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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2022 year, number 4

Evolution of localized boundary-layer perturbations under conditions of the laminar-turbulent transition (review)

A.V. Dovgal, M.M. Katasonov, V.V. Kozlov, A.M. Pavlenko
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: boundary layer, hydrodynamic stability, transition to turbulence, localized flow disturbances

Abstract >>
A review of experimental results obtained with the participation of the authors of this article, as well as in other studies on the generation and development of localized perturbations in two- and three-dimensional boundary layers, is presented. The accompanying wave phenomena and the contribution due to the spatial-temporal deformations of the velocity field of the initial laminar flow to its transition into turbulent state in boundary layers on the surface of aircraft, including small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), are discussed.

Turbulent boundary layer on an extended axisymmetric body in the case with air blowing and a rough permeable surface

V.I. Kornilov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: axisymmetric body, turbulent boundary layer, distributed blowing, perforated region, friction

Abstract >>
Results of numerical and experimental investigations of the efficiency of distributed air blowing through a perforated region of the surface of an axisymmetric body of revolution in an essentially incompressible flow with the Reynolds number ReL = 4,24106 are reported. The blowing factor Cb is varied in the interval 0-0.00885. The Reynolds number Re** based on the momentum thickness δ** ahead of the perforated region is 5600. As the streamwise coordinate increases, stable reduction of local friction is observed up to the distance of 600 δ** from the blowing region; the maximum value of local friction reaches 56.5% directly in the region of blowing with the maximum intensity. It is found that spontaneous blowing, which occurs due to the natural difference between the barometric and static pressures in the wind tunnel test section, can also ensure reduction of the skin friction coefficient whose value in the above-noted flow region in the main operation regime is 28.5%. Specific features of the flow around the body of revolution in the case of a rough perforated surface is analyzed through numerical simulations, and it is demonstrated that it is necessary and important to take into account this factor accompanying the blowing process.

Numerical simulation of the starting of a supersonic air intake with a rectangular duct and draining part of the captured air flow through longitudinal slots

I.I. Mazhul, Yu.P. Gounko
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: numerical simulation, supersonic flow, longitudinal slots, air bypass, air-intake start

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of starting conditions for a supersonic air intake using the bypass of part of the captured air flow through longitudinal slots. The air-intake duct consists of a tapered inlet section and a constant-cross-section throat built using flat surfaces, and it contains longitudinal bypass slots stretching along the flat bottom surface. Various types of the sectional bypass of the air flow are investigated, and the change of the air-intake-duct flow structure depending on the flow bypass mode is demonstrated. Numerical modeling of the three-dimensional flow was performed for free-stream Mach number M = 4 on the basis of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the κ-ω SST model of turbulence.

Heat transfer at the stagnation point of a free-falling impinging liquid jet

A.I. Fedorchenko1,2, F. Marsik1, V.I. Terekhov3, V.V. Terekhov3
1Institute of Thermomechanics CAS, Prague, Czechia
2Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk
3Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: heat transfer, impinging liquid jet, self-similar solution, impulse jet

Abstract >>
The results of an analytical study of unsteady heat transfer in the vicinity of a stagnation point of an axisymmetric impinging liquid jet are presented. A self-similar solution is obtained, which allows the analysis of heat transfer behavior as a function of the Reynolds number, distance from the nozzle to the surface, and characteristic time. The behavior of the Nusselt number for the solution in asymptotically limiting cases is shown: the Froude number Fr >> 1 (small distances from the nozzle to the barrier) and Fr << 1 (large distances). It is noted that the effect of the Froude number can be quite significant and should be taken into account when predicting heat transfer. Significant intensification of heat transfer is shown for a pulsed impinging jet at short pulse durations.

Heat transfer characteristics of a swirling impinging air jet emerging from a triple spiral-corrugated nozzle with a twisted tape installed

P. Eiamsaard1, K. Wongcharee2, K. Kunnarak2, Kumar Manoj3, S. Eiamsaard2, M. Pimsarn4
1Rajabhat Rajanagarindra University, Chachoengsao, Thailand
2Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand
3DIT University, Dehradun Uttarakhand, India
4King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand
Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer visualization, swirling impinging jet, triple spiral-corrugated nozzle, twisted-tape

Abstract >>
Thermal visualization using a thermochromic liquid crystal sheet was performed to investigate and compare heat transfer behavior of a swirling impinging jet emerging from a triple spiral-corrugated nozzle with a twisted tape ( SIJ with TT ), a SIJ issuing through a triple spiral-corrugated nozzle, and a typical/conventional impinging jet ( CIJ ) emerging from a smooth straight circular nozzle. The experimental results showed that the stronger jet recirculation close to the wall due to the swirl flow created by triple spiral-corrugated nozzle and twisted tape inserts ( SIJ with TT ) support in reducing the value of Nusselt number between the stagnation region and surroundings. For the SIJ with TT , the average Nusselt number (Nu) performed by the jets with L/dH shows that the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient was significantly enhanced with increasing twist ratios. The maximal value of the Nusselt the SIJ with TT was obtained at the lowest twist ratio ( y/W = 2.0). This was up to 5.7 % and 35.5 % higher than those of the SIJ with TT at y/W = 4.0, and the CIJ, respectively.

Swirl flow in a cylindrical container: lattice Boltzmann equations and Navier-Stokes equations

M.V. Salnikov1, K.S. Kinzin1,2, V.A. Ivaschenko1, I.V. Naumov1,2, R.I. Mullyadzhanov1,2
1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: direct numerical simulation, Navier-Stokes equations, lattice Boltzmann equations, swirl flow, vortex breakdown

Abstract >>
The paper presents a systematic view for a swirl flow produced within a cylindrical container with fixed walls and a rotating top lid using two theoretical approaches: the lattice Boltzmann equations and Navier-Stokes equations. The flow modes for this confined liquid flow were tested as functions of two parameters: Reynolds number and the cylinder height to radius ratio. The lattice convergence of both solutions was analyzed. The simulation data exhibit compliance between these two variants and with the available experimental data, including the case of the development of recirculation flow at the cylinder axis (which corresponds to the event of vortex breakdown).

Thermal and hydrodynamic conditions of magma chamber and melting conduit formation in the subduction zone

A.A. Kirdyashkin, A.G. Kirdyashkin, V.E. Distanov, I.N. Gladkov
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk,Russia
Keywords: free convective flows, subduction zone, plume conduit, melt, primary chamber, heat power

Abstract >>
A model of a thermochemical plume in the subduction zone is presented here, based on experimental modeling and theoretical analysis, as well as geological and geophysical data. A thermochemical plume originates at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle when a chemical additive is present in the crustal layer of the subducting oceanic lithospheric plate, which lowers the melting point of the crustal layer substance. The structure of thermal gravitational flows in the plume conduit melted out in the crustal layer was established due to experimental modeling. The heat power at the plume base and the heat power transferred by the plume conduit to the surrounding mantle were determined. The depth of location of a primary magma chamber, from which the thermochemical plume originates and rises to the surface of the continent, where the volcano is formed, was determined depending on the crustal layer thickness, the rate of subduction, and the angle of subducting lithospheric plate inclination. The primary magma chamber is formed in a region where the rates of subduction and melting of the crustal layer are equal in magnitude and directed oppositely. A model of the origin of a thermochemical plume on the primary chamber roof is presented, and the conditions of the plume conduit outcrop are determined. Based on theoretical modeling, geological and geophysical data on the depth of the primary chamber origin, the thermal and hydrodynamic conditions for the existence of a thermochemical plume incipient from the primary chamber and responsible for volcano formation on the surface were found.

Laws of motion and aerodynamic drag coefficient for large titanium particles burning in air

N.S. Belousova1,2, O.G. Glotov1,2
1Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, Novosibirsk,Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk,Russia
Keywords: combustion, titanium particles, fragmentation, aerodynamic drag coefficient, particle motion

Abstract >>
The results are reported on the study of burning titanium particles with the diameter of 200 - 550 m while free fall in air. Video with the rates of 25 and 500 fps captures the particle trajectories. The mathematical procedure for averaging of particle trajectories was developed. The trajectories can be classified into classes with the particle size variation within each class about 20 - 30 m. The evolutions of particle coordinate x(t) and particle velocity v(t) as functions of time t (until the event of particle fragmentation) were presented as generalized functions for each of the size-classes. The comparison of empirical curves x(t) and v(t) with the analytical solutions for this problem about a spherical particle motion under gravity and aerodynamic drag forces gives the effective aerodynamic drag coefficient for a burning-in-air titanium particle in the format Cd = A /Re, where Re is the Reynolds number. For the particles within the tested size range, the parameter is independent of the particle diameter and equals about 61 2 for the particle motion with the Reynolds number varying from 1 to 10. If we take the aerodynamic drag coefficient Cd = 61/Re and the air viscosity equal to 5,0710-5 Pas, then the motion of burning titanium particles in air can be described by the known analytical solution for a problem of spherical particle motion driven by forces of gravity and drag within the accuracy provided by the empirical equations.

Thermal emission characteristics of combustion products from rocket engines. Part 2. Investigating the influence of various factors for SPRE

V.A. Kuzmin, I.A. Zagrai, N.A. Shmakova
Vyatka State University, Kirov,Russia
Keywords: solid-propellant rocket engine, thermal radiation, heterogeneous combustion products, emission characteristics, radiation energy flux density, emissivity factor

Abstract >>
Computational experiments in the field of thermal radiation emitted by combustion products of rocket engines allow tracing the effect of determining factors on the emission characteristics, which serves to plan, predict, and interpret a physical experiment. The paper considers the influence of the condensed phase (aluminum oxide particles), the gas phase and its individual components (H2O and CO2) on spectral and integral radiation energy flux densities and emissivity factors in various sections of the flow of heterogeneous combustion products of a model solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE). A comparison of the emission characteristics of incomplete combustion products and combustion products is performed for the chamber and initial section of the plume of the first-stage SPRE of Trident II (D5). The calculations of spectral radiation intensity of an initial section of the plume are compared with the results of other authors.

Characteristics of a fuel spray atomized with a steam jet

E.Yu. Shadrin1, I.S. Sadkin1,2, E.P. Kopyev1, I.S. Anufriev1,2, V.V. Leshchevich3, S.Yu. Shimchenko3
1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of NAS, Minsk, Belarus
Keywords: superheated steam, spraying burner, liquid fuel, steam, atomization, shadow photography method, disperse composition

Abstract >>
The characteristics of a fuel spray atomized by a steam jet were studied using the method of shadow photography. The studied method of forming a two-phase flow for dispersing liquid fuel allows application of a wide range of hydrocarbons and increases the service life of the combustion equipment due to the absence of fuel spraying nozzles. Using a long-focus macroscopic lens, the dispersed composition of spent engine oil was measured at various fuel supply frequencies: 10, 25, and 40 Hz. The dispersed phase velocity was determined using the PIV-algorithms; it amounted to 60 m/s for all studied regimes. It is shown that the frequency of liquid fuel supply does not affect the size and velocity of the formed fuel droplets.

Heat transfer and entropy generation of water/TiO2 nanofluid flow in a wavy channel using two-phase mixture approach

B. Boudraa, R. Bessaih
University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Algeria
Keywords: mixture model, wavy wall, laminar, forced convection

Abstract >>
In the current study, we conducted a numerical analysis of water-TiO2 nanofluidand entropy generation in a wavy channel under constant heat flow( q") by using a two-phase mixture model. The analyses were carried under a laminar forced convection flow condition. Reynolds numbers (Re) are considered in the range of 50≤Re≤600, with the volume fraction of nanoparticles φ are considered in the range of 1 ≤ φ ≤ 5 %. The governing equations are solved by using Ansys-Fluent software 14.5.The validation of the outcomes has demonstrated a strong consensus between the results and the literature's data. The effect of various Re, φ, and wavy amplitudes (α) on the flow behavior and heat transfer are examined. Moreover,the distribution of the static temperature, streamlines, total entropy generation Sg,t, Bejan number (Be) contours have been presented and discussed. Results showed that the heat transfer rate improves when φ , Re, and α increase. The heat transfer is enhanced when using a wavy wall compared to a straight wall. The performance evaluation criterion (PEC) increases with φ and Re. Therefore, it is recommended to use large values for each of φ and Re in the wavy channel from engineering and economics perspectives. Concerning Sg,t, Sg,t,h Be, we conclude that these parameters decrease when φ and Re increase, except Sg,v is increased with φ and Re.

Nucleation and structuring in aluminum and in ALSi12Cu2NiMg alloy with nanopaticle modifier under impact of electron-beam treatment

R. Lazarova1, G.E. Georgiev1, A.N. Cherepanov2, V. Dyakova1
1Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro- and Aerodynamics Centre. "Acad. A. Balevki" Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: electron-beam treatment, nanoparticles, modifier, crystal structure

Abstract >>
The paper presents experimental and theoretical study of crystal nucleation and growth in aluminum and structure development in the aluminum melt after the introduction of a cubic-shaped nanoparticle modifier and using the electron-beam surface treatment method. The output of this study is the rate of solid phase nucleation as a function of TiCN nanoparticle size dispersed in molten aluminum. The numerical simulation of crystal structure growth for a sample of AlSi12Cu2NiMg alloy treated by electron beam was performed using the MAGMASOFT computer code.

Thermal conductivity of lead in the temperature range of 350-1000

A.B. Kruglov, V.I. Rachkov, I.G. Merinov, V.S. Kharitonov, L.P. Paredes
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow,Russia
Keywords: pulse heating method, thermal conductivity coefficient of lead, impurities in lead, thermal resistance of contact of lead melt and steel

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of measuring the coefficient of thermal conductivity of lead in the temperature range of 350-1000 C using the pulse heating method. The methodology of processing experimental data is described. The estimates of the experimental data error are given. The difference in the content of impurities in the lead samples is shown to have an in significant effect on the thermal conductivity coefficient of the lead melt. The deviation of the experimental data on the thermal conductivity of lead from the proposed interpolating dependence does not exceed 2 %. The obtained data are compared with the known recommended dependences for calculating the thermal conductivity coefficient of lead.

Thermophysical properties of magnesium-lithium eutectic

A.Sh. Agazhanov, R.N. Abdullaev, D.A. Samoshkin, Yu.M. Kozlovskii
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: magnesium-lithium alloy, eutectic composition, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, density, linear thermal expansion coefficient, relative elongation

Abstract >>
A comprehensive study of the thermophysical properties of an ultralight eutectic Mg-Li alloy (with a lithium content of 23 at.%), promising for use in the aerospace industry has been carried out. New reliable experimental data have been obtained for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, density, linear thermal expansion coefficient and relative elongation of the alloy in the temperature range of 300 - 759 ÷781 K. The obtained results have been compared with well-known literature data on thermal conductivity and thermal expansion for Mg-Li system alloys. Approximation equations and a table of reference data of the studied properties are presented. The relative density change during melting of eutectic has been determined.

Simulation of ice melting on a vertical substrate

S.D. Sleptsov1, N.A. Savvinova2
1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk, Russia
2North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia
Keywords: ice, melting, Stefan problem, anisotropic scattering, selectivity, substrate

Abstract >>
Numerical calculation of the influence of various types of opaque substrates on ice melting was carried out using mathematical modeling methods. It is shown that while maintaining a constant low temperature of the left boundary of the heat-conducting substrate, ice melting does not depend on its thermophysical properties. The threshold value of thermophysical properties, below which the dependence on the substrate must be taken into account, is found.

75th Anniversary of Amir A. Gubaidullin

Abstract >>
4 August, 2007 is the 75th anniversary of the well known scientist, scientific administrator and head of scientific school of Tymen Division of Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor Amir A. Gubaidullin.