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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2021 year, number 6

1.
Relationship of pyrogenic NO2 emissions from wildfires in Russia with atmospheric blocking events

I.I. Mokhov1,2, S.A. Sitnov1, M.N. Tsidilina3, O.S. Voronova3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2LomonosovMoscow State University, Moscow, Russia
3State scientific Institution "Institute for Scientific Research of Aerospace Monitoring "AEROCOSMOS", Moscow, Russia
Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, wildfires, pyrogenic emission, atmospheric blocking

Abstract >>
Analysis of satellite and reanalysis data indicates a relationship between pyrogenic NO2 emissions and atmospheric blocking events. According to the estimates for the period 2001-2019, with an increase in the integral blocking index by 10%, the total NO2 emissions into the atmosphere during wildfires in Russia increase by 0.7 million tons. Against the background of a general decrease in 2001-2019 of pyrogenic NO2 emission, a statistically significant increase in the NO2 emission density per unit area by 23% was revealed. At the same time, a decrease in the total emission of NO2 during wildfires was noted in relation to the corresponding emissions of carbon monoxide and fine aerosol.
																								



2.
Aerosol element composition of the surface air in Moscow: seasonal variations throughout 2019/2020

D.P. Gubanova1, M.A. Iordanskii2, T.M. Kuderina3, A.I. Skorokhod1, N.F. Elansky1, V.M. Minashkin4
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Karpov Institute of Physics Chemistry, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow, Russia
4Vserossiyskiy nauchno-issledovatelskiy Institut Khimicheskoy Tekhnologii, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, aerosol, elemental composition, seasonal variability, mass concentration, percentage, enrichment factor, Moscow

Abstract >>
The seasonal changes in the surface aerosol elemental composition in Moscow are considered in four data series: for summer and autumn 2019 and winter and spring 2020. The surface aerosol in megalopolis is significantly enriched with sulfur, heavy metals, and metalloids (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, Bi, etc.). We compare the mass concentrations, mass percentages, and enrichment factors for different elements in aerosol particles. The spatial distributions of elements in the surface aerosol is not uniform through the city, which may be associated with the specificity of local sources, underlying surface, and wind regime in different regions of Moscow. The concentrations of a number of terrigenous and anthropogenic elements are the highest in the central Moscow. The reasons for seasonal variability of surface aerosol elemental composition are discussed. Identification of the main sources of different elements is the task of the next investigation.
																								



3.
Biodiversity and biotechnological potential of spore-forming bacteria isolated from atmospheric aerosols of Western Siberia

I.S. Andreeva, A.S. Safatov, L.I. Puchkova, E.K. Emelyanova, G.A. Buryak, V.A. Ternovoy
State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, bioaerosols, atmospheric aerosols, viable spore-forming microorganisms, enzymatic activity, Bacillus

Abstract >>
The diversity of spore-forming bacteria isolated from high-altitude and near-surface aerosol samples while monitoring the biogenic component of atmospheric air in southwestern Siberia were investigated. A significant predominance of spore-forming bacteria over representatives of other microorganism groups was recorded from October to December 2016. Sixty-two cultivated cultures of endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from the aerosol samples collected in that period. Their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics were studied, their genomic identification was performed, and their enzymatic activity was determined. The isolated and characterized bacterial cultures were identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus , etc. and possessing biotechnologically significant proteolytic, amylolytic, phosphatase, lipolytic, and nuclease activities.
																								



4.
First results of the study of particulate matter samples of the Middle Ural using the secondary ion mass spectrometry

A.A. Shchelkanov1, M.A. Kovalenko2, A.Ya. Kupryazhkin2, Yu.I. Markelov1, V.A. Poddubny1, V.M. Gadelshin2,3
1Institute of Industrial Ecology Ural branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia
2Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia
3Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Keywords: atmospheric aerosol, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), aerosol filters

Abstract >>
The first results of studying atmospheric aerosol samples from the Middle Urals using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer are considered. The aerosol sampling by the aspiration method on KFBZh and AFA filters is discussed. The difficulties in carrying out mass spectrometry "directly", that is, without preliminary sample preparation, are analyzed. On the basis of the results of mass spectrometry and optical microscopy of the filter surface, further prospects of their use for sampling aerosol microparticles are considered.
																								



5.
Investigation of the relations between biogenic and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric organic aerosol under the conditions of restrictions due to the coronavirus pandemic

G.G. Dultseva, S.N. Dubtsov
V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric organic aerosol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, aromatic aldehydes, aerosol formation

Abstract >>
The effect of restrictions caused by COVID-19 pandemic in Novosibirsk in spring 2020 on the composition of trace atmospheric gases and organic aerosol in the air of Novosibirsk Akademgorodok is investigated. The concentrations of aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acrolein, and substituted aromatic aldehydes), the corresponding carboxylic acids, and peroxy compounds were studied before and after adoption of restrictions, prior to the start of vegetation period, that is, with the minimal emission of biogenic compounds into the atmosphere. Differences in diurnal variations and the composition of hydroperoxides are revealed at the background of weakening of anthropogenic sources. The role of hydroperoxides in gas-to-particle conversion is shown. In parallel, the concentrations of nanometer-sized aerosol particles were measured, and differences in their chemical composition are analyzed. To explain the observed changes in the composition of organic aerosol, numerical simulation of the stages leading to the formation of condensable products was carried out. A sharp decrease in the strength of anthropogenic sources allowed us to reveal and characterize the contribution from biogenic sources into the formation of organic atmospheric aerosol and to describe this process.
																								



6.
Stratification of aleurite and sand particle size distribution in windsand flux over desertified areas

G.I. Gorchakov1, A.V. Karpov1, R.A. Gushchin1, O.I. Datsenko1, D.V. Buntov1
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: desertification, windsand flux, saltation, aleurite particle mode, particle size distribution function, function distribution approximation, vertical profiles of function distribution parameters

Abstract >>
Empirical model of the saltating aleurite and sand particle size distribution has been developed based on the measurements of the number differential concentration in the size range from 30 to 330 mm using size distribution approximation by sum of two lognormal distributions. Approximations of the vertical profiles of distribution parameters have been derived for the layer from 0 to 15 cm. Vertical profiles of the modal size of the large particle in the saltation layer from 3 to 15 cm and in the surface air layer from 0.125 to 16 m are compared with measurements in the Aral region.
																								



7.
Surface properties of aerosol microparticles from mineral zircon under tropospheric conditions

V.S. Zakharenko1, E.B. Daybova2
1Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Siberian Research Institute of agriculture and peat Russian academy of agricultural sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: zircon mineral, precipitated aerosol, tropospheric conditions, adsorbed layer, photodesorption, photoadsorption, quantum yield

Abstract >>
The adsorption and photosorption properties of aerosol particles from zircon (ZrSiO4) have been studied under conditions similar to tropospheric. For the aerosol, the physicochemical characteristics were determined by diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The analysis of the composition of the adsorbed layer formed in the troposphere is carried out. In the dark, mainly carbon dioxide is desorbed from the surface of zircon microparticles, as when illuminating the surface of aerosol particles. The kinetic dependences of 2 desorption and 2 adsorption in the dark and under illumination are studied. The quantum yields and spectral dependences of the quantum yields of photodesorption and photoadsorption are determined. The spectral dependences of the effective quantum yield confirm the photochemical activity of the deposited aerosol from zircon under solar irradiation (l > 300 nm).
																								



8.
Magnetic sensitivity of road dust as a pollution indicator in the areas influenced by coal mining

E.G. Yazikov1, N.A. Osipova1, A.V. Talovskaya1, K.Yu. Osipov2
1Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: aerosols, road dust, magnetic susceptibility, soil, heavy metals

Abstract >>
The analysis of road (street) dust is carried out by the kappametry method for the territory Mezhdurechensk city, Kemerovo oblast, which influenced by coal mining enterprises. Magnetic susceptibility of different dust fractions is determined. The mineral composition of the dust is studied. The magnetic susceptibility in soils are determined for comparison. The results correlate with the contents of chemical elements in the natural components of the territory under study. The elements - indicators of the territory pollution are determined.
																								



9.
New methods for studying the evaporation rate of liquid-drop aerosols

V.A. Arkhipov, S.A. Basalaev, N.N. Zolotorev, K.G. Perfilieva, A.S. Usanina
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: single drop, cluster of drops, radiant heat flux, convective heat flux, high-temperature gaseous medium, evaporation rate, experimental study

Abstract >>
Results of experimental studies of the common factors of evaporation of a single drop and a cluster of liquid drops are presented. New method for determining the evaporation rate of a single drop at radiant flux heating of a given intensity is suggested. The effect of radiant and convective flux heating on the evaporation dynamics of a single motionless drop is analyzed. The effect of absorption coefficient of the liquid on the evaporation rate of the single drop at radiant heating is found. A new method and experimental setup are developed for studying the evaporation dynamics of a cluster of monodisperse liquid drops during their gravitational settling in a high-temperature gaseous medium. Specific features of the evaporation of clusters moving in a high-temperature gaseous medium are studied. It is shown that the evaporation rate of a cluster depends on number and initial concentration of drops in it.
																								



10.
Pollen grains of anemophilic plants entering the atmosphere. Cluster composition

V.V. Golovko1, G.A. Zueva2, T.I. Kiseleva2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: pollen, anemophilous plants, atmospheric aerosol, clusters

Abstract >>
The friction velocity (dynamic velocity) u * enters into nearly all computational schemes used for forecasting the state of the atmosphere. To find this velocity, it is necessary to know the mixed moments of turbulent components of the wind vector. However, the information about turbulence is lacking at the initial stage of forecast. That is why model equations are usually used for u *. These equations are based on the relation of the friction velocity to the horizontal wind velocity Vh . In this work, we considers the empirical relations u *( Vh ) for various conditions (different time of the day, seasons, types of stratification, observation sites, and measurement altitudes). Initial experimental data used to derive these relations were obtained by ultrasonic meteorological stations operating in the surface air layer at different observation sites.
																								



11.
Dependence of friction velocity on the wind velocity in the surface air layer

V.A. Gladkikh, V.P. Mamyshev, I.V. Nevzorova, S.L. Odintsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: surface layer, wind velocity, friction velocity, turbulence

Abstract >>
The friction velocity (dynamic velocity) u * enters into nearly all computational schemes used for forecasting the state of the atmosphere. To find this velocity, it is necessary to know the mixed moments of turbulent components of the wind vector. However, the information about turbulence is lacking at the initial stage of forecast. That is why model equations are usually used for u *. These equations are based on the relation of the friction velocity to the horizontal wind velocity Vh . In this work, we considers the empirical relations u *( Vh ) for various conditions (different time of the day, seasons, types of stratification, observation sites, and measurement altitudes). Initial experimental data used to derive these relations were obtained by ultrasonic meteorological stations operating in the surface air layer at different observation sites.
																								



12.
Parameters of wave processes from GNSS data

O.G. Khutorova, V.E. Khutorov, G.E. Korchagin
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Keywords: GNSS, GLONASS, GPS, waves in the atmosphere

Abstract >>
Synoptic spatiotemporal variations with 3-60 day periods are studied based on the remote sensing data from the GLONASS GPS receiver network in 2012-2015. The main modes of synoptic variations are found empirical distributions of their amplitudes, phase velocities, and spatial scales are constructed. The seasonal dependences of these parameters are found. Using independent data from meteorological stations and ERA5 reanalysis, it is shown that variations in radio waves zenith troposphere delay, integral moisture content of the atmosphere, surface refractive index, and wind speed in the troposphere are determined by the same synoptic atmospheric processes. The most probable values of their wavelengths do not exceed 8000 km.
																								



13.
Rapid indication of the influenza virus using a biosensor based on a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

A.A. Cheremiskina1, O.V. Naumova2, A.G. Durymanov1, V.M. Generalov1, A.S. Safatov1, G.A. Buryak1
1State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, Russia
2Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: biosensor, nanowire field-effect transistor, indication, virus

Abstract >>
The results of the indication of the A (H3N2) influenza virus, strain A/HongKong/4801/2014 using a biosensor based on a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor are presented. In the experiment, specific and non-specific antibodies to this virus contained in blood serum were used. It is found that the influenza virus is electrically neutral at the nanowire surface-suspension phase interface; antigen-antibody mixtures BPL-H1 and B-BPL have an electrically negative charge at this interface.
																								



14.
Risk of environmental impact when flaring associated petroleum gas

M.N. Alekseeva, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Tomsk Region, associated petroleum gas flares, pollutant dispersion zones, vegetation cover, CALIOP lidar profiles, Sentinel-2 space images, Sen2Cor and SNAP programs

Abstract >>
The risks of propagation of pollutants from flare installations when flaring associated petroleum gas in the oil production area of the Tomsk region were analyzed on the basis of remote optical data from Sentinel-2 and lidar data from CALIPSO. The horizontal fields of dispersion of pollutants over flare installations of the following fields are given: Pervomayskoye, Olenye, Stolbovoe, Katylginskoe, Lomovoe, Zapadno-Katylginskoe, and Luginetskoe. The areas of vegetation cover located in the zones of dispersion of pollutants from the flares are calculated. The vertical profiles of the propagation of impurities are given according to the CALIOP lidar data, reflecting aerosol pollution of the atmosphere in the area of flare installations of the fields considered in this work.
																								



15.
Use of vegetation indices for diagnostics of the natural ecosystem state at oil and gas facilities

T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: satellite data, vegetation index, geoinformation systems, vegetation cover, hydrocarbon deposits

Abstract >>
The state of the vegetation cover of hydrocarbon deposits of the Parabelsky district of the Tomsk region: Gerasimovskoe, Kazanskoe, Kalinovoe, Mirnoe, Nizhne-Tabaganskoe, and Urmanskoe is studied. The average values of EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) are calculated for the areas under study on the basis of Terra/MODIS satellite data with the use of the ArcGis geographic information system. The state of the vegetation cover is examined for the early growing season, from May 25 to June 25, over the past ten years (2011-2020). Positive trends toward an increase in the EVI values in 2020 are found for all the territories under study, which indicate the revegetation process and improvement of the ecological situation.
																								



16.
Sedimentation rates of pollen clusters and single pollen grains of anemophilic plants growing in CSBG SB RAS

V.V. Golovko1, K.A. Hlebus2, G.A. Zueva3, T.I. Kiseleva3
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: sedimentation rate, pollen grains, agglomerates, anemophilic plants, air impact

Abstract >>
Sedimentation of pollen particles of four species of anemophilic plants (white poplar, hybrid willow, tolocanocular poplar, and Chinese miscanthus) growing in CSBS SB RAS is studied. These species are widely used in landscaping cities of the Novosibirsk region and are producers of impressive amounts of allergenic pollen, which can be carried by the wind over significant distances. The presence of a significant proportion of clusters which include two or more pollen grains is shown. Sedimentation rates are determined for individual pollen grains of these plant species and their clusters of two to six pollen grains. Dependence of the cluster sedimentation rate on the number of pollen grains in a cluster is derived.