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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2008 year, number 4

Geoecological Approach to Choosing Mineral-Like Radionuclide-Fixing Matrices for Long-Term Burial in Granitoids (a Review)

T. A. Vereschagina, N. G. Vasilieva, A. G. Anshits
Keywords: : mineral-like matrices, cenospheres, radioactive wastes, granitoids
Pages: 369-383

Abstract >>
For the example of the Nizhnekansk granitoid massif as an assumed ground for burying highly radioactive wastes (HRW), the application of the geoecological approach for choosing the matrices for long-term burial of HRW in granitoid massifs allowed us to choose the minerals specific for granitorids; these minerals are able to include definite fractions of radionuclides isomorphically. The matrix materials similar to the structural types of frame feldspar and feldspathoids (to bury 135, 137Cs and 90Sr), as well as zircon, monazite, cosnarite (NZP), apatite, sphene (to incorporate actinides and lanthanides) correspond to the principle of the physicochemical compliance of the matrix with the enclosing rocks of granitoids, which will allow one to provide geochemical equilibrium during long-term burial of HRW in a granitoid massif. We demonstrate the possibility to obtain these mineral-like materials of the predictable structural type with the application of promising polyfunctional porous materials based on the readily available raw material - hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (cenospheres) from volatile ash generated in the combustion of thermal coal.

Flavonoid Content in the Plants of the Forest Steppe Zone of West Siberia (Novosibirsk Region)

G. I. Vysochina, Y. V. Shinkarenko, T. A. Kukushkina, O. V. Kotsupiy, I. I. Bayandina
Keywords: plant resources, medicinal herbs, flavonoids, West Siberia
Pages: 385-390

Abstract >>
The concentrations of flavonoids in 76 plant species of 25 families growing at the territory of the Novosibirsk Region are investigated. It is established that the flavonoid content exceeds 3.0 % in 33 investigated plant species. The habitats and terms of collection are reported for the plants which are promising for use as the sources of flavonoids. It is discovered that the maximal amount of flavonoids is present in the representatives of Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae families.

Zinc in the Environmental Objects of Transbaikalia

V. K. Kashin, V. K. Kashin
Keywords: zinc, distribution, soil-forming rocks, natural water, soil, plants, landscapes
Pages: 391-401

Abstract >>
Zinc content in abiotic components (soil-forming rocks, natural water, soil) and in the plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, dry steppe and flood-plain landscapes of Transbaikalia is investigated. A complicated character of zinc distribution in environmental objects is revealed: zinc content in soil-forming rocks and soils of steppe and dry steppe landscapes approximately corresponds to the clarke, while in the rocks and soil of forest-steppe landscapes in is 0.4-0.7 of the clarke level. It is established that the deficit of zinc (20-80 %) in the vegetation of steppe, meadow and agricultural landscapes is characteristic of the majority of the investigated territory.

Samarium Sorption in Mordenite-Containing Tufa

N. M. Kozhevnikiva, E. P. Ermakova
Keywords: rare earths, sorption capacity, natural zeolites, sorption mechanisms
Pages: 403-407

Abstract >>
The equilibrium and kinetics of samarium ion sorption from the solutions of its sulphate and nitrate on natural mordenite-containing tufa are studied. It is established that samarium is extracted quantitatively from the diluted solutions. With an increase in solution concentration, a decrease in sorption capacity of tufa with respect to samarium ions is observed. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined.

Phosphogypsum Processing into Sodium Sulphate and Technical-Grade Calcium Carbonate

V. A. Kolokolnikov, A. A. Shatov
Keywords: phosphogypsum, conversion, soda solutions, sodium sulphate, technical-grade calcium carbonate
Pages: 409-413

Abstract >>
The possibility of phosphogypsum processing into sodium sulphate and technical-grade calcium carbonate using soda is considered. It is shown that the conversion of phosphogypsum proceeds within 20-30 min by 96-98 %. To obtain sodium sulphate solutions with low concentration of calcium sulphate, it is necessary to carry out conversion under the conditions of a 5-10 % excess of soda over sulphate ions with respect to the stoichiometrically necessary amount. It is established that in this case sodium sulphate corresponds to the high-grade product. The second product of phosphogypsum processing - technical-grade calcium carbonate - is promising for use as filler in the production of linoleum; after further processing it is a raw material for obtaining the salts of calcium, strontium and rare earth elements.

Elevation of the Sorption Activity of Opal-Cristobalite Rock by Means of Thermal and Chemical Modification

O. B. Likhareva, M. G. Ivanov, A. I. Matern
Keywords: opal-cristobalite rock, thermal activation, chemical modification, immobilization with ?-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ cations from aqueous medium
Pages: 415-420

Abstract >>
On the basis of the opal-cristobalite rock, a sorbent for the cations of heavy metals from an aqueous medium was prepared. An increase in the sorption capacity of the rock was achieved by means of thermal and chemical modification, as well as by immobilization with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The optimal conditions for the elevation of the sorption activity of the rock were determined. Sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ cations on the prepared samples was carried out; the sorption capacity for these ions was determined. The kinetics of sorption of metal cations from aqueous solutions on the modified rock was studied, along with the dependence of the sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ cations on solution pH and on the concentration of the background electrolyte.

Catalytic Oxidation of α,β- and β,γ-Unsaturated Bicyclic Ketones with Hydrogen Peroxide

Z. P. Pai, P. V. Berdnikova, A. A. Nosikov, B. M. Khlebnikov
Keywords: inter-phase catalysis, peroxopolyoxotungstates, unsaturated bicyclic ketones, epoxides, hydrogen peroxide
Pages: 421-426

Abstract >>
For the purpose of utilization of the side products formed in the processes of production of caprolactam, adipinic acid etc. at the stage of liquid-phase oxidation of cyclohexane with atmospheric oxygen, the possibility to oxidize the compounds incorporated into the light-coloured fraction of X-oil - α,β- and β,γ-unsaturated bicyclic ketones - was investigated. Oxidation was carried out using a 30 % hdyrogen peroxide solution at a temperature of 55-65 oC at atmospheric pressure in a two-phase system (aqueous phase - organic phase) in the presence of homogenous bifunctional nanostructurized catalysts based on tetra(oxodiperoxotungsteno)phosphate in combination with quaternary ammonium cations. The analysis of reaction products was carried out by means of GC-MS, TLC and GC.

Metals in Tissues and Organs of the Baikal Seal

E. T. Pintaeva, L. D. Radnaeva
Keywords: Baikal seal, metals, multicomponent analysis, bioindicator
Pages: 427-431

Abstract >>
The concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni) in liver, kidneys and muscles of Baikalian seals Phoca (Pusa) Sibirica gmel captured in Autumn 2002-2003 in the Chivyrkuy Bay and in Spring 2004 near the Proval Bay of Lake Baikal were investigated. The data obtained were processed with the help of multivariant procedure for main components. It was established that the degree of pollution of the lake area with heavy metals is low; their level in the ecosystem is comparable with the background one characteristic of non-polluted regions of the oceans.

Composition of the Products of Ozonation of Low-Metamorphized Coal Samples of Various Genetic Types in Chloroform

S. A. Semenova, Y. F. Patrakov, M. V. Batina
Keywords: liquid-phase ozonation, coal of different genetic types
Pages: 433-439

Abstract >>
The effect of ozonation in chloroform on the changes of the chemical composition of solid fossil fuel of different genetic types and petrographic composition of the brown-coal maturity stage was investigated. It was established that the character of ozonolytic transformations of the organic matter, yield and component composition of the products of coal ozonation are determined by the features of the structural arrangement of coal. It was shown that the organic matter of solid fossil fuel may be transformed by more than 90 % into soluble products by means of liquid-phase ozonation in chloroform. The highest reactivity with respect to ozone is exhibited by the organic matter of sapromixite coal. With a decrease in the atomic ratio H/C in coal, the fraction of dicarboxylic aromatic acids in the water-soluble products of ozonation increases.

Effect of the Modification of Csβ Zeolite with Chiral Compounds on the Reaction of 5,5,8-Trimethylnona-3,7-diene-2-one with Malononitrile

E. V. Suslov, D. V. Korchagina, V. V. Samukov, K. P. Volcho, N. F. Salakhutdinov
Keywords: basic zeolite, chiral heterogeneous catalysis, malononitrile, terpenoids, Michael's reaction
Pages: 441-447

Abstract >>
The effect of the nature and amount of the chiral modifying agent deposited on Csβ zeolite on the products ratio and on the enantioface differentiation of the reaction of 5,5,8-trimethylnona-3,7-diene-2-one with malononitrile is studied. The synthesized catalysts allowed for the first time to obtain optically active 1-hydroxy-2-imino-4-methyl-6-(1,1,4-trimethylpent-3-enyl)-cyclohex-3-ene-1,3-dinitrile.

Iodinated Carbon Material as a Chemisorbent for Mercury

B. M. Shavinsky, L. M. Levchenko, V. N. Mitkin, A. A. Galitskiy, T. S. Golovizina
Keywords: iodinated carbon material, chemisorbents, mercury extraction, Raman spectroscopy
Pages: 449-454

Abstract >>
The features of the application of porous materials impregnated with chemical reagents to obtain highly active sorbents are considered. The processes of iodine sorption and desorption from an aqueous solution with the carbon material of Tekhnosorb grade are studied. It is shown that this chemisorbent is efficient in absorbing mercury from its aqueous solutions with high concentrations.

Effect of the Salt Composition Made from the Wastes of Soda Production on the Properties of Plugging Solutions

A. A. Shatov
Keywords: salt composition, plugging solutions, Portland cement, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, hydration
Pages: 455-463

Abstract >>
The effect of the salt composition obtained from the wastes of soda production on the processes of hydration of mineral binders and solidification of plugging solutions was investigated. The developed formulas of plugging compositions based on the salt composition are reported.

Nanocomposites of Piroxicam with Inorganic Oxides

T. P. Shakhtshneider, S. A. Mys, M. A. Mikhailenko, T. N. Drebushchak, V. A. Drebushchak, A. P. Fedotov, Y. A. Chesalov, A. S. Medvedeva, V. V. Boldyrev
Keywords: nanocomposites, mechanochemical treatment, piroxicam, aluminium, magnesium and silicon oxides, solubility of piroxicam
Pages: 465-472

Abstract >>
Nanocomposites of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory preparation piroxicam with the oxides of aluminium, magnesium and silicon were obtained suing mechanical treatment in activator mills. Except for the composites of piroxicam with aluminium oxide, the solubility of piroxicam in all the obtained nanocomposites exceeded the solubility of the initial preparation. The changes observed in the IR spectra of mechanically treated mixtures provide evidence of the interaction of piroxicam with the oxides. The interaction of the pharmaceutical substance with the surface of oxides at the interface ensures stabilization of the drug in the metastable state thus preventing its crystallization and transformation from the zwitterion state into the neutral state.

Brцnsted Acidity of the Glass Fibre Materials

T. S. Glazneva, E. A. Paukshtis
Keywords: glass fibre materials, Br?nsted acidity, H/D exchange
Pages: 473-478

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of acidic properties of glass fibre materials by means of IR spectroscopy of adsorbed ammonia and deuterium-hydrogen exchange on the basis of isopropanol dehydration rate are presented. It is shown that these catalysts contain a substantial amount of Bronsted acid centres (BAC) compared in force with the BAC of HZSM-5 zeolite. The concentration of BAC is proportional to the concentration of Al in the glass fibre. It was discovered that BAC are localized in the glass fibre volume. It was shown that the centres located at a depth up to 100 nm are available for isopropanol molecules.

Estimation of the Efficiency of Sorption Purification of Drinking water from Chloroform

O. I. Dzyuvina
Keywords: adsorption, purification, active coal, chloroform, drinking water
Pages: 479-484

Abstract >>
The use of chlorination in water preparation system as the main method of disinfection often causes secondary pollution of drinking water with volatile organic halogenated compounds; chloroform is the major one of them. In the present work, the results of the investigation of the efficiency of sorption extraction of chloroform from aqueous solutions with the sorbents of different nature are reported. The degree of chloroform extraction for its different concentrations in aqueous solutions, and limiting sorption values are presented. The most efficient regeneration method was chosen on the basis of the data obtained in the multi-aspect investigation.