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2005 year, number 1

1.
Betulin and Its Derivatives. Chemistry and Biological Activity

G. A. TOLSTIKOV1, O. B. FLEKHTER2, E. E. SHULTZ1, L. A. BALTINA2 and A. G. TOLSTIKOV3
1Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: gtolstik@nioch.nsc.ru
2Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ufa Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Oktyabrya 71, Ufa 450054 (Russia)
3Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Lenina 13, Perm' 614000 (Russia)
Pages: 1-29

Abstract >>
The data on natural sources of betulin and methods of its extraction are systematized in the review. Transformations of betulin and its available derivatives are considered. The data on the biological activity of betulin, its natural and synthetic analogs are presented. The promising character of the compounds based on betulin for creation of antiviral and antitumour agents.



2.
An Assessment of Contamination of the Selenga River Basin by Chlorinated Phenols

V. B. BATOEV, G. G. NIMATSYRENOVA, G. S. DABALAEVA and S. S. PALITSYNA
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia), E-mail: vbat@binm.bsc.buryatia.ru
Pages: 31-36

Abstract >>
The concentrations of chlorinated phenols (CP) have been determined in superficial water of Selenga River and its basic tributaries, which provide for 53 % of the Baikal Lake drainage. It has been found that a level of contamination of the Selenga River basin by CP is relatively low and the total CP content comprises 0.36-1.85 mg/l. The presence of CP in natural water is caused mostly by the local anthropogenic and natural sources, for identification of which the use of the ratios of net concentrations of 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenols and 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenols, together with 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenols and 2-chlorophenol is suggested.



3.
On the Processes that Occur in the Metal Particles with Their Use in Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrocarbons through the Carbide Cycle Mechanism

R. A. BUYANOV and V. V. CHESNOKOV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: buyanov@catalysis.nsk.su
Pages: 37-40

Abstract >>
The part played by highly dispersed particles of metals of iron subgroup in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons through the carbide cycle mechanism has been considered. A crucial correlation between their crystallographic characteristics and the structure of formed graphite composites has been shown. The major factors have been determined that enable controlling the processes of formation of graphite filaments and fibres.



4.
Study of Phenol Destruction by Means of Oxidation

T. N. VOLGINA, O. S. KUKURINA and V. T. NOVIKOV
Tomsk Polytechnical University,
Pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia) E-mail: olskuk@mail.ru
Pages: 41-44

Abstract >>
The process of deep phenol oxidation in electrochemically activated medium has been studied in an effort to develop the process for neutralizing the wastes of highly toxic matter. The known scheme of phenol destruction to carbon dioxide and water through the stage of p-benzoquinone and carboxylic acid formation has been confirmed. The comparative analysis of specific reaction rates of phenol oxidation has been conducted using the various oxidizers including oxygen, hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe2+, and ozone and also by means of electrochemical oxidation.



5.
Recovery of Catalysts Around Н5PV2Mo10O40 Heteropoly Acid Solutions under a Pressure of Oxygen

E. G. ZHIZHINA, M. V. SIMONOVA, V. F. ODYAKOV and K. I. MATVEEV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: zhizh@catalysis.nsk.su
Pages: 45-50

Abstract >>
The possibility in principle for applying the concentrated aqueous solutions of heteropoly acid of composition H5PV2Mo10O40 (HPA-2) as the stable reversibly reacting oxidizers was shown. The reduced form of HPA-2 can be oxidized by oxygen at 353-433 K under a pressure of as much as 8 kg/cm2 thereby reclaiming HPA-2. An effect of temperature and pressure on the depth and reaction rate of oxidation has been investigated. Reduced and oxidized HPA-2 solutions are stable up to 463 K.



6.
Chemical Composition of Superficial Layers of Particles of Atmospheric Aerosols (Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Regions)

V. P. IVANOV1, S. N. TRUKHAN1, D. I. KOCHUBEY1, V. V. KRIVENTSOV1, K. P. KOUTSENOGII2, N. S. BUFETOV2, O. G. NETSVETAEVA3, L. V. GOLOBOKOVA3 and T. V. KHODZHER3
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: vpivanov@catalysis.nsk.su
2Institute of Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
Pages: 51-63

Abstract >>
An elemental analysis of superficial layers of the particles of atmospheric aerosols (AA) in Novosibirsk Region and the Baikal region has been performed with the technique of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. It has been found that superficial layers (one-two) of monolayer of all aerosols are covered by adsorbed hydrocarbons, nitrogen-bearing compounds, by other more complex compounds, and water. It has been demonstrated that an erosion of aluminosilicate soils with admixtures of iron, titanium, alkaline and alkali-earth metals provides the basic source for AA formation. Action of water results in Na and Ca "washing out" from superficial layers and formation of hydroaluminosilicates. By means of X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure technique, the phase and charge state of iron in AA samples taken in Irkutsk have been determined. With the aim of analysing the composition of gases adsorbed on the surface, an attempt has been made to apply a technique of temperature-programmed desorption.



7.
Obtaining Neodymium-Containing Microfertilizers According to the Sorption Technology

N. M. KOZHEVNIKOVA1, N. E. ABASHEEVA2, N. M. GARKUSHEVA1, M. G. MERKUSHEVA2 and Z. A. SOLDATOVA2
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia), E-mail: ioeb@bsc.buryatia.ru
2Buryat Institute of Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 6, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)
Pages: 65-69

Abstract >>
New efficient microfertilizers based on neodymium and natural zeolites are proposed. The equilibrium and kinetics of sorption of neodymium ions from the solutions of nitrate and sulphate by mordenite-containing tufa are investigated. It is established that neodymium is fully extracted from diluted solutions (<0.002 M); with an increase in concentration, sorption capacity of tufa with respect to neodymium ions is observed to decrease sharply. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined.



8.
An Effect of Treatment by Accelerated Electron Beam on the Composition and Permolecular Structure of Brown and Mineral Coals in a Metamorphism Series

P. N. KUZNETSOV1, YU. F. PATRAKOV2, A. S. TORGASHIN1, L. I. KUZNETSOVA1, S. A. SEMENOVA2, N. K. KUKSANOV3 and S. N. FADEEV3
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: kuzpn@icct.ru
2Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Sovetskiy 18, Kemerovo 650099 (Russia)
3Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 71-77

Abstract >>
An effect of the accelerated electrons generated by the electron accelerator on the composition and indexes of the permolecular structure of brown and mineral coals of a metamorphism series has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the effects of ionizing action are controlled to an essential degree by the irradiation conditions and by the stage of coal metamorphism. Middle rank and high rank mineral coals show stability when exposed to an electron beam: their composition, swelling capacity, and the yield of solubles vary a little upon an irradiation with doses up to 200 Mrad. This may be related to the fact that the derivatives of polycondensed aromatic compounds that make up the mentioned coals may cause the radical and ion-radical reactions to decay inside the organic bulk due to the large electron affinity of these derivatives and trapping the low-velocity electrons. Low-rank coals (brown and mineral) with a great deal of aliphatic chains are rather easily subject to the radiation chemical transformations. When absorbing the small dozes (10-50 Mrad), the destruction processes including partial breaking of the valence cross-linking between macromolecules become dominant which leads to loosening the permolecular structure and to an increased capability of interaction with the molecules of organic solvents. The large radiation dozes (more than 50-100 Mrad) promote preferentially the cross-linking processes and structural regularity.



9.
Photochemical Activity of Aqueous Solutions of Humic Acids Extracted from Soil within Horizon A, Studied by Means of Luminescence

N. L. LAVRIK1 and M. I. DERGACHEVA2
1Institute of Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: lavrik@ns.kinetics.nsc.ru
2Institute of Soil and Agrochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sovetskaya 18, Novosibirsk 630099 (Russia)
Pages: 79-83

Abstract >>
The photochemical stability of aqueous solutions of humic acids (HA) extracted from black soil and from solonetz soil from different depth R is studied by means of luminescence for the first time. It is shown that the photochemical activity of both HA samples extracted from the sub-surface soil layers is higher. The method of photochemical probing is concluded to have advantages over other methods for discrimination of the sorts of HA molecules.



10.
Potential Ecological Danger of Copper and Nickel Ore Concentrating Tailing Dumps Withdrawn from Operation

V. N. MAKAROV, T. N. VASILYEVA, D. V. MAKAROV, A. A. ALKATSEVA, E. R. FARVAZOVA, D. P. NESTEROV and V. V. LASHCHUK
Institute of Chemistry and Technology for Rare-Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Scientific Centre,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Fersmana 26a, Apatity 184209 (Russia), E-mail: makarovdv@chemy.kolasc.net.ru

Abstract >>
Possible soil pollution, as a consequence of dusting of the tailings of copper and nickel ore dressing withdrawn from operation, is modeled. The results show that sulphide-containing final tailing products brought into soil cause rather intensive transformation of heavy metals into water-soluble forms. Thus formed organomineral complexes are stable and yield to no purification with the help of conventional reagents.



11.
The Features of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Water, Bottom Sediments and Biota of the Cherkalov Sor Bay at Lake Baikal

Z. I. KHAZHEEVA1, N. M. PRONIN2, L. D. RADNAEVA1 , ZH. N. DUGAROV2 and S. D. URBAZAEVA1
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670046 (Russia) E-mail: zkhazh@binm.bsc.buryatia.ru
2Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 6, Ulan Ude 670046 (Russia)
Pages: 95-102

Abstract >>
The seasonal dynamics of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb) in water, bottom sediments is shown; their concentrations in the higher aquatic plants (Elodea canadensis) and in zoobenthos (mollusca bivalvia) from the Cherkalov Sor bay of Lake Baikal are analyzed. It was established that the maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies are exceeded for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in water all year long, for Pb during spring tide. The concentrations of all these metals in bottom sediments in fractions <60 mm exceeds the background values by 20-50 %, accumulation of Cd is almost 3 times higher. It is shown that redistribution of Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd is substantially affected by aquatic plants and molluscs.



12.
Possibilities of Obtaining Carbon Sorbents on the Basis of a Composition of Wood Waste and Gumlike Products of Coal Processing

G. P. KHOKHLOVA, N. YU. SHISHLYANNIKOVA and YU. F. PATRAKOV
1Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo 650610 (Russia), E-mail: chem@kemnet.ru
Pages: 103-110

Abstract >>
For carbonization of binary compositions of pine sawdust with a number of gumlike products of coal processing as an example, it is shown that the use of compositions involving compounds of different nature as the initials for obtaining carbon sorbents allows one to change the mechanism of thermal destruction shifting the temperature ranges and decreasing the rates of intensive decomposition. The yield of carbon residue increases non-additively. Such an approach allows one to broaden the assortment of carbon sorbents, including the materials which cannot be carbonized in the individual form.



13.
Investigation of Oxidation and Modification of the Carbon Composite Material by Hydrolyzed Compounds of Antimony (V)

I. V. SHEMYAKINA1, L. M. LEVCHENKO2, V. V. MUKHIN1 and E. E. YURLOVA1
1JSC "Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant",
Ul. B. Khmel'nitskogo 94, Novosibirsk 630110 (Russia), E-mail: or@nccp.ru
2Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: luda@che.nsk.su
Pages: 111-118

Abstract >>
Oxidation and modification processes in the carbon composite material of "Tekhnosorb" grade are investigated. Carbon materials, oxidized and modified with the compounds of antimony (V) (NUMS-O, NUMS-Sb), are examined by means of thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction. It is established that antimonic acid can be synthesized on the surface of HUMS-O either in the crystal form and in the amorphous one, depending on the temperature of oxidation of the carbon surface.



14.
A Substance with Cytostatic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity from Burdock Roots

R. S. BOEV
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademicheskiy 3, Tomsk 634021 (Russia) E-mail: BRS-0@yandex.ru
Pages: 119-122

Abstract >>
For the first time, β-asparagine was isolated from burdock roots and identified. It was established that β-asparagine extracted from roots exhibits cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity. Synthetic L-asparagine (manufactured in Japan) exhibits neither cytostatic nor apoptosis-inducing activity.