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Geography and Natural Resources

2020 year, number 5S

1.
THE ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF GEOSYSTEMS OF BAIKALIAN SIBERIA AS THE BASIS FOR NATURE MANAGEMENT OPTIMIZATION IN THE REGION

I.N. VLADIMIROV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
garisson@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: ecological potential of geosystems, stability of geosystems, nature management optimization, Baikalian Siberia, Baikal Natural Territory

Abstract >>
On the basis of the GRID modeling principles, an assessment was made of the ecological potential of geosystems of Baika lian Siberia and special assessment maps were constructed. The contents of such maps are determined by the purposes of obtain ing the necessary information on the characteristics of geosystems which are required for a further development of forecasts to obtain objective results. Among such important characteristics of geosystems are the indicators of their status and disturbance, their ecological potential as well as the degree of their natural anthropogenic stability. Using special assessment maps of the natural conditions and ecological potential, it is possible to gain a general insight into the living conditions of people in them and create the natural-scientific foundation of a sound regional environmental policy.
																								



2.
METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATING THE TRANSFORMATION OF GEOSYSTEMS OF GEOTECTONICALLY ACTIVE REGIONS

T.I. KONOVALOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
konovalova@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: geosystem, transformation mechanisms, transforming dynamics, evolution, tectonics, climate

Abstract >>
The methodological fundamental are suggested for investigating the transformation of geosystems of the Baikal Natural Territory characterized by different geodynamical regimes. The methodology has been developed with due regard for the openness, nonlinearity and coherence of the relationships of geosystems. The transformation of geosystems is considered in the contest of changes in its substantial properties as a result of the emergence of the transforming dynamics and evolution. It is established that the modification of geosystems of the region during the Late Cenozoic was largely caused by tectonic processes which deter mined changes in the composition of rocks, relief, climate, the pattern of the atmospheric circulation, and in the sedimentation environment. The study revealed the nonlinearity of the manifestation of the relationships of geosystems within pre-rift zones, the Angara-Vitim batholith and large faults with an increased influx of endogenous heat. It is established that an analog of the transformation of Pliocene geosystems is formed through a coherent enhancement in the natural trend of transformations in regions of intense economic activity.
																								



3.
FACTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF AN INCREASE IN ACTIVITY OF HAZARDOUS NATURAL PROCESSES AND IN MAGNITUDE OF ELEMENTAL CALAMITIES

S.B. KUZMIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kuzmin@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: natural disasters, risk, damage, urbanization, management of territories, standardization of assessment parameters

Abstract >>
Decades are considered from the global and regional perspective. These factors are responsible for an increase in the magnitude and destruc tive force of elemental calamities and natural catastrophes. The current situation causes managerial bodies to increasingly often introduce emergencies of a natural and natural-technogenic character and take systematic efforts to assess ecological and eco nomic risks. Compensation for damage to the population, economy and territories, surrounding landscapes and ecosystems, and elimination of consequences of elemental calamities and natural catastrophes have been very expensive for society and the State in recent years.
																								



4.
SOCIO-GEOGRAPHICAL SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRANCHES OF SPECIALIZATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE BAIKAL REGION: CARTOGRAPHIC APPROACH

T.I. ZABORTSEVA, M.A. GRIGORYEVA, I.A. DETS, N.A. IPPOLITOVA, N.V. ROGOVSKAYA, P.V. ROGOV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
zabti@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: Baikal region, economic specialization, mapping, investments, forecast of development

Abstract >>
The present status of the economic complex and the foreseeable future are illustrated by the example of the resource-oriented Baikal region in the composition of its three federal subjects (Irkutsk oblast, Republic of Buryatia and Zabaikalskii krai). An assessment is made of the results on the status and possible development of the economic complex on the basis of analyzing a number of basic thematic maps that were compiled. The probable forecast of the development of the territory with due regard for the dynamics of investments, results of activity of big business, the construction industry, the socio-ecological infrastructure, and monitoring of the behavior of labor resources does not permit this scenario to be profiled as favorable. The process of influence of investments on territorial development is considered in detail. One of the previously drawn conclusions with respect to the territory of resource specialization is confirmed: a high indicator of mean per-capita investments is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in the population size and by an improvement of the ecological-social infrastructure.
																								



5.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL OF SIBERIA

N.V. VOROBYEV, O.V. VALEEVA, Yu.N. DMITRIEVA, P.V. RYKOV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 64033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
vorobyev@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: population distribution, reproduction, age structure, quality of the population, human development, regions

Abstract >>
We examine the issues related to the status, development, possible changes and use the socio-demographic potential of the territory. In this case, implementation implies putting into practice in a scientific investigation the theory of socio-demographic potential for an integral representation of the development of the potential by using as an example of such a macroregion as Siberia. The current relevance of the topic is dictated by the need of the countrys eastern regions in which, as before, the human factor for improving the level of socio-economic development is ignored. Three interrelated groups of issues are considered: population distribution, reproduction and the quality of the population in the settings of the Siberian regions. An assessment is made of the status and possible development of the socio-demographic potential on the basis of analyzing number of basic sta tistical indicators and the summary map.
																								



6.
LANDSCAPE MAPPING OF THE SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL REGIONS OF MIDDLE SIBERIA

G.I. LYSANOVA, Yu.M. SEMENOV, A.A. SOROKOVOI
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
lysanova@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: classification of geosystems, geoms, groups of geoms, groups of facies, agrogenic analogs

Abstract >>
We examine the methodological procedures and results of landscape mapping of the southern and central regions of Middle Siberia. Geoinformation mapping was accomplished by using the vector topographic basis and Earth remote sensing data. Inter pretation of synthetic satellite images was done in manual mode and was based on field landscape surveys. Digitizing and index ing of landscape contours, and generation, montage and layout of the map were done in MapInfo Professional GIS. The landscape structure of the territory is reflected by using a classification of geosystems based on the system-hierarchical principles with the regard for the positioning of the territory in the system of the physical-geographical regionalization. The lower unit of geomers in mapping was represented by a group of facies, and some groups of facies include, along with natural geosystems, their agro genic analogs. The groups of facies were combined into classes of facies, geoms and groups of geoms.
																								



7.
METHODOLOGY FOR CREATING A GEOSYSTEM GEOECOLOGICAL MODULE FOR THE DIGITAL ATLAS "BAIKAL REGION: SOCIETY AND NATURE"

T.I. KUZNETSOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kuznetzovad@yandex.ru
Keywords: Baika l region, digital Atlas, integrated system mapping, geoecological module

Abstract >>
Using the digital Atlas Baikal region: society and nature as an example, a sequence of cartographic analysis of geosystems has been developed, consisting of a specific number of stages for obtaining the final target result, which can serve later as an element of information for solving management and environmental problems. Based on MapInfo Professional GIS products, a unified inventory and information base for the thematic cartographic module was formed from geographically dispersed maps of geosystems created earlier for individual sections of the Lake Baikal basin. Methods of polysystem cartographic analysis of landscapes and interpretation of geographical information were used to determine the structural components of physical and geographical information for various purposes. Small-scale maps of the Baikal region, developed in a certain sequence on the basis of a structural and hierarchical classification, reflect the natural conditions, and the environmental and value functions of geosystems that are important for making structural, geographical and managerial environmental decisions.
																								



8.
ASSESSING CLIMATIC RISKS FOR THE PURPOSE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIBERIAN REGION

E.A. KOCHUGOVA1,2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kochugovae@mail.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
Keywords: climatic vulnerability, Krasnoyarsk krai, nonferrous metallurgy, natural and climatic risks, climate change, adaptation

Abstract >>
Climatic risks are recognized as the most significant according to the probability of occurrence and the expected size of damage. An assessment is made of the climatic vulnerability of Krasnoyarsk krai. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the climatic vulnerability index as made by using 20 meteorological stations as an example, located within 52 to 71 N and 84 to 103 E. A comparative assessment is made of changes in climatic conditions for the periods 1965-1979 and 2005-2019. The center of the largest climatic vulnerability was revealed in the northeastern part of Krasnoyarsk krai. The contribution from dif ferent meteorological factors to the climatic vulnerability was determined. On the whole for the period 2005-2019 the contribu tion from air temperature increased by 10 % against the period 1965-1979, and the role of wind in the climatic vulnerability formation decreased.
																								



9.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THERMAL REGIME OF SOIL-GROUND IN DUMPS OF AN OPEN-PIT COAL MINE

I.B. VOROBYEVA, N.V. VLASOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
irene@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: soil-ground, embryozems, soil, dumps, physicochemical properties, temperature regime

Abstract >>
The open-pit method of mining the Azeiskii deposit of brown coals is ecologically hazardous and has a negative influence on the environment. It is established that, according to the chemical properties, soil-ground of the deposit under investigation has low nitrogen enrichment, and a small amount of humus, gross phosphorus and the sum of absorbed cations. We determined the mean concentrations of chemical elements in soils (clarke) which have high indicators and are allowable for the regions soils. The content of strontium, chromium and lead in soil-ground of the open-pit coal mine is less than a clarke. It is found that the temperature curves of soil-ground for different areas of mining of the Azeiskii open-pit brown coal mine have a similar configu ration, and the differences in temperature regime depend on size-grade distribution. A study of the physicochemical properties and thermal regime of ground-soil of the dumps with total destruction of ground and soil cover revealed the development of re habilitation stages
																								



10.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT FLOWS OF THE IRKUTSK AGGLOMERATION (ECOLOGICAL ASPECT)

E.V. NAPRASNIKOVA, N.V. EMELYANOVA, A.A. SOROKOVOI
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
r.kodar@mail.ru
Keywords: Irkutsk urban agglomeration, motor transport, atmospheric pollution, emissions, ecological status

Abstract >>
Presented are the results from investigating the modern motor transport flows in summer 2019 on the territory of the Irkutsk agglomeration (Irkutsk, Shelekhov and Angarsk). Visual observations on the territory under study were made for the first time. A study was made of the intensity of traffic flows of the main types of transport (passenger, goods and autobus vehicles) in the functional zones of the cities of the agglomeration. The amount of fuel burned and the most harmful pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by one automobile is determined. Calculations showed that in all cities the values of emissions of toxic substances in the form of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and soot are significant but do not exceed MAC. The functional zones of the cities differ not only in the character of motor transport flows but also in content of emissions. The transport flows in Irkutsk and Shelekhov have similar features, and a somewhat different situation is observed in Angarsk.
																								



11.
ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE FAUNA OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF THE CENTRAL ECOLOGICAL ZONE OF THE BAIKAL NATURAL TERRITORY

V.A. PRELOVSKII
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
amadeo81@mail.ru
Keywords: anthropogenic factors, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

Abstract >>
The fauna of the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Natural Territory is considered, which is unique because of the regions peculiar geographical location responsible for an exceptionally large diversity of its species composition that includes many genetically and ecologically inhomogeneous elements. About 460 species of vertebrate animals occur on the study territory, many of which represent rare and endemic species. It is found that long-term economic development of the regions ecosystems led to serious structural rearrangements of the animal world, the introduction of alien species, and a reduction and even disap pearance of separate animal species or populations. The map of the anthropogenic factors of disturbances to faunistic complexes of the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Natural Territory was compiled, illustrating the main types of impact on the com munities of vertebrate animals and the magnitude of their manifestation.
																								



12.
THE RECREATIONAL-GEOMORPHOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF THE WESTERN COAST OF LAKE BAIKAL

D.V. KOBYLKIN, A.V. MYADZELETS
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
agrembrandt@inbox.ru
Keywords: geomorphological structure, relief, assessment, recreational significance, tourism, Baikal Region

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of a score level assessment of the recreational-geomorphological potential (RGP) for a portion of Pribaikalskii National Park that includes the western coast of Lake Baikal and Olkhon Island. The basis for this research is provided by the authors geomorphological map and results of his own expedition work on the territory of the park; an analysis is made of the existing kinds of recreation and the characteristics of the infrastructure used for tourism purposes. As a result, different forms of geomorphological structure were identified, and for each of them the significance of the relief for the develop ment of stationary and active kinds of tourism was determined. Based on the topographic features and the possible types of recreational use, an assessment is made of the RGP of the territory of the western coast of Lake Baikal.
																								



13.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF WILDFIRES IN WESTERN CISBAIKALIA

A.Yu. BIBAEVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
pav_a86@mail.ru
Keywords: forest fires, geosystems, factors, hotspots, pyrogenic transformation

Abstract >>
The spread of wildfires in the central part of Western Cisbaikalia in the period 1975-2016 is considered. The study em phases a steady tendency for the fire danger of forests to increase as well as an increase of the number of fires and affected areas. The years of a maximal pyrogenic impact on geosystems are revealed. A correlative analysis of Earth remote sensing data was made to compile the schematic map of the spatial structure of catastrophic fires in 2015 and determine the areas affected by fire and the mean velocities of the spread of the fire front. Based on results of field investigations, examples of the local impact of fires on the structure and rehabilitation dynamics of geosystems are provided. For differentiating the possible sources of fires, a statistical analysis of meteorological data is made. It is concluded that the last five years are characterized by long periods of extreme fire danger, and a low-water level on rivers has been recorded. It is found that fires of a catastrophic nature as re corded in 2003 and 2015 occurred at the minimum of thunderstorm activity.
																								



14.
DISSOLVED MATTER OF THE WATERS OF SOUTHWESTERN CISBAIKALIA: COMPOSITION, ORIGIN, CLASSIFICATION

M.Yu. SEMENOV1, Yu.M. SEMENOV2, A.V. SILAEV2, L.A. BEGUNOVA3
1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
smu@mail.ru
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
yumsemenov@mail.ru
3Irkutsk National Research Technical University, 664074, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 83, Russia
lbegunova@mail.ru
Keywords: Lake Baikal, western coast, mineralization, ionic composition, tracers, classification

Abstract >>
Ultra-fresh waters belonging to the hydrocarbonate class, the calcium group and the the second type (after Alekin). The study revealed dif ferences in the value of water mineralization between the northern and southern parts of the coast; it reaches 190 mg/L or higher in the north and only rarely exceeds 80 g/L in the south. It is shown that the ionic composition of the waters in the Buguldeiskii and Slyudyanskii districts differs greatly from the water composition in the other districts: the former are character ized by an increased hydrocarbonate content (up to 99 %-eq of the sum of ions), and the latter-by an increased sulfate content (up to 50 %-eq of the sum of anions). A discrepancy was determined between the taxonomic uniformity of the waters and the variety of the values of the concentration ratios of cations ((Ca2+ + Mg2+)/K+) and anions (SO42-/ HCO-3) which represent tracers of the sources of dissolved matter. It is concluded that there is a need to develop the classification principles for the wa ters at the level of subclass es or subgroups, and the criteria for identifying them can be provided by the values of the contributions - from the sources of dissolved matter calculated on the basis of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)/K+ and SO42-/ HCO3 ratios.
																								



15.
STUDY OF THE LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE OF PRIOLKHONYE

V.M. PLYUSNIN, I.N. BILICHENKO, S.A. SEDYKH
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
plyusnin@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: Priolkhonye, Primorskii Range, landscape structure, field work, mountain geosystems, mountain steppe, diversity of geosystems

Abstract >>
Presented are the results from investigating the geosystems in the northern part of Primorskii Range and Priolkhonskoe Plateau which are being intensely used for recreational purposes. In studying the landscapes, we examined the regional regu larities, the climate and topography characteristics, vegetation, and the specific features in current use of the territory. The in vestigations were made in the northern part along the watershed divides and on the eastern macroslope of Primorskii Range and on Priolkhonskoe Plateau. More than 500 detailed field descriptions were prepared in four key areas. The study territory is characterized by a close interpenetration of taiga and steppe geosystems represented by a combination of mountain-taiga dark-coniferous and, more often, light-coniferous piedmont larch steppizated and mountain-steppe geosystems. This explains the landscape diversity of the study territory. The main factor of disturbances to the geosystems on Primorskii Range is represented by fires which were recorded in the four areas, and by an active tourism development on Olkhonskoe Plateau.
																								



16.
NEW APPROACHES TO MAPPING THE RELIEF OF THE BOTTOM SURFACE AND COAST OF THE WATER BASIN AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE PESCHANYI SEGMENT OF SOUTH BAIKAL

A.V. KAZAKOV1,2, E.E. KONONOV2, O.M. KHLYSTOV1, A.R. BATUEV2
1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
kazakov.gis@gmail.com
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kononov@lin.irk.ru
Keywords: multibeam echosounders, bathymetry, technique, digital elevation model, geological processes

Abstract >>
We examine the technique of phased processing of bathymetric material obtained by means of high resolution multibeam echo sounding and Earth remote sensing data, based on using advanced GIS technologies, with the purpose of developing the digital elevation model that combines the bottom and coast of the Peschanyi (Sandy) segment of South Baikal. The suggested algorithm of developing the digital elevation model makes it possible to achieve an acceptable visualization quality of new bathymetric data in order to identify small topographic features not accessible previously because of low survey resolution of the bottom and subsequent data processing. It is shown how on the basis of analyzing the resulting digital model the morphological characteristics of the bottom surface of the Peschanyi segment are described. The analysis permitted us to assess the role of the endo- and exogenous factors in the creation of the most clearly pronounced forms of the bottom-slope relief. It was found that the subaquatic-gravitational processes produced widely occurring ridge-gully forms of the depth dump of the delta-fronts. Geomorphologically, the underwater slope of the western side of the segment is relatively uniform; it is dominated by abrasion, tectogenically-caused steeply inclined surfaces.
																								



17.
FORMATION OF THE FLOODPLAINS OF THE SELENGA RIVER DELTA

E.A. ILYICHEVA1, M.V. PAVLOV1, B. MCELROY2, D.A. NITTROUER3, T.Y. DONG4
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
lenail3663@mail.ru
2Wyoming University, 82070, Wyoming, Laramie, 22nd Street, 222, USA
bmcelroy@uwyo.edu
3Rice University, 6100, Texas, Houston, Main Street, 126, USA
nittrouer@rice.edu
4University of Texas at Austin, 78712, Texas, Austin, 23rd Street, 305 E, USA
tian.y.dong@utexas.edu
Keywords: morphogenesis, morphodynamics, stages of water discharge, Baikal, Late Holocene, mapping

Abstract >>
Results of geomorphological investigations in the estuarine region of the Selenga river for the last 10 years are presented. Within the Ust-Selenginskaya depression, the modern estuarine region of the Selenga has been identified on the basis of assess ing the interaction of the fluvial flow with the banks and the riverbed for the technogenic stage of development - from the begin ning of the Irkutsk reservoir filling. A geomorphological analysis of cartographic material from different times was made to identify the floodplain complex of terraces an abandoned stretches of channels that emerged in different periods of discharges in the basin. It was found that during the stage under consideration the Lake Baikal drainage basin showed at least three anoma lies of the river runoff which were responsible for the onset of low- and high-water periods. Furthermore, we determined the areas of the islands and banks which were unaffected by erosion-accumulative activity of the delta by-channels and inundations. Such areas include high islands and banks, on the surface of which there occur abandoned channels, hollows and oxbows pro ducing a network of fans of wandering of the relict channel network. It is established that some negative forms are filled with water and have no direct hydraulic connection with the modern channel network. A dating of bank deposits and bottom sediments of the oxbows was carried out by the radiocarbon method. It was found that the bottom sediments of the oxbows are represented by gyttja which often occurs on the riverbed alluvium. The bank sections are similar in structure and are composed of different facies of alluvial deposits intercalating with paleosoil horizons. The modern floodplain deposits are represented by silty sands with sparse fine well-rounded pebble.
																								



18.
INFLUENCE OF THE ANIMAL POPULATION ON THE EXOGENIC MORPHOGENESIS IN STEPPES OF THE SOUTH OF SIBERIA

O.I. BAZHENOVA1, E.M. TYUMENTSEVA2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
bazhenova@irigs.irk.ru
2Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
tumencev@irk.ru
Keywords: zoogenic morpholithogenesis, burrowing animals, biogenic microrelief, steppe permanent stations, experimental plots, zoogenic removal

Abstract >>
We examine an important role of zoogenic migration of matter in the transformation of the relief of the piedmont steppes of Southern Siberia. The study revealed a large diversity of the animal population involved in the morphogenesis. On the basis of long-term field observations of the behavior of denudation, it was found that burrowing mammals and ants remove to the surface of steppe slopes a significant amount of sandy loamy-loamy material from beneath the surface horizons (up to 10-15 t/ha); after that, it is involved in the subsequent movement by aeolian and fluvial processes. A qualitative assessment is made of the volumes of material relocated on the steppe slopes by various animals. The morphometric indicators of the zoogenic micro- and nanorelief are determined. Spatio-temporal variability in the zoogenic morpholithogenesis is demonstrated.
																								



19.
THE ANTHROPOGENIC FACTOR OF EXTREME MANIFESTATION OF FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN THE VALLEY OF THE BOLSHAYA BELAYA RIVER IN 2019 (IRKUTSK OBLAST)

M.Yu. OPEKUNOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
opek@mail.ru
Keywords: Upper Angara region, morphodynamical types of channels, channel plane deformations, dynamics of floodplain-channel complexes, erosion-accumulation processes, extreme floods, dirt roads

Abstract >>
This paper considers the characteristics of the occurrence of erosion-accumulation processes at the passage of the 2019 disastrous floods on the rivers of the Angara river basin in Irkutsk oblast (using the Bolshaya Belaya river as an example). Field investigations were made within the program of monitoring the dynamics and development of floodplain-channel complexes and coastal deformations on the rivers of the Upper Angara region. It is pointed out that the existence of line facilities of the infra structure (roads) within the floodplain massifs often triggered an enhancement in the flow velocities, an increase in the volumes of transported material as well as the formation of accumulative landforms which can subsequently prevent the water exchange between channel and floodplain flows and serve as an additional factor for the occurrence of negative processes for humans which can involve destruction to the facilities of economic activity, or do a substantial damage to them.
																								



20.
INFLUENCE OF THE LARGE-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ON METEOROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE GLACIAL ZONE OF KODAR RANGE DURING THE ABLATION

O.P. OSIPOVA1, E.Yu. OSIPOV2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
olga@irigs.irk.ru
2Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
eduard@lin.irk.ru
Keywords: glaciers, meteorological regime, atmospheric circulation, blocking processes, anomalies of meteoparameters

Abstract >>
Presented are the results from analyzing large-scale atmospheric processes (using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data) and me teorological characteristics measured in the glacial zone of Kodar Range during the ablation period of June-August 2019. It was established that the meteorological regime of the glacial emerged developed at the background of a clearly pronounced positive anomaly of the geopotential height in the lower troposphere (700 and 500 hPa) over the territory of Eastern Siberia. Quasi-cyclic fluctuations of air temperature and wind velocity as revealed on the glacier (with a period of 12-13 days) are well cor related with the wave pattern of the passage of the ridges and troughs over the study area. It is determined that the high ablation rates were associated with anticyclones and blocking ridges of subtropical origin, and the low rates - with cyclones and low-gradient pressure fields.
																								



21.
DYNAMICS OF VEGETATION COVER OF SOUTHWESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA IN THE HOLOCENE (A CASE STUDY OF MALKHANSKII RANGE)

D.V. KOBYLKIN, I.N. VLADIMIROV, V.B. VYRKIN, K.E. VERSHININ
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
agrembrandt@inbox.ru
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, garisson@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: evolution of landscapes, vegetation dynamics, bottom sediments, palynology, absolute age, Southwestern Trans baikalia

Abstract >>
A comprehensive geographical analysis of bottom sediments of aeolian-dam Lake Rybnoe in Malkhanskii Range revealed evolutionary features in the development of landscapes of Southwestern Transbaikalia. New evidence on the accumulation dy namics of bottom sediments in this lake is presented and their absolute age is determined. A palynological characteristic is given to the bottom sediments of Lake Rybnoe and their stratigraphic correlation with Lake Gun-Nur in Northern Mongolia. A study of the structural features in the lakes bottom sediments, coupled with radioisotope data on the age and a palynological assess ment, permitted us to assess the dynamic characteristics of the sedimentation processes and the evolution of vegetation cover in different climatic stages of the Holocene.
																								



22.
PRESENT STATUS OF THE LAKES OF THE ONON-ARGUN INTERFLUVE UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE

N.D. DAVYDOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
davydova@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: global warming, drying of lakes, deposits of a dry lake, water, mineralization, chemical composition, solonchaks

Abstract >>
It is shown that in conditions of global warming the lakes of the steppes of the Onon-Argun interfluve, which are the exten sion of the steppes of Mongolia and China, are experiencing a severe degradation, even to the point of emerging solonchaks in their place with a high degree of salinization (more than 4 % from the surface). Their number decreases with depth, similar to the CaCO3 distribution. In the early stage of formation of solonchaks, their composition, and also the water, is dominated by soda and sodium sulfate, and the amount of chloride and calcium is decreased. Subsequently, the dry bottom of the lake trans forms to the hilly-erosion surface. Aeolian hillocks are depleted in soda and chlorides. The composition of the salts of the surface, complicated by erosion furrows, is dominated by sulfate and sodium chloride. With the passage of time, under the effect of wind and storm rainfall, the amount of salt decreases and saltwort encroaches onto the dry bottom. A reduction in the water surface enhances the dryness of the air and influences the local rise of temperature.
																								



23.
ELITOGENESIS IN RUSSIA: REGIONAL CAPITAL CITIES AND INHOMOGENEITIES OF MACROREGIONAL DISTRIBUTION

P.L. POPOV, A.A. CHERENEV, V.N. VESELOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
plp@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: elitogenesis, regional capital cities of the Russian Federation, percentage of native-born, territorial distribution, macroregions, Irkutsk

Abstract >>
This paper considers the problem of differentiating the cities - regional capital cities of the Russian Federation - with respect to the number of representatives of the Russian elite native of them and identifies the macroregional patterns in the dis tribution of the places of birth of the elitists. It is found that the macroregions constituting the historical core of the country exceed, according to the ratio of the percentage of native-born in the elite to the percentage in the population of the regional capital cities in the elitogenesis, the later macroregions, except for the North Caucasus. Moscow and St. Petersburg are most active in the elitogenesis. With respect to the indicators of the historical core of the country, the group of macroregions including the Volga region, Siberia and the Far East may be defined as the Eastern depression. It is determined that in this area Irkutsk stands out as having a high ratio of the native-born in the elite to the share in the population, and this can be regarded as the expression of its potential.
																								



24.
PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL DEPOSITS IN THE NORTH OF ASIAN RUSSIA: THE GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECT

E.A. SHERIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
egor-sherin@mail.ru
Keywords: coal basins, coal industry, transportation of coals, export, cargo ports, Siberia

Abstract >>
The coal deposits in the north of Asian Russia are considered, the coal basins of the region are highlighted as well as specifying their location, reserves, the kinds and ranks of coals, the degree of development and modern use of coals extracted. The specific character of the northern coal deposits and the factors limiting their development are explained: the small size of permanent population, severe climatic conditions, a large distance from railroads, and a short period of navigation in the northern ports. This authors subdivision of the coal basins and deposits of the north of Asian Russia into three groups is provided: brown-coal, hard-coal intracontinental and hard-coal maritime. For each of the identified groups of deposits, positive and negative factors of exploitation are indicated as well as determining the prospects of development and directions of further use, including for each coal deposit.
																								



25.
ECONOMIC SPECIALIZATION OF THE BAIKAL REGION: CURRENT STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

N.A. IPPOLITOVA1,2, N.V. ROGOVSKAYA1,2, M.A. GRIGORYEVA1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
nina-ip@list.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
rogovskayan@inbox.ru
Keywords: Baikal region, extractive industry, manufacturing enterprises, agriculture, branches of specialization

Abstract >>
The economic specialization of the Baikal region is presented. The relevance of dealing with this issue is explained by the requirements for an increase of the level of socio-economic development of the country and its separate territories, and by the effectiveness of production facilities and the specialization of the region. The economic complex of the Baikal region is analyzed, the branches of industrial and agricultural specialization are identified, and the typologies of the regions municipalities are highlighted according the predominance of the main kind of activity in the industry, the conditions of economic management and the volumes of agricultural products. The determining factors of development of the regions economic complex are the characteristics of the economic-geographical location, the natural-resource potential, the natural and climatic conditions, and the investment attractiveness. The regions agriculture is being developed in extreme natural conditions. Beef and dairy animal husbandry is the leading branch of specialization of enterprises of the public sector as well as farm enterprises in the region. An important role is also played by the cultivation of grain and vegetable crops for the creation of the local food base.
																								



26.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE SERVICES AND THE ACCESSIBLE ENVIRONMENT IN THE SPHERE OF TOURISM ON THE TERRITORIES OF CISBAIKALIA

O.V. EVSTROPYEVA, T.N. SHEKHOVTSOVA, L.A. SUMENKOVA, K.V. DULYA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
ledotop@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: tourism, Cisbaikalia, insurance of tourists, local population, accessible environment

Abstract >>
The growing popularity of Lake Baikal as the tourist destination determines the strengthened focus on the well-being of a territory. A significant factor for such well-being is the development of insurance services and of the accessible tourist environ ment. An analysis is made of the existing practices of carrying out insurance activity for different groups of tourists. The assess ment of the availability of insurance services is made from the method of effecting a tourists policy of insurance, the existence of offices of insurance companies on the territory of recreation as well as from the efficiency of rendering medical and financial assistance in the event of maturity of the insurance risk. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of developing the accessible environ ment for tourists with disabilities, which will improve the image of a territory as well as making more comfortable the habitat of the local population in the Cisbaikalian areas of Irkutsk oblast.
																								



27.
MIGRATION TRENDS AND PROBLEMS FACING THE REGIONS OF SIBERIA

N.V. VOROBYEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
vorobyev@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: population, migration flows, migration problems, regions, Siberia

Abstract >>
The main directions of the migratory movement and the dynamics of migration processes and the problems facing the Si berian macroregion are considered. An assessment is made of the migration flows in the regions on the basis of analyzing the basic statistical indicators of Rosstat for 2016-2020. The influence of the migration problems on a comprehensive development of the regions through the migration outflow of population, the depopulation and a relative quality deterioration of the population is considered. On the basis of analyzing the migration flows combined according to the attributes of the geographical location, transportation development and the center-periphery relations, seven groups of migration problems were identified for all Sibe rian regions. A systematic view of the migration processes and problems in Siberian regions is suggested, which can be used in updating the techniques of assessing the migration status and developing the regional socio-economic policy.
																								



28.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGGLOMERATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF IRKUTSK AND ULAANBAATAR)

V.N. BOGDANOV1, G.B. DUGAROVA1, N.V. EMELYANOVA1, S. ENKH-AMGALAN2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
victvss@gmail.com
2Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, 15170, Ulanbaatar, Baruun-Selbe St., 16, Mongolia
amgalan69@yahoo.com
Keywords: urbanization, suburbanization, Irkutsk agglomeration, Ulaanbaatar agglomeration, geoinformation mapping

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis is made of the urban agglomerations that are at different stages of development. The contemporary agglomeration processes occurring in the Irkutsk and Ulaanbaatar agglomerations lead to the functional reorganization of space, exacerbation of various social and economic conflicts as well as to changes in the way of life of the population. This study used the comparative-geographical, statistical, geoinformation mapping, spatial analysis and dazymetric investigation techniques. The geoinformation system served as the basis for compiling a series of maps displaying different aspects of the territories under study. It is found that the Irkutsk agglomeration is in the stage of suburbanization, and in the Ulaanbaatar agglomeration there is tak ing place the ongoing process of the core and its surroundings. In analyzing the urbanization processes in Irkutsk and Ulaanbaatar, we demonstrate how internal migration can change the eternal pattern of the agglomeration, influence the formation of the natural zone, etc.
																								



29.
HISTORICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROADS IN BARGUZIN CISBAIKALIA IN THE LATTER HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY

L.S. TSYDYPOVA, Ts.B. DASHPILOV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
tsidipovaluda@mail.ru
Keywords: roads, Steppe Duma, roads, cultural landscape, local community, gold-mining industry, road maintenance obligation

Abstract >>
We examine the system of roads of Barguzin Cisbaikalia in the latter half of the 19 th century and the historical-geograph ical characteristics of its emergence and evolution. The chronological timeframe of the research spans the 1853s-1890s, i. e. th time of enhancement and intensification of the economic and cultural ties of local communities. Changes in communication ways of the indigenous and incoming population are analyzed as well as identifying the particular historical-geographical character istics: the role of recreational resources and gold-fields, the place of the indigenous population in maintenance of the road system. On the basis of archival sources, it was concluded that that the local population played a leading role in maintenance of the road system and road development; its dynamics and perception by local communities was highlighted. Field material obtained by the authors in the investigations made in 2008-2019 confirm the cultural-geographical implications of the emergence and evolution of the road network and its influence on the poly-ethnicity of the cultural landscape.
																								



30.
THE BASIC REPOSITORY OF DIGITAL THEMATIC MAPS AND ATLASES OF THE REGIONS OF SIBERIA AND NEIGHBORING TERRITORIES

D.A. BATUEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
dbatuevuseful@yandex.ru
Keywords: cartographic repository, geographical environment, geoportal, spatial development, Extratropical Asia, Baikal region

Abstract >>
This paper considers the issues related to the creation of the basic repository of digital thematic maps displaying the status of the geographical (natural and public) environment of the regional of Siberia and neighboring territories in the central and eastern parts of Extratropical Asia using geoportal methods and technologies. A characteristic of the main problems and precondi tions of their formation is provided, including the issues of analyzing the previously obtained research results in this field. Variants of development of the blockwise structure of spatial coverage, the modular organization of special thematic contents and specialized services of their storage and use are shown. The maps of the status of the natural and public environments forming part of a fundamental basic depository associated with methods and technologies of modern geoportals will be useful in dealing with urgent needs for the digital cartographic support of special development of the vast eastern regions of Russia and neighboring territories.
																								



31.
BIG DATA IN THE STUDY OF LOCALIZATION AND MOBILITY OF THE POPULATION

A.N. VOROBYEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
tore12@yandex.ru
Keywords: geospatial data, mobile telephone, population density, data of cellular operators, location, mapping

Abstract >>
Mapping of the population with high resolution of images alleviates the investigation of the urban environment, while cur rently relevant information problems have been actively discussed, such as the poor spatial inhomogeneity of alternative data, and the quality of traditional (usually outdated and inaccurate) data on the population of the territory. The technique was de veloped for compiling population localization and mobility. Data received from mobile telephones can be displayed in real time as well as enhancing the spatial inhomogeneity of users. Based on the geographical location of base stations, it is possible to analyze the density of users at a particular time at a particular point. Using results of spatial analysis as a basis, we obtained the density of signals for a specific time interval. However, the geographical range of users recorded via mobile telephone by base stations do not have any fixed spatial boundary. To solve this problem we compiled the Voronoi polygons for the base stations.
																								



32.
MAPPING OF THE ECOLOGICAL BALANCENESS OF A TERRITORY (A CASE STUDY OF THE BAIKAL REGION)

D.A. LOPATKIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
lopatkind@yandex.ru
Keywords: Baikal region, ecological stability of a territory, ecological frame, geoinformation mapping

Abstract >>
The main methods of assessing the ecological sustainability of territories are considered. An inventory is taken and the database of the indicators of ecological sustainability of the territory is generated. An assessment is made of the ecological sustainability of the territories of the Baikal region with due regard for the composition of land reserves and natural conditions. On the basis of analyzing the coefficients of ecological sustainability, the administrative districts of the Baikal region have been ranked according to the degree of balanceness of their territorial structure. Groups of administrative districts of the Baikal regions were identified: with the ecologically unbalanced territorial structure; with the unstably balanced territorial structure and with relatively balanced territorial structure. Using the integral indicator of sustainability, the map was compiled. The ecological sustainability of the territory is determined on the basis of comparing and analyzing the structure, functional characteristics of landscapes and types of land use by using layers of the digital maps of the Ecological Atlas of the Baikal Region.
																								



33.
MAPPING OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF FOREST GEOSYSTEMS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON FOREST MANAGEMENT IN THE BAIKAL REGION

E.L. MAKARENKO
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
elmakarenko@bk.ru
Keywords: forest vegetation communities, bonitet, reserves, stand growth, natural-territorial complexes

Abstract >>
An assessment and mapping are made of the potential productivity of forest natural-territorial complexes (geosystems) of regional dimension as well as of its influence and the influence of the entire set of natural conditions on the development of for est management in the Baikal region. The investigation determined the productivity of forest which was identified with the pro ductivity of the main forest-forming woody specie - edificators of the phytocenotic part of forest geosystems. The following indi cators were used in assessing the productivity: bonitet, the mean reserves and the mean growth of timber. The productivity of forest geosystems was compared with the economic zones of forest development, and with the types of forest management in them. A high degree of influence of the productivity of forests and of the entire set of natural conditions on the development of the types of forest management was determined, based on using the raw-material and ecological functions. Types of promising forest man agement were identified within the boundaries of the ones of forest development.
																								



34.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEVEL OF INTERREGIONAL AND INTRAREGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION USING ZIPFS RULE

A.N. FARTYSHEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
fartyshev.an@gmail.com
Keywords: rank-size, Pareto distribution, polarization of space, regional inequality, special development, center-periphery, economic differentiation

Abstract >>
The method is suggested for an accurate quantitative assessment of the socio-economic spatial differentiation based on Zipfs law. A comparative analysis is made of the demographic, social, economic, investment and budgetary differentiation at the inter regional and intraregional level (using Irkutsk oblast as an example). It is found that the demographic (estimated from the population size), economic (from the volume of shipped own-produced goods), production and investment (from the volume of fixed investments) differentiation manifests itself multiply more strongly at the intraregional level in Irkutsk oblast than between the regions of the Russian Federation. The social (estimated from the average monthly wage) and budgetary (from the actual volume of revenues and expenditures of consolidated budgets) differentiation, on the contrary, is stronger in the interregional rather than intraregional context.