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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2010 year, number 1

Comparative Analysis of Opisthorchis felineus Karyotypes from Geographically Remote Populations of West Siberia

A. V. Polyakov, A. V. Katokhin, T. A. Bocharova, K. V. Romanov, M. N. L'vova, O. M. Bonina, N. I. Yurlova, V. A. Mordvinov
Keywords: karyotype, trematoda Opisthorchis felineus, populations, the Tom', the Ob, West Siberia
Pages: 3-6

Abstract >>
Karyotype of the trematodes Opisthorchis felineus from two populations of the Ob' and the Tom' river basins in the South-East of the West Siberian plain was investigated. Comparative anlysis of relative length and centromere indexes of 7 chromosomes revealed their identity with those of the trematodes from the lower and upper reach of the Irtysh river. The quality of chromosome spreads allowed improving the former knowledge about the structure of the karyotype of this species, in particular the 6th and 7th chromosomes.

Helminths of Water Vole Arvicola terrestris in Forest-Bog Biocenoses of the Northern Part of the Baraba Lowland

A. I. Chechulin, E. L. Zavyalov, L. A. Gerlinskaya, A. V. Krivopalov, A. A. Makarikov, V. Y. Muzyka
Keywords: helminth fauna, Arvicola terrestris (L., 1758), Arvicolepis transfuga (Spassky et Merkusheva, 1967), Cestoda, Trematoda, Nematoda, Baraba lowland
Pages: 7-14

Abstract >>
Results of helminthologic examintion of wintered water voles are reported. In this group of voles, 13 helminth species were detected: 1 - trematoda, 8 - cestodes, and 6 - nematodes. Among them, trematode Notocotilus noyeri Joyex, 1922 (88 2,7) % and cestode Arvicolepis transfuga (Spassky et Merkusheva, 1967) (68,9 3,8) % dominate in invasion extensiveness. Factors determining the probability of vole invermination with the background helminth species are considered. A connection between the perennial dynamics of the host number with the dynamics of invermination with the dominant parasite species is established.

Specific omposition and Number of Earthworms in the Tundra Biocenoses of the Denezhkin Kamen' Mountain Range (Northern Urals)

A. I. Ermakov, E. V. Golovanova
Keywords: Lumbricidae, faun, abundance, mountain-tundra biocenoses, Northern Urals
Pages: 15-20

Abstract >>
Taxonomic composition of earthworms was anlyzed and their abundance in the mountainous tundra belt of the Denezhkin Kamen' range in Northern Urals was estimated. Four species were revealed: Perelia dilotetratheca (Perel, 1976), Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879), E. atlavinyteae Perel et Graphodatsky, 1984 and Dendrobaen octaedra (Savigny, 1826). It was shown that earthworms dominate in biomass over other groups of soil mesofauna under the mountainous conditions.

Use of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Tubificidae, Oligochaeta) for Purification of Bottom Sediments from Oil and Oil Products

D. S. Vorobyev, Y. A. Frank, S. V. Lushnikov, N. A. Zaloznyi, Y. A. Noskov
Keywords: bioturbation, bottom sediments, silt, Limnodrilus, Oligochaeta, oil, oil products, purification, worm mortality, tubificides
Pages: 21-27

Abstract >>
Possibility to use water worms Oligochaeta, Tubificidae for purification of bottom sediments from oil and oil products is considered.
It is shown in a set of experiments with Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 that oil, even in so high concentrations as 16,72 g/kg, did not cause their death. Mortality of the organisms during the experiment was caused by ntural reasons. Active mixing of silt (bioturbation) under the action of the worms was observed, which was expressed as an increase in the thickness of the silt layer in comparison with the reference conditions. In this situation, a trend to increase the silt layer with an increase in oil concentration in bottom sediments was observed. It was established that oil concentration in bottom sediments decreased within 30 days as a result of the vital activity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri by a factor of 1,20-1,72 or by 16,67-41,90 % ( < 0,05) in comparison with reference aquarium without worms.

Experience of Studying the Growth Rate of Freshwater Gastropoda of the Bithyniidae Family on the Basis of Shells

E. A. Serbina
Keywords: Gastropoda; ithyniidae snils, shell growth rate, trematod
Pages: 29-39

Abstract >>
The Bithyniidae molluscs (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) of 29 populations (14 014 individuals) from Western Siberia were investigated. The guidelines for studying the growth rate of the Gastropoda shells were proposed. The data on the effect of abiotic and biotic factors on the Gastropoda growth rate were anlyzed. The influence of trematodes in the parthenita stage on the shell growth rate for Bithynia troscheli (Paasch, 1842) was investigated.

Postembryonal Morphological Variability of Daphnia galeata in Water Reservoirs of Different Types

E. I. Zuikova, N. A. Bochkarev
Keywords: Daphnia galeata, ontogenesis, morphological variability, body shape
Pages: 41-55

Abstract >>
In spite of numerous ecological investigations, the limits of intra- and interpopulation morphological variability of the species of Daphnia genus remain poorly investigated; as a consequence, systematics of the genus remains a knotted problem. This is especially true for the species with clearly exhibited variability of body length, for example Daphnia galeata. Investigation of the ontogenetic morphological variability of this species was carried out. As a result, general regularities in variation of body shape in different populations were revealed. The morphotypes of size and age groups of D. galeata turned out to be more variable in the mouth of the Kargat river (the basin of Lake Chany) than in Lake Todzha (the basin of the Bol'shoy Enisey river), however, the growth of such indices as helmet and caudal needle was described by the allometric function and their absolute size decreased with age in the daphnia from both water basins. It is shown that the first mature size-and-age group of D. galeata is most suitable for the investigation of the population morphological variability.

Heat Shock Proteins in the Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation in Baikalian Amphipoda and Palaearctic Gammarus lacustris Sars: I. HSP70 family

Z. M. Shatilina, T. P. Pobezhimova, O. I. Grabel'nykh, D. S. Bedulina, M. V. Protopopova, V. V. Pavlichenko, M. A. Timofeev
Keywords: Stress resistivity, heat shock proteins (HSP), amphipoda, Baikal, endemics
Pages: 57-67

Abstract >>
Participation of the proteins of HSP70 family in the mechanisms of stress adaptation under the action of thermal and toxic stress in Baikalian endemic and palaearctic organisms was investigated. Four endemic species of Lake Baikal Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebb.), Eulimnogammarus cyaneus (Dyb.), E. vittatus (Dyb.), Ommatogammarus flavus (Dyb.) were compared with the representative of palaearctic fauna Gammarus lacustris Sars. The character of synthesis of the heat shock proteins of the HSP70 family under the action of thermal (exposure at a temperature of 20, 25, 30 ) and toxic (exposure in CdCl2 solutions with the concentrations 50, 10, 5, 0,5 and 0,05 mg/l) stress was determined. It was shown that all the species under investigation exhibit a common trend to increase the HSP70 proteins; some species-specific features of the character of synthesis of the protein under investigation were observed. It was concluded that HSP70 participate in the mechanisms of thermal and toxic resistivity in the investigated amphipoda species.

Population of Water Insects in the Forest-Steppe Lakes of Baraba (South of West Siberia)

O. N. Popova, Y. A. Smirnova
Keywords: water insects, population, reeds, West Siberian forest-steppe
Pages: 69-74

Abstract >>
Original data on the ecology of water insects inhabiting the lakes of the Barabinsk region of the West Siberian forest-steppe where the lakeside zone is represented by thick reeds are described. It is shown that the reeds along with other lake biotopes are an optimal habitat for many hydrobionts and especially for the larva of Odonta and Ditera classes.

Effect of Electric Anticorrosive Protection of Oil Pipelines on Fish Migration

A. G. Kartashev, A. G. Prokhorov, V. A. Pokharukov
Keywords: electromagnetic biology, static electric field, behavioral response of fish, migration activity
Pages: 75-77

Abstract >>
Effect of the static electric field of the anticorrosive protection of oil pielines crossing the Ob on the behavioral response of fish was investigated. It is shown on the basis of calculations and measurements that the electric field strength at the level of the bottom is 0,6 V/m, at a depth of 2 m from the surface it is 0,4-0,1 V/m and spreads at a distance of 50-100 m from the oil pieline. It is established that the electric field of oil pielines decreases the migration activity of fish, which causes an increase in fish number in the sector of increased electric field strength.

Mechanisms of Short-Term Thermal Compensatory-Adaptive Reaction of the Fish Liver of Carassius auratus gibelio Species

E. I. Antonova
Keywords: liver, hepatocytes, hyperthermia, compensatory-adaptive reaction, fish, oxidoreductase, caspase-3, programmed cell death
Pages: 79-85

Abstract >>
After an hour of the action of hyperthermia on an organism of the Carassius aurata gibelio Bloch fish species, a number of metabolic reactions in liver get blocked and simultaneously the cascade of reciprocal processes acquired during evolution. With the development of metabolic depression, the activity of the enzymes of citric acid cycle - mitochondrial NADIDG increases by 20.4 %, while the activity of mitochondrial NADMDG decreases by 10.2 %; glycolysis process gets activated by 50.2 %, the activity of caspase-3 and acid phosphatase increases depicting the development of the programmed ways of hepatocyte destruction on the way to apoptosis, autophagia and necrosis. The early regeneration processes are initiated.

Herpetofaunistic Zoning of Northern Eurasia

Y. S. Ravkin, I. N. Bogomolova, V. A. Yudkin
Keywords: zoning, fauna, Amphibia, Reptiles, Palaearctic, Northern Eurasia, cluster anlysis, factors, correlation
Pages: 87-103

Abstract >>
For the purpose of zoning with respect to the fauna of Amphibia and Reptiles, Northern Eurasia within the boundaries of the USSR in 1990 was separated into 245 regions over the vegetation map scaled 1 : 20 000 000 so that each region occupied the territory of natural sub-zone extended by 10 in the longitudinl direction. For each region, a list of species met there was compiled over the natural habitats of Amphibia and Reptiles. Using these lists, we calculated the Jacquard quotients of similarity and performed the cluster analysis of the herpetofauna of the allotted regions. On the basis of these results, a hierarchical classification was arranged. It includes 3 herpetofaunistic regions divided into 5 subregions; some of them are further divided into 13 provinces; some of the latter are divided into 32 districts. Environmental factors correlating with the faunistic heterogeneity of the territory under investigation were revealed.
The proposed division is 2-4 times more informative than the previously developed schemes and takes into account 73 % of the dispersion of similarity coefficients for the faunas of specific regions (the coefficient of multiple correlation is 0.85). Connection with environmental factors and natural regimes may explain 84 % of the fauna heterogeneity (correlation coefficient is 0.92).

Bird Population in Pine and Birch Forests of Kungur Region (Perm' Territory) under Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load

D. V. Naumkin
Keywords: pineries, birch forests, ornithocenosis, species diversity, anthropogenic action
Pages: 105-112

Abstract >>
Birds inhabiting pine and birch forests, as well as planted pineries, were studied during the years 1995-2006 at the territory and in the vicinity of Kungur (Perm' Territory). The maximal faunistic and biocenotic similarity of the bird population was revealed for pine forests of the city and the region, while the minimal one was revealed in birch forests. It was shown that the anthropogenic action is maximally exhibited in the city birch forests affecting all the investigated parameters of the ornithocenosis: the density of bird population, species diversity and domination.

Model of the Dynamics of Bird Population for Monitoring of Floodplain Ecosystems (for Middle Ob as Example). Communication 1

V. P. Bolotnov, A. M. Adam
Keywords: bird community, floodplain of middle Ob, basic model, simulation, effect of hydrological regime
Pages: 113-119

Abstract >>
Model of the dynmics of bird population in the river floodplain was developed for the purpose of organizing monitoring of floodplain ecosystems. The model is based on the principles of system dynmics formulated by D. Forrester. A long-term series of observations (1977-2000) in spring and summer in the floodplain of middle Ob in the Kolpashevo District of the Tomsk Region was used. This allowed to improve the structure of the model. The model was implemented with the help of MATLAB 5.2.1 software package. Modeling confirmed the hypothesis that the hydrological regime is the main factor determining the dynamics and structure of bird population in the floodplain of middle Ob.

Spring Migrations of White Crane in Yakutia

I. P. Bysykatova, M. V. Vladimirtseva, N. N. Egorov, S. M. Sleptsov
Keywords: transit stop, passage route, flyway, fly time, downlink transmitter, ground-based investigation, observation post, water-marsh land
Pages: 121-125

Abstract >>
White crane belongs to common birds of passage of the Aldan upland region; 100 to 200 individuals are accounted visually during a season (up to 5 % of the population). Active passage is observed in May, 14-15 - 25-28, especially during the first days. The major part of white cranes migrating in spring takes the north-north-east direction.

Monitoring of Lesser Swan in the Tundra Zone of Yakutia

A. G. Degtyarev
Keywords: ygnus bewickii Yarrell, Yakutia, distribution, number dynmics
Pages: 127-138

Abstract >>
Monitoring of lesser swan was carried out during the years 1982-1995, 2007. The length of aerial count routes was 48 thousand km. An increase in the number of population and broadening of the habitat to the northern and western directions were detected. The data on the number dynamics, geographical distribution, social structure, reproduction indices are reported. Ecological problems connected with an increase in the number of swans are discussed.

Seasonal Phenomena of the Annual Cycle in Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) in the South of West Siberia

V. M. Chernyshov
Keywords: whitethroat, migration, laying dates, clutch suze, egg size variability, reproduction efficiency, moult
Pages: 139-148

Abstract >>
Features of whitethroat migration, nesting and moult in the Baraba forest-steppe (south of West Siberia) were studied on the basis of perennial data. The parameters of reproduction as the basis of adaptation of this species to habitation conditions were considered in detail. The variability of reproductive indices of whitethroat inhabiting the south of West Siberia is relatively low and comparable with the available literature data for other parts of the habitat. Deficit of the time of residence in nesting region, which is due to the large distance from wintering area and climatic conditions, is compensated mainly due to a decrease in the completeness of postnuptial moult and its superposition with the beginning of autumn migration.

Dynamics of the Species Structure of Small Mammals in Urban Territories

N. F. Chernousova
Keywords: small mammals, rodents, common shrew, urbanization, dynmics, species structure
Pages: 149-156

Abstract >>
Studies of the long-term dynamics of different small mammal species in connection with the peculiarities of forest ecosystems transformed under the effect of urbanization showed that a higher rodent number is characteristic of urban communities due to hemisynanthropic species of genus Apodemus (Sylvemus).
It was established that small mammals have similar dynamics in the park-forests in the same type of forest site conditions. However, this regularity is broken inside the city. Stressful conditions of the city environment turn out to be a more powerful factor affecting the structure and dynamics of small mammals than the type of forest site conditions.
The processes taking place in the ecotones at the boundary of city buildings and neighboring forest result in the transformation of plant communities; as a consequence, the structure and dynamics of small mammal communities get changed. Transformation of the lower plant layers ruins the environment of some species and creates favorable conditions for others. Enrichment of community species and an increase in shrub layer density displaces the gradient of habitation conditions to the species usually avoiding coniferous forest: wood and field mice.

Spatial Distribution of Forest Voles of Myodes Genus over the Prikhankayskaya Plain of the Primorsky Territory

S. B. Simonov, P. S. Simonov, T. L. Simonova, D. S. Borisova
Keywords: forest voles, population structure, number dynmics, spatial distribution
Pages: 157-162

Abstract >>
New data on the spatio-temporal distribution of forest voles - red (Myodes rutilus Pallas) and red-gray (M. rufocanus Sundervall) - in the main types of habitats over the Prikhankayskaya plain (the Primorsky Territory) are reported. The seasonal and many years' dynamics of the numbers of these species during the years 2003-2005 is reported. The above-indicated problem was solved in view of the contradictory data available from literature concerning the distribution of the voles of Myodes genus over the Prikhankayskaya plain.

Population Density and Dispersal of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the Forest Biom of Eastern Europe

T. V. Kiener, V. A. Zaitsev
Keywords: red fox, snow track counts, population density, zonal regularities, fragmentation of the habitats
Pages: 163-172

Abstract >>
The data of the snow track counts and own field observations were used. During the last 40 years the red fox has penetrated into the tundra and this has combined with an increase in its population density in European Russia. There is a general trend of the population growth from the north-east south-westward according to zonl regularities. The highest indexes of the census are associated to the southern taiga, subtaiga and partly to the Kola Peninsula. The distribution of the red fox as a carnivore depends on the abundance of its prey. Nevertheless, the ratio of the forested to open lands, mosaic and fragmentation of the habitats and the forest structure has the major influence on the species dispersal. The optimal correlation of the area sizes for the species habitat was determined. The red fox is typical for ecotones. The anthropogenic change of the forests provides the inhabit diversity, increases the population density and also positively affects the wide expansion of the species into taiga.

Inshore Associations of the Spotted Seal

I. O. Katin, V. A. Nesterenko
Keywords: Phoca largha, haulout locus types, formation princiles, the Peter the Great Bay
Pages: 173-180

Abstract >>
Spotted seal Phoca largha is considered typically pagophilic species, but in the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan it is closely associated with specific coastal sites all the year round. 4 types of largha inshore associations (preliminary, breeding, molting and rehabilitative) predictedly connected with certain types of haulout locuses are cyclically formed on the islands of the bay. Principles of formation and features of functioning, as well as structure, specificity of dynmics, the degree of aggregation and behavior features of each type of inshore associations are considered.

Interactions in Family Pairs and Parental Care in Captive Steppe Lemming (Lagurus lagurus)

V. S. Gromov
Keywords: steppe lemming, pair bonding, parental behavior, grooming
Pages: 181-189

Abstract >>
In ten pairs of the steppe lemming, L. lagurus, rearing their first litters, both direct and indirect parental activities were estimated under laboratory conditions during the observation period (21 days from parturition) divided into 4 rearing stages: days 2-6, 7-11, 12-16 and 17-21, respectively. Interactions between adults in family pairs were revealed to be neutral or peaceful ones with rare agonistic contacts. Frequency and duration of partner grooming were found to be much lower than those ones in other vole species with family-group mode of life. These findings suggest weak pair bonding in steppe lemmings. There were pronounced sex differences in total time spent in the nest as well as in time spent by adults alone in the nest. Besides, duration of pup grooming in females was much greater than that in males. Thus, there is different parental investment in L. lagurus females and males. These findings are consistent with the published data concerning the use of space and social organization of the steppe lemming. Parental behaviour of L. lagurus is discussed in comparison with that of other microtine rodents.