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2011 year, number 3

1.
Sorption Activity of Nanosized Powders of SnO2 and CoFe2O4

L. K. ALTUNINA1, L. I. SVAROVSKAYA1, O. G. TEREKHOVA2, A. A. MAGAEVA2, and V. I. ITIN2
1 Institute of Petroleum Chemistry Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Tomsk Scientific Centre Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Depoartment of Structural Macrokinetics
sli@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: nanosorbents, specific surface, microorganisms, sorption activity
Pages: 217-222

Abstract >>
Nanosized powders of the oxides SnO2 and CoFe2O4 with the specific surface of 130 and 160 m2/g, respectively, were obtained by means of mechanochemical synthesis from the salt systems of the corresponding reagents. The physicochemical characteristics of the powders and their absorption ability with respect to microorganisms and organic pollutants were studied. It was established that the sorption of bacterial cells Microccocus albus and Pseudomonas putida during filtration of the microbial oil-polluted suspension through the columns filled with the nanosorbents under investigation is 99.999-100 %. Due to the developed specific surface, the nanosorbents can be used for high-quality purification of drinking water from microorganisms and organic pollutants, which is important in the effors to decrease the infectious morbidity of the population.



2.
Comparison of Some Physicochemical Characterization of Columbite and Tantalite Samples from Different Locations in Nigeria

OLUSHOLA S. AYANDA1 and FOLAHAN A. ADEKOLA2
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology
2 Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin
holysholay04@gmail.com
Keywords: columbite, tantalite, moisture content, loss of mass on ignition, pH and specific gravity
Pages: 223-227

Abstract >>
A detailed physicochemical characterization of columbite and tantalite samples from different locations in Nigeria has been undertaken. Parameters such as moisture content, loss of mass on ignition, pH, and the specific gravity of columbite and tantalite samples from different locations were determined and compared. The results showed that the moisture content of columbite samples obtained from Kwara and Plateau States are 1.0 and 0.53 %, respectively, while the percentage of moisture content of tantalite samples obtained from Kwara, Kogi, Kaduna, and Nasarawa States are 0.37, 0.30, 0.67 and 1.00 %, respectively. The percentage loss of mass on ignition of columbite samples obtained from Kwara and Plateau States and tantalite samples from Kwara, Kogi, Kaduna, and Nasarawa States are 6.1, 3.6, 7.7, 2.4, 4.4 and 4.3 %, respectively. Values of 2.40, 3.76, 3.65, 3.37, 2.07 and 1.96 were obtained as the specific gravities of columbite samples obtained from Kwara and Plateau States and tantalite samples from Kwara, Kogi, Kaduna, and Nasarawa States, respectively, and finally, the mean pH for each of columbite and tantalite samples was approximately 7.6.



3.
Synthesis of the Nanopowders of CeO2 and ZnO with Controllable Particle Size by Means of Homogeneous Hydrolysis in the Presence of Hexamethylenetetramine

V. K. IVANOV1, V. V. KOZIK2, A. S. SHAPOREV1, A. E. BARANCHIKOV1, S. A. KUZNETSOVA2 and A. V. ZABOLOTSKAYA2
1 Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, RAS
2 Tomsk Polytechnic University
van@igic.ras.ru
Keywords: zinc oxide, cerium dioxide, mnanomaterials
Pages: 229-236

Abstract >>
Synthesis of the nanopowders of 2 and ZnO was carried out from the solutions of cerium (III) and zinc salts in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine. The effect of the major synthesis parameters inclding the molar ratio of the reagents and synthesis temperature on the micro-morphology of the formed oxide powders was established. The possibility to vary the size of ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles under the hydrothermal microwave conditions was demonstrated.



4.
Conditionally Essential Microelements
in the Medicinal Herbs of Transbaikalia

V. K. KASHIN
Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
vladkashin2008@rambler.ru
Keywords: lithium, boron, titanium, vanadium, nickel, medicinal herbs, phytocoenoses
Pages: 237-244

Abstract >>
Content of conventionally essential microelements (Li, B, Si, Ti, V, Ni) was studied in 21 species of medicinal herbs growing on different kinds of soil in Western Transbaikalia under the ecological phytocoenotic conditions of arid steppe, meadow with insufficient and normal wetting, and meadow bog. The species and ecological specificity of microelement accumulation in plants was determined. Different levels of microelement content in medicinal herbs and the concentrating plant species for Li, B, Si, Ti, V, Ni were established. According to the results of investigation, boron is attributed to the elements with intense absorption from soil, lithium to medium, nickel to weak, vanadium and titanium to the elements of very weak absorption.



5.
Composite Nanofibrous Materials for the Process of Hydrocarbon Oxidation

N. S. KOBOTAEVA,T. S. SKOROKHODOVA and E. E. SIROTINA
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
see@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: composite material, nanofibrous aluminium oxohydroxide, catalytic oxidation of isopropylbenzene
Pages: 245-250

Abstract >>
Composite material based on nanofibrous aluminium oxyhydroxide activated with metal nanoparticles (Ag, Co, Fe, Cu) was developed. Its catalytic properties in the oxidation of isopropylbenzene were studied. It was demonstrated that aluminium oxyhydroxide can be used as a support for composite materials. Isopropylbenzene oxidation in the presence of activated aluminium oxyhydroxide proceeds selectively, predominantly with the formation of isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide.



6.
Physicochemical Foundations of the Technology
of Obtaining High-Purity Manganese Nitrate Hexahydrate

S. V. LANOVETSKIY
Perm State Technical University
lsv98@mail.ru
Keywords: manganese nitrate hexahdyrate, crystallization, leaching, admixtures
Pages: 251-256

Abstract >>
Effect of the parameters of crystallization process and the preparation of the initial raw material on the quality of manganese nitrate hexahydrate was investigated. The optimal parameters of crystallization process were revealed. Results of the investigation of the effect of metal manganese leaching on the purification from admixtures of calcium and chloride ions are presented. A low-waste technology of the production of high-purity manganese nitrate hexahydrate is proposed.



7.
Investigation of the Interaction of the Artificial Geochemical Barrier with Copper Sulphate Solution

D. V. MAKAROV1, S. I. MAZUKHINA1, D. P. NESTEROV2, YU. P. MENSHIKOV3, I. V. BOCHAROVA2, A. A. NESTEROVA2 and V. A. MASLOBOEV1
1 Institute of North Industrial Ecology, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences
3 Institute of Geology, Kola Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences
makarov@inep.ksc.ru
Keywords: artificial geochemcial barriers, copper precipitation, physicochemical geotechnologies, purification of natural and waste water
Pages: 257-262

Abstract >>
Interaction of the artificial geochemical barrier (a combination of serpentine and carbonatite) with the solution of copper sulphate was studied. Chemical, X-ray, derivatographic analyses and thermodynamic modelling were used. It was demonstrated that the products of the interaction of the barrier with copper sulphate solution are basic copper sulphates – brochantite and poznyakite, as well as chlorite-like phases.



8.
Investigation of Aerosol Precipitation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in the Sphere of Influence of Barnaul

V. E. PAVLOV1, S. V. MOROZOV2, V. F. RAPUTA3, V. V. KOKOVKIN4 and I. V. KHVOSTOV1
1 Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
3 Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
4 Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
pavlov@iwep.asu.ru
Keywords: atmosphere, pollution, aerosol, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, snow cover, observation data, numerical analysis
Pages: 263-270

Abstract >>
Results of the field studies, chemical analytical and numerical investigation of the pollution of the snow cover in the zone affected by the sources in Barnaul emitting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported. By means of gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 19 individual PAH were determined in the collected snow samples. Numerical analysis of the experimental data was performed, and the quantitative regularities of the regional emission of PAHs from the territory of Barnaul were found. By means of the correlation analysis, a linear dependence was established between average logarithms of PAHs concentrations measured in the vicinity of stationary meteorological posts at the territory of the city and beyond its bounds at the direction of prevailing drift. The possibility to construct an economic system of monitoring for estimation of the urban atmospheric pollution for a long-term period was demonstrated.



9.
Possibilities of the X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
of Dairy Products with the Help of the Spectrometer
with Total External Reflectance

G. V. PASHKOVA1, A. N. SMAGUNOVA2, A. L. FINKELSTEIN3
1 Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Irkutsk State University
3 Vingradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
pashkova.gv@yandex.ru
Keywords: X-ray fluorescence analysis with total external reflectance, milk, dairy products
Pages: 271-280

Abstract >>
Effect of the surface density of the emitter on the results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of diary products was studied theoretically and experimentally with the spectrometer having the geometry of total external reflectance (XRD TER). The models of the dependence of the error of milk sample preparation on the level of milk dilution with water and on the volume of aliquot deposited on the substrate were obtained with the help of mathematical planning of experiments. The physical interpretation of these models is taken into account. The models of the dependence of the detection limit of elements in milk on the above-indicated factors were obtained. A procedure of non-destructive determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb in milk; and in diary products with the help of XRD TER was developed. Metrological investigation of the developed procedure was carried out.



10.
Evaluation of the Effect of Heavy Metals on the Plankton in the Technogenic Water Reservoir

R. E. ROMANOV1, N. I. ERMOLAEVA2 and S. B. BORTNIKOVA3
1 Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
3 Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
romanov_r_e@ngs.ru
Keywords: technogenic water reservoir, acidic ore drainage water, phytoplankton, zooplankton
Pages: 281-288

Abstract >>
For water reservoirs of the system of Belovo settling tank (Kemerovo Region, Russia) as example, the species composition, structure and abundance of phyto- and zooplankton of the technogenic water reservoir formed by acidic ore drainage water are characterized. According to the chemical composition, the water of these water bodies may be related to a special technogenic type never occurring under natural conditions. The species diversity and composition of the plankton depict the features of the chemical composition of water and allow us to consider these water objects as extremal localities.



11.
Space-Time Variability of the Characteristics of Aerosol
in the CitySuburbs System
(for Novosibirsk as Example)

T. S. SELEGEY1, K. P. KOUTSENOGII2, N. N. FILONENKO1, S. A. POPOVA2 and T. N. LENKOVSKAYA1
1 Siberian Regional Research Hydrometeorological Institute
2 Voevodskiy Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
koutsen@kinetics.nsc.ru
Keywords: citysuburbs system, mass concentration of aerosol, maximal, minimal and average values, annual variation, interannual variability, weather pattern, the level of atmospheric pollution
Pages: 289293

Abstract >>
Analysis of average monthly, maximal and minimal values of the mass concentration of aerosol in Novosibirsk and at its south-east outskirts during the years 2005–2008 was carried out. It was revealed that the levels of atmospheric air pollution with aerosol in the city and in the suburbs are formed non-equivalently. A trend for a more stable character of air pollution in the city is observed along with the higher variability in the suburbs.



12.
Phase Transfer Catalysis Assisted Nucleophilic Displacements in Pyrrolopyrimidines

RINA D. SHAH
Department of Chemistry, M. G. Science Institute
drrdshah@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: nucleophilic displacements, phase transfer catalysis, tetraethyl benzyl ammonium bromide, 18-crown-6, aliquat, pyrrolopyrimidines
Pages: 295301

Abstract >>
Strategy to involve eco friendly phase transfer catalysis (PTC) with nucleophilic displacements has always been of great interest to study. Therefore, comparative studies of chlorination, azidolysis and indirect amination for synthesis of novel 7,9-disubstituted 5-methyl-7H-tetrazolo[1,5-c]pyrrolo[3,2-e]pyrimidines 4 and their ring cleavage to 5,7-disubstituted 2-methyl-4-amino-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 have been undertaken with and without PTC. Chlorination of 5,7-disubstituted 2-methyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones 2 obtained from 1,4-disubstituted 2-amino-3-pyanopyrroles 1, followed by azidolysis of 5,7-disubstituted 2-methyl-4-chloro-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 3 forming 4 and their chemoselective tetrazole ring cleavage to 5 have been carried out with and without PTC. PTC assisted one pot synthesis of 5 directly from 3 have also been reported.



13.
Investigation of the Stability of Oil Pyrobitumen
by Means of Thermal Destruction

A. A. GRINKO and A. K. GOLOVKO
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
grinco@ipc.tsc.ru
Keywords: oil pyrobitumen, thermolysis, composition of products, structure of pyrobitumen
Pages: 303310

Abstract >>
Thermolysis of the samples of pyrobitumen of petroleum from the Usinsk deposit was carried out at a temperature of 160, 200, 250, 300, 450 and 650 °. Pyrobitumen samples after thermolysis were analyzed by means of IR spectrometry, the elemental composition of the samples was determined, as well as the molecular masses and the structural group characteristics, and the hypothetic structures of average molecules were constructed. Liquid and gaseous products formed as a result of pyrobitumen thermolysis were analyzed by means of GLC and GLC/GAC. On the basis of the data on the thermal stability of saturated aliphatic and cyclic sulphureous fragments and change in the total sulphur content in thermolyzed pyrobitumen, we calculated the amounts of alkyl and thiacyclane sulphur incorporated into the molecules of pyrobitumen.



14.
Transport Properties of Composite Cathode Materials La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.7Ni0.3O3 - δ/Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95

YU. S. OKHLUPIN and N. F. UVAROV
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
ohlupin@mail.ru
Keywords: relaxation of electrical conduction, composites La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.7Ni0.3O3 -δ/ Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95, oxygen diffusion, oxygen exchange, cathode materials
Pages: 311314

Abstract >>
Full conductivity, diffusion and oxygen exchange properties in the composites (100 - )La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.7Ni0.3O3 -δ/xCe0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSFN/CGO, x - volume fraction, 0 <x< 71.1 %) were studied by means of the relaxation of electrical conduction at 700 °C for partial oxygen pressure within the range (0.2–3) · 10-3 atm. It was demonstrated that the electric conduction of the composites decreases monotonously with an increase in the concentration of CGO, while the coefficient of the chemical diffusion of oxygen (Dchem) increases. The constant of oxygen exchange (kchem) is higher for composites than for individual phases LSFN and CGO. The dependence of kchem value on the composition of the composite may be due to the effect of interphase boundaries on oxygen exchange processes. The total efficiency of oxygen transport in LSFN/CGO composites at a temperature of 700 C is maximal for the composites with the volume fraction of CGO close to 70 %.



15.
Investigation of the Kinetics of U3O8 Reduction by Hydrogen and Ammonia under Non-Isothermal Conditions

E. V. SIDOROV and V. L. SOFRONOV
Seversk Technological Institute, Branch State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education National Research Nuclear University MEPhl
ev_sid@mail.ru
Keywords: triuranium octoxide, reduction, hydrogen, ammonia, uranium dioxide, temperature, kinetics, non-isothermal conditions
Pages: 315319

Abstract >>
The possibility of preliminary reduction of U3O8 with hydrogen and ammonia before its fluorination for the purpose of increasing uranium (IV) content in the product is considered. Results of the investigation aimed at the determinaiton of optimal temperatures and the kinetics of U3O8 reduction under non-isothermic conditions by means of temperature-programmed reduction are presented.