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2014 year, number 2

A Word about My Friend

V. E. Seliverstov
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS, Novosibirsk

Reality of Regions and Regional Research

Vladimir Leksin
Institute for Systems Analysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Keywords: stability, balance, settlement system, labor reserves, efficient self-reliance, local markets, government authorities

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the main problems destabilizing consistent functioning of the Russian state. Economic stagnation and abnormally high dependence on the global economy, reducing level of habitation in geopolitically important areas of the country, historic settlement system crisis, distortion of the structure and decline in workforce, as well as low chances to implement initiatives of regional and local authorities - all the arguments are examined in the framework of internal misbalance of natural resource, economic, infrastructural, socio-demo-graphic, and administrative potentials of local territories. Moreover, we present how subjects of conceptual studies on the described phenomena and their number do not correspond with their public prominence because of their results not requested by the government authorities.

Reindeer Breeding in the Arctic Subregion: Current State and Directions for the Development

Valentin Ivanov
Institute of Socio-Economic and Energy Problems of the North, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktykvkar
Keywords: the Komi Republic, reindeer breeding, reindeer management systems, environmental conditions, social problems of reindeer breeders

Abstract >>
The paper discusses the role and a specific character of reindeer breeding as the main sector of the traditional northern economy. It examines advantages and drawbacks of different management systems and demonstrates the dynamics of changes and the proportion of domestic reindeer population in the federal subjects of the North. We study the reindeer breeding before the reforms and in the market period. The article further analyzes how the target program «Reindeer Breeding Development in the Komi Republic (2012-2015) is realized. It defines drawbacks of regional development which appeared due to the absence of a federal act on reindeer breeding, unregulated interregional connections aimed at pastures monitoring. As a conclusion, we propose directions on how to develop forest reindeer breeding and solve social problems of reindeer breeders.

Myfhs of Regional Policy: Siberian Separatism

Vladimir Shmat
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Siberia, Far East, region, socio-economic development, separatism, regional separatism, federalism, integration

Abstract >>
The paper states the fact that the Federal Center is attempting to frame bonds with regions into vertical power structure. The bureaucratic politics model and the monopolized Russian business lead to actual limitation of competence and reduction of the financial base of regional self-development, as well as cast doubt on the fundamental principles of federalism. First and foremost, this situation infringes upon interests of Siberia and Far East, but in the end it contradicts with nationwide Russian ones. The Center may be concerned with a fictitious threat of «Siberian separatism which has a long history. Still, nowadays, for Russia to retain eastern territories it does not need an administrative resource but an actual economic integration and reindustrialization of Siberia. It is only economically developed Siberia that is able to «increase Russia's might.

The Level of Economic Development of a Region: Scientific Basis to the Concept of its Evaluation

Lidia Shekhovtseva
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad
Keywords: regional development level, economic measurements, economic growth and development, concept, competitiveness of a region

Abstract >>
The paper defines features, structure and types of instruments measuring regional economic development. We establish that in the economic theory and practice limitation of indicators of economic growth is overcome at transition to measurement of level of economic development. We develop a concept to measure the level of economic development of a region on the basis of subject-functional, systematic, organizational and strategic approaches. The article describes the methodology of how to measure regional development level through the example of an integrated estimation of competitiveness of a region. We discuss possibilities of rating, time and structural analyses.

Introducing Uncertainty into Estimation of Effectiveness of Large-scale Regional Transport Projects: Structural Institutional Approach

Yevgeny Kibalov, Anatoly Kin
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: large-scale capital investment projects, fundamental uncertainty, Hurwitz criterion, system analysis, macromodeling, institutional approach

Abstract >>
The paper presents that standard methods for estimating effectiveness of capital investment projects are deterministic. Uncertainty and risks are introduced and declared but not described with proper terminology. As far as large-scale capital investment projects are concerned, of which implementation influences the structure and price standards not only on departmental or regional markets but also on national ones, underestimation of «external effects, for instance, could lead to costly errors. To resolve this problem, we propose to utilize a strategy games model where contrasting scenarios are generated using models from a family of an optimization interregional-interindustrial model. The article also shows the results of experimental calculations and an example of how to use the described model.

Demographic Situation in Siberia against the Background of All-Russian Trends

Svetlana Soboleva
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Russia, Siberian Federal District, demographic policy, depopulation, demographic potential, life expectancy, natural increase, wanted and expected number of children

Abstract >>
The article examines the demographic situation in Siberia and Russia which has improved since 2006, after a long period of depopulation: birth rate is growing, life expectancy is rising, and natural increase has become positive. These are the first successful steps towards overcoming the demographic crisis. Still, birth rate, although positively increasing, is far from that of the late 1980s. According to the data for 2012, it makes only 80% of simple reproduction. We define the main obstacles preventing future childbirth figures from growing and underline that in order to further overcome the demographic crisis, a family with 3-4 children should become a goal for demographic policy in Russia. Such a family should acquire the largest economic and moral support from the government and the society.

The Low Birth Rate Trap in Moscow: Highly-Educated Childfrees?

Tatiana Maleva1, Alla Tyndik1
Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow
Keywords: Moscow, demographic situation, birthrate, empiric data, education, childfree phenomenon

Abstract >>
The article analyzes actual and normative reproductive behavior of the Muscovites. It demonstrates that high birth rate in Moscow is largely determined by women of reproductive age who are migrating from province. Having used data of sociologic study entitled Moscow and the Muscovites (Moskva i moskvichi), we define the character of relation between education and birth rate, as well as how the figures differ in Moscow and in Russia in whole. The paper discusses a childfree phenomenon which is spreading widely in Moscow. It is the growing women's education level that influences the most on declining birth rate, while family income practically does not affect the number of children. The more the proportion of childless families is, the less judgmental the society becomes. Constant delay in giving birth is the result of shift in priorities towards education and career fraught with childlessness. Moscow with its demographic development and a focus on new social behavior patterns, largely following those of western cities, can be considered as an innovative region that will eventually translate its practices to other major Russian cities. An expanding childfree phenomenon in Russian megalopolises which lack such a strong migration inflow (as Moscow has) may lead to aggravation of low birth rate problems. We give recommendations on further socio-demographic development of the region.

Modern-day Contrasts of Inter-regional Migration in Russia

Igor Korel1, Lyudmila Korel2
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: internal interregional migration, cluster analysis, indicators of migration, clusters of migration catastrophe, concept of state migration policy, migration contrasts, hierarchy, migration threat, human capital

Abstract >>
The paper proposes a way to visualize an interregional competition for a unique scarce resource, namely human capital assets, which is unfolding in the Russian migration space. It may be done within a model of a current seven-cluster structure of migration in regions of Russia which uses ten classic indicators of migration. The database comprises material from Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We show that our cluster structure of migration in regions, although slightly «patched-up in its geography, has profound and stable migration contrasts and dissonances. They prove a dangerous migration trend of the last three decades which still generally remains in the second decade of the XXI century: migration flows are highly center-oriented; these flows leave eastern and northern frontiers of the country deserted and does not react to any modest attempts to rectify the situation made by the government. We confirm that the Russian migration space is «self-organized and has hierarchical structure. The Cluster No. I stands on top; being a pole of attraction for migration flows, it accumulates population from the borders. The cluster of «migration catastrophe (Cluster No. VII) is the lowest; it creates catastrophically large migration loss within human resources against the background of raging migration turnaround that destabilizes economic and sociocultural environment in the regions of the cluster.

On the Approaches to Studying the Affective Component of Society's Well-being

Yaroslav Leshchenko
East Siberian Scientific Center of Human Ecology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Angarsk, Irkutsk Region
Keywords: society's living standards, affective component, spiritual ill-being, socio-demographic indicators

Abstract >>
The paper considers approaches to the well-being assessment from the critical point of view based on the objective, subjective and complex patterns. We indicate the principal differences between the following notions: individual well-being and population's (society's) well-being. Based on these differences, the assessment methodology for the phenomenon is insufficiently developed on the population level. We suggest approaches of differential assessment for an affective component of well-being in regional societies using specific socio-demographic indicators and corresponding criteria. As a result of this assessment it is possible to find the levels of psychosocial (spiritual) ill-being.

Social Networks as a Factor for Developing Regional Innovative Systems in Russia

Konstantin Grasmik
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo, Moscow Region
Keywords: innovation, innovative system, innovative network, social relations, innovative territories

Abstract >>
The paper shows that the main component and the basis of an innovative system is an innovative network, i.e. a set of social relations between participants of the innovation process. We analyzed data on the current innovation activities, interaction between participants of the innovation process, support measures for innovation projects in Tomsk Oblast and Krasnodar Krai. We discover that in Tomsk Oblast, which is generally more active in terms of innovation, support measures for innovation are more diverse and ambitious. The region now holds a range of venture-capital investors. In Krasnodar Krai the support system is more center-oriented, and, as a result, it participates much less in formation of innovative network.

Evolution of Local Environmental Economic Associations: Industrial Symbiosis

Inna Blam1, Kamila Borsekova2, Katarina Petrikova2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
2Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
Keywords: industrial symbiosis, regional sustainable development, eco-industrial park, waste management

Abstract >>
Industrial symbiosis is a voluntary cooperation of enterprises that aims to reduce manufacturing costs by leveraging each other's wastes or by-products as raw materials and sharing resources: information, energy, water, etc. This paper investigates the spontaneous industrial networks based on the principles of industrial symbiosis in Denmark, Russia and Slovakia, which are currently on different stages of development. The identified cases contribute to the sustainable development of regions where they are localized.

Risk Management at the Budget Planning Subjects in the Republic of Tatarstan

Azat Valeyev
Accounts Chamber of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan
Keywords: risks, risk management, risk assessment, the Republic of Tatarstan, budget spending efficiency, preventive control, internal control system

Abstract >>
The paper examines Russian experience in risk management while planning and implementing budget spending. We analyze the current risk management practice in the framework of federal and regional target programs. We present the example of the Republic of Tatarstan in organizing preventive maintenance within the budget planning subjects including executing the work of internal control systems for major budget holders, summarizing specific violations and deficiencies, identifying corruption risks in fiscal environment.

Testing of approaches to the study of the content of municipal strategies

Boris Zhikharevich, Taras Pribyshin
International Centre for Social and Economic Research - Leontief Centre, St. Petersburg
Keywords: municipal strategic planning, management, clusters, strategies, content analysis

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of a pilot study of 100 documents on long-term strategic planning of municipal units. We characterize the texts basing on a devised codifier which describes economic and social parts of strategies, infrastructure development issues and implementation of a strategy. We pay special attention to «ambitious character of a document and priorities towards «flagship projects. As a result of cluster analysis, we have defined three following dense groups of strategies: ambitious realistic (good), unambitious realistic and ambitious unrealistic (populist) ones. The big number of strategies of the first cluster (54) allows us to say that Russian municipal strategies are of considerably high quality. Through the content analysis of the documents using lexical markers, we prove that the strategies are thematically differentiated and find out that a series of topics is assigned by the federal authorities.

Coordination of strategic and tactical management of an industrial enterprise in the face of uncertainty in demand for products

Vladislav Titov1, Irina Tsomaeva2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
2OJSC Altai Instrument Factory ROTOR, Barnaul
Keywords: production program design, batch mechanical engineering, uncertainty of the demand, coordination of tactical and strategic indicators

Abstract >>
The paper presents the methodological approach that designs a production program at enterprises of batch mechanical engineering, instrument making for the current planning period affected by the uncertainty of the demand. Such tactical plans should be coordinated with strategic indicators of business development. This condition can be fulfilled by resolving a problem of stochastic programming. The article provides a simplified solution to this complex issue, which is still closer to corporate planning practices.

Offsite tourist flows from Primorsky Territory

Natalya Martyshenko
Vladivostok State University of Economy and Service, Vladivostok
Keywords: Primorsky Krai, outbound tourism, monitoring, tourism services, opinion polling

Abstract >>
The paper shows that the rate of outbound tourism in Primorsky Krai significantly surpasses that of inbound one and differs from the average figures for the country. Statistics are insufficient to provide a complete picture of outbound tourism in the region in question, so we use data gathered from monitoring tourist outflows from Primorsky Krai based on opinion polling. Analysis of answers given to open-ended questions was conducted with an author's method for data processing designed for tourism services consumers' mass opinion polls. In the paper we show structural trends for tourist outflows from the region. We define issues that hinder strategic planning for domestic tourism development and managing demand on domestic tourism products.

Pioneer of Siberian Regional Science

Anatoly Kin
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk