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2004 year, number 4

1.
Depth Water of Lake Baikal: A Natural Reference of Fresh Water

M. A. GRACHEV, V. M. DOMYSHEVA, T. V. KHOJER, I. V. KOROVYAKOVA, L. P. GOLOBOKOVA, T. V. POGODAEVA, A. L. VERESHCHAGIN, H. G. GRANIN, R. Yu. GNATOVSKIY and T. Ya. KOSTORNOVA
Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia) E-mail: hydrochem@lin.irk.ru
Pages: 409-420

Abstract >>
This paper shows that the depth water of Lake Baikal is useful as a reference material in intra- and interlaboratory quality control of chemical analysis for low-mineralized natural waters. The results of numerous determinations of major ion contents in Baikal water, as well as pH and electrical conductance values, are considered. Our data on the concentrations of the main ions in the reference material based on the depth Baikal water and the results of intercalibration with this reference material obtained from 14 hydrochemical laboratories are presented.



2.
Thermal Solution of Waste Tire in Heavy Commercial Solvents

I. S. AMOSOVA1, E. I. ANDREYKOV1, N. A. GRINEVICH2 and O. N. CHUPAKHIN1
1Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. S. Kovalevskoy 20, Yekaterinburg GSP-147 (Russia) E-mail: cc@ios.uran.ru
2Ural State Forestry Engineering University, Ul. Sibirskiy Trakt 37, Yekaterinburg 620010 (Russia)
Pages: 421-426

Abstract >>
Thermal solution of the rubber chips of waste tire in high-boiling commercial solvents in the absence of molecular hydrogen is considered. High conversion of rubber to liquid products takes place at 300 AC and above this temperature. The yield of the gas is less than 1 % at 300 AC. Solution of rubber chips in commercial solvents can give products in the form of suspensions of finely granular carbon black in bitumenlike materials. Thermal solution combined with thermal oxidation with air permits one to vary the softening point and the plastic properties of the products. The thus obtained modified bitumens have a weaker temperature dependence of the plastic properties, which is important for improving resistance to cracks and cold in road coatings.



3.
Oxidation of Thiocyanates in Acid Media in a Cell with a Pt Anode and a Gas-Diffusion Cathode Generating Hydrogen Peroxide from Oxygen

T. A. KENOVA and V. L. KORNIENKO
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: kvl@icct.ru
Pages: 427-430

Abstract >>
The kinetics of thiocyanate oxidation in acid media using a cell with or without a membrane and with a platinum anode and a gas-diffusion cathode producing hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The influence of reagent concentration, current density and electrochemical cell design on the oxidation rate of SCN- has been investigated.



4.
Extraction of Cyanides from Waste Solutions of Cyanidation of Flotation Concentrates from Kholbinskoye Gold Deposit

A. A. KOCHANOV1, A. A. RYAZANTSEV1, A. A. BATOEVA2, D. B. ZHALSANOVA2, A. M. BADALYAN3 and O. V. POLYAKOV3
Pages: 431-436



5.
Fluorescence and Electron Absorption Studies of the Structure of Humic Acids Extracted from the A Horizon of Soils

N. L. LAVRIK1, A. M. SAGDIEV2 and M. I. DERGACHEVA3
1Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sovetskaya 18, Novosibirsk 630099 (Russia) E-mail: lavrik@ns.kinetics.nsc.ru
Pages: 437-442

Abstract >>
Fluorescence and electron absorption spectra have been recorded for humic acids (HA) extracted from different sampling depths R of the A horizon of black earth and saline land. It was established that the fluorescence bands red shifted and that the absorption intensity increased with R for both samples. It was concluded that the aromaticity of humic acid samples increases with R.



6.
Cermet Formation during Mechanical Activation of TiB2 - Fe SHS Powder in Benzine

O. K. LEPAKOVA, O. G. TEREKHOVA, V. A. KOSTIKOVA and V. D. KITLER
Structural Macrokinetics Department, Tomsk Scientific Center,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 10/3, Tomsk 634021 (Russia) E-mail: maks@fishman.tomsk.ru
Pages: 443-446

Abstract >>
Phase composition and structure studies have been performed using metallography, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray microstructural analysis for TiB2 - Fe SHS powders mechanically activated in benzine and for sintered alloys of mechanically activated powders. Mechanical activation (MA) in benzine changes the phase composition of titanium diboride in an iron matrix, forming Ti1.87B50, TiB, Fe2B, and Fe3B. After the sintering, the alloy has the following phases: TiB2, a-Fe, Fe2B, and TiC. Formation of titanium carbide is due to the interaction of benzine with TiB2 - Fe SHS powder in the course of MA.



7.
Ecological Consequences of Pollution of Freshwater Reservoirs with Metals: Role of Cu(II) Binding with Low-Molecular Organic Substances

B. S. SMOLYAKOV1, A. P. RYZHIKH1, Zh. O. BADMAEVA2 and N. I. ERMOLAEVA3
1A. V. Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: ecol@che.nsk.su
2A. A. Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Morskoy Pr. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 447-459

Abstract >>
Mesosimulation of the chemical forms of Cu(II) with variation of their distribution in solution was used to study the ecological consequences of the transformations of these forms caused by pollution of a natural freshwater reservoir. Copper (II) and substances that serve as models of natural low-molecular organic compounds with different structures (benzyl- and n-hexadecyl malonic acids, BMAH2, HDMAH2, and phthalocyanine CuPhC) were introduced into mesocosms arranged directly in a water reservoir (Novosibirsk water reservoir). The distribution of Cu(II) over chemical forms in solution was specified based on the results of the preliminary computer simulation and realized by varying pH of water. The residual concentration of Cu in solution and on suspended particles, as well as the response of phyto- and zooplanktons, were monitored for 8-15 days in the mesocosms. It was discovered that in the presence of other forms of copper in solution, binding of Cu(II) into CuBMA complexes had no effect on metal removal to bottom sediments and on the productive capacity of phytoplankton, but stimulated growth of the zooplankton mass. The rate of copper removal to bottom sediments increased when the polar fragment of CuBMA was replaced by a hydrophobic unit (CuHDMA); however, zooplankton was suppressed. The introduction of the CuPhC complex into water has stimulated the development of both phyto- and zooplanktons. The presence of low-molecular organic compounds able to bind Cu(II) in solution generally weakens the adverse ecological consequences of water pollution with copper salts.



8.
Extraction of Chloroform from Wastewaters of Halogen Organic Synthesis Enterprises by Sorption

O. I. USHAKOVA, T. A. KRASNOVA, N. V. SAPINA and M. P. KIRSANOV
Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, Bulv. Stroiteley 47, Kemerovo 650060 (Russia) E-mail: root@mail. kemtipp.ru
Pages: 461-465

Abstract >>
The results of studies seeking to create ecologically safe and resource-saving technologies for the production of halogen organic substances are presented. A method of optimization of adsorption filter parameters and adsorption purification regimes is proposed. A technique has been developed for regenerating exhaust sorbents. A technological flowsheet of an adsorption plant for purification of wastewaters from chloroform is presented; its introduction in the known technological schemes of obtaining organochlorine substances will make it possible to avoid environmental pollution.



9.
Fractionation According to Radioactivity during Remelting of Metallic Radioactive Waste*

V. A. CHERNOROT1, S. N. MAMONOV1, B. M. LAPSHIN2, M. G. VASILIEV2, N. N. LYSENKO3, S. A. ISTOMIN4 and V. N. LOPATIN4
1Federal State Unitary Enterprise KGPII VNIPIET,
Ul. Lenina 39, Zheleznogorsk 662970 (Russia) E-mail: tchernorot@atomlink.ru
2"Crystal" Scientific Research Centre, Pr. Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russia)
3Federal State Unitary Enterprise "DalRAO", Ul. Pervaya Flotskaya 39, Vladivostok 690013 (Russia)
4New Technologies in Metallurgy, Ltd Co., Ul. Amundsena 101, Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russia)
Pages: 467-471

Abstract >>
A new process is described for the production of metallic shot and its fractionation according to residual activity during remelting of metallic radioactive waste (MRW). The process ensures reliable control of remelted and deactivated metal according to gamma-emitting radionuclides.



10.
Use of Surfactants to Reduce Release of Nickel Aerosols during Nickel Electrolysis*

A. I. YURIEV, A. G. MALYSHEVA, A. V. SOLONIN and L. A. BOLSHAKOV
Mining and Metallurgical Company "Norilsk Nickel",Mining and Smelting Research Centre, Norilsk (Russia)
Pages: 473-478

Abstract >>
A trial test procedure has been devised for testing the properties of surfactants to be used as additives to reduce nickel aerosol concentrations in the air of the working site in nickel electro-refining. More than 50 various surfactants from Russian and foreign manufacturers have been tested. Good aerosol suppression is demonstrated by "Chromin" (potassium ethylcyclohexaneperfluorosulphonate), "Progress" (secondary sodium alkylsulphate), and "Sulphonole" (sodium alkylbenzosulphonate) surfactants, which do not cause deterioration of cathodic nickel.



11.
Development of a Resource-Saving Technology for Utilization of Caprolactam Production Wastewaters

V. P. YUSTRATOV, T. A. KRASNOVA and O. A. ALEKSEEVA
Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, Bulv. Stroiteley 47,
Kemerovo 650060 (Russia) E-mail: root@mail.kemtipp.ru
Pages: 479-483

Abstract >>
A technology for utilization of caprolactam production wastewaters has been developed. The equilibrium, kinetics, and dynamics of caprolactam adsorption from wastewaters using AG-5, BAU, AG-OV-1, and SKD-515 industrial active carbons have been studied. Optimization of the sorption filter regime was carried out by calculating the output curves based on the equilibrium adsorption layer model in the region of the linear absorption isotherm using the constants of the Dubinin - Raduszkiewicz equation, the kinetic data, and the mathematical balance equation.



12.
Development Strategy for Raw Materials Base of Aluminum Industry in Russia

G. G. LEPEZIN
A. A. Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia) E-mail: lepezin@uiggm.nsc.ru
Pages: 485-499

Abstract >>
The state of affairs in aluminum industry of Russia is analyzed in detail. The problem of raw materials base is considered, and radically new solutions are suggested. The electrothermic method of aluminum production from minerals of sillimanite group without using alumina is proposed.



13.
Prospects for Chlorine Metallurgy of Aluminum

O. G. PARFENOV
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia) E-mail: parf@icct.ru
Pages: 501-507

Abstract >>
Brief analysis of the state of affairs in aluminum industry of Russia is presented. A selective chloridation procedure using minerals from the sillimanite group is described as an example. Possibilities for expanding the production of alumina and primary aluminum are suggested based on the chlorine pyrometallurgy processes. The benefits of a technology of this kind over traditional electrolysis in cryolite-alumina melts are: lower electric energy consumption, lower production cost of aluminum, no highly toxic emissions to the atmosphere, and no solid and liquid wastes.



14.
Snow Flow of Metals into Waterways Evaluated Using the Storage-Washout Model for Urbanized Territories

I. V. INDYUSHKIN1 and S. V. TEMEREV2
1Municipal Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Inspection, Ul. Radishcheva 50, Barnaul 656099 (Russia)
2Altay State University, Pr. Lenina 61, Barnaul 656099 (Russia) E-mail: temerev2004@front.ru
Pages: 509-523

Abstract >>
This paper presents the experimental results of an onsite snow survey of 2003 carried out on reference areas of an industrial center and its domain of influence. A comparative analysis has been carried out to study the chemical composition of the solid and liquid snow flows. The object of investigation was the snow cover (38 core samples) and the underlying surface (22 soil samples) on an area of about 1200 km2. Under laboratory conditions, melted snow was filtered through membrane filters in an argon atmosphere. The solid particles of the snow cover collected on a filter were treated with a mixture of mineral acids and analyzed for Fe, Mg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn using atomic absorption spectroscopy after atomization in acetylene air flame. Inversion voltammetry measurements using a mercury film electrode were carried out to determine pH, Eh, c, and the contents of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The bulk concentrations of Fe and Mn in the filtrate were found by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after tenfold overall concentration. Additionally, the total content of heavy metals in the aqueous and acid extracts from soil was determined by the same method. Previously, it was found that inorganic lead dominated on the surface of the solid particles of the snow mass (80-90 %), while 3-9 % was organic lead, including 2-5 % lead of anthropogenic origin. The analytical data obtained for metals were used to evaluate the volumes of the snow metal flow to the channel net of the Ob River within the storage-washout model for urbanized drainage basins.