulphur compounds and a relative increase in the share of benzene.



16.
Study of the Sulphuric Acid Decomposition of Fluorine-Containing Wastes of the Aluminium Production for the Purpose of the Isolation of Hydrogen Fluoride

I. V. PETLINand A. N. DYACHENKO
Tomsk Polytechnic University,
Prospekt Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
E-mail: petliniv@tpu.ru
Keywords: hydrogen fluoride, aluminium industry, fluorine-containing wastes, sulphatisation, complex processing, oxidative roasting, thermodynamic parameters, kinetic characteristics
Pages: 315321

Abstract >>
Processing method of fluorine-containing wastes of the aluminium industry aimed at the preparation of hydrogen fluoride was considered. Thermodynamic parameters of the sulphatisation process of fluorine-containing wastes were calculated. The necessity of the stage of the preliminary oxidative roasting of wastes for the removal of the carbon constituent that hinders the interaction of sulphuric acid with fluorine-containing particles was established. Kinetic characteristics and optimal conditions of the sulphatisation process of fluorine-containing wastes in the static mode were determined.