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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2020 year, number 12

Black carbon air pollution near the Wrangel Island: comparison of Eurasian and American sources and their contributions

A.A. Vinogradova, A.V. Vasileva, Yu.A. Ivanova
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, pollution, black carbon, the Wrangel Island, long-range atmospheric transport, sources of black carbon, Eurasian and American contributions

Abstract >>
We analyze long-range atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) to the Wrangel Island in the summer months (June-August) of 2015-2017. Air mass trajectories were calculated using the HYSPLIT model on the ARL NOAA website The simplified model of an aerosol impurity transport in the atmosphere based on spatial distribution of sensitivity function to impurity emissions was used. The spatial locations of BC sources (anthropogenic and wildfires) and their emissions were taken from the websites http://edgar. and, respectively. We study and compare intensities, spatial locations, and interannual variations in BC anthropogenic and wildfire emissions to the atmosphere from the North-Eastern Eurasia and the North-Western North America. The contribution of Eurasian sources absolutely prevails over the contribution of American ones in surface BC concentration at the Wrangel Island. But, on the average, summertime contributions from wildfires and anthropogenic sources (without dividing them by territories) do not greatly differ, with the ratio ~ 5:3.

The content of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 in the surface air layer of Tyumen in June 2020

R.Yu. Pozhitkov
Institute of the problems of Northern development, Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS, Tyumen, Russia
Keywords: particulate matter, dust pollution, РМ, РМ, environmental monitoring, Tyumen

Abstract >>
The content of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 in the surface air layer of the city of Tyumen in June 2020 is estimated. The measurements were made using a hand-held portable particle counter AIR TESTER CW-HAT 200. The content of PM2.5 and PM10 in the city air is not highly variable; their average values are several times less than the one-time maximum permissible concentrations. This allows us to conclude that the surface air in Tyumen is moderately polluted with suspended particles. With the help of ArcGIS 10.6.1 software, schemes of the distribution of particles over the city territory are constructed; two highly polluted regions are identified caused by high traffic and wind pattern, respectively. The correlations between the content and distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 with air temperature and relative humidity are analyzed.

Retrieval of the cloud top height from using Meteor-M No. 2-2 MSU-MR measurements

A.A. Filei
Far-Eastern Center of State Research Center for Space Hydrometeorology "Planeta", Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: cloudiness, cloud top height, satellite data, brightness temperature, MSU-MR

Abstract >>
A technique for determining the cloud top height from the MSU-MR measurements on-board the Russian meteorological satellite Meteor-M No. 2-2 is presented. It is based on measurements of the cloud radiation in the infrared atmospheric window at wavelengths of 11 and 12 m. The comparison between the cloud top heights estimated from MSU-MR data and CALIOP satellite lidar data shows their good agreement. A high correlation coefficient (0.94) and a low root-mean-square error (1.28 km) confirm the effectiveness of the technique suggested.

Study of the relationship between ultraviolet radiation and the factors affecting it. Part II. A role of the underlying surface albedo

B.D. Belan, G.A. Ivlev, T.K. Sklyadneva
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation, total ozone content, cloudiness, variations, albedo of the underlying surface

Abstract >>
The relationship between variations in the values of surface ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range 280-320 nm and the state of the underlying surface is analyzed. For this purpose, a homogeneous series of UV-B radiation data obtained at the TOR-station of IAO SB RAS from 2004 to 2016, satellite data on TOC, AOT data from AERONET network, and the data on total cloud cover from the meteorological site of IMCES SB RAS were used. It is shown that the contribution of the underlying surface albedo to increase in the UV-B radiation is 4-8% on average for TOC = 300-400 DU and 9-13% for TOC = 400-500 DU subject to stable snow and the solar zenith angle from 52° to 68°.

Radar characteristics of Cu during their transition to thunderstorm in different regions of the world

A.A. Sin'kevich1, V.B. Popov1, A.M. Abshaev2, B.A. Boe3, S.D. Pawar4, Yu.P. Mikhailovskii1, M.L. Toropova1, V. Gopalakrishnan4, Zh.M. Gekkieva5
1The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St Petersburg, Russia
2HSRC "Antigrad", Nalchik, Russia
3Weather Modification Inc International, 58102, Fargo, ND, 20th Street North, USA
4Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, 411008, Pashan, Pune, Maharashtra, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, India
5Mountain Geophysical Institute, Nalchik, Russia
Keywords: thunder, radar, cumulonimbus

Abstract >>
Radar characteristics of convective clouds during their transition to thunderstorm stage are considered for three regions of the world (India, North Caucasus, and north-west of Russia). Cu depth increases in all regions; the reflectivity and cloud volumes with high reflectivity increase in Russia. Changes in reflectivity in clouds in India are low.

Simulation of solar radiation brightness fields in the presence of optically anisotropic crystal clouds: algorithm and test results

T.B. Zhuravleva
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: radiation transfer, Monte Carlo method, optical anisotropy, horizontally oriented plates

Abstract >>
An original algorithm for statistical of the solar radiation transfer in the presence of crystal clouds, optically anisotropic with respect to the zenith angle of the incident radiation, is presented. Examples of preliminary calculated local optical characteristics of clouds consisting of horizontally oriented plates (without taking into account internal absorption) are given. The software developed was tested in two numerical experiments. In the first of them, the results of calculations of reflected radiation for an isotropic medium with the use the previously developed algorithm for clouds consisting of chaotically oriented particles and the algorithm presented in this work were compared. In the second experiment the angular dependence of the upward radiation intensity and the phase scattering function in crystal clouds consisting of horizontally oriented plates is compared. The results of numerical experiments indicate that when simulating radiation transfer using this algorithm, the properties of the optical anisotropy of the medium are adequately taken into account.

The calculation of the spatiotemporal light field of a point like isotropic source with the help of integral characteristics of scattering

O.N. Gaponenko
Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: applied optics, light absorption, light scattering, scattering phase function

Abstract >>
The spatiotemporal light field of a point like isotropic source is calculated with the help of integral characteristics of scattering. This approach has an ample advantage since it does not require the scattering function to be known for all possible angles, especially for small angles, where the measurement for media with the strong forward scattering is very difficult.

Analysis of comprehensive forecast of lightning activity

I.M. Gubenko1, K.G. Rubinstein1,2
1Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: thunderstorms, Moscow region, WRF-ARW, convection, electrification models, instability indices

Abstract >>
Results of lightning activity forecast over the territory of the Moscow region for the period June 1 - August 31, 2017, are presented. The validation is made for forecasts based on the atmospheric instability indices, Cb electrification model, and WRF-ELEC module. The predictions of WRF-ARW model are used as input data. The indices Total Totals, SWEAT, CAPE, Iww, K (Whiting), and Peskov are studied. Estimation is performed using the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The WWLLN data are preliminary compared with meteorological data.

Formation of nitrogen oxides in a laboratory discharge simulating blue jets

E.A. Sosnin1,2, V.S. Kuznetsov1, V.A. Panarin1, V.S. Skakun1, V.F. Tarasenko1,2, G.A. Ivlev3, A.V. Kozlov3
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: apokamp discharge, blue jet, nitrogen oxides, transient light phenomena

Abstract >>
Using of apokamp discharge carried out on a laboratory simulation of the process of formation of blue jets in the Middle atmosphere of the Earth. The developed setup allowed to compare the NOx concentration in the apokamp discharge mode and without it. In both cases, at an air pressure of 120 torr, close values of NO and NO2 were obtained, amounting to 7320 and 1220 ppb, respectively. The data obtained in a laboratory experiment indicate that blue jets do not significantly affect the concentration of nitrogen oxides.

Use of bistatic laser monitor for high-speed imaging of combustion processes

M.V. Trigub1, N.A. Vasnev1, V.D. Kitler2, G.S. Evtushenko1,3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomskiy Nauchnyy Tsentr SO Ran, Tomsk, Russia
3Scientific Research Institute - Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: high-speed imaging, active filtration, laser monitor, Ni-Al, synthesis of materials, DC arc, burning

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of using a laser monitor with an independent illumination source (bistatic laser monitor) to image the processes blocked from an observer by the background light. The maximum shooting speed was 15-103 fps. The possibility to observe the structural transformations in a combustion wave of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is shown. It is shown that a bistatic laser monitor allows one to significantly improve the image quality (contrast, brightness) of low-contrast objects.

Role of Arctic sea ice loss in autumn in the polar vortex splitting in winters 1984/1985, 1998/1999, and 2012/2013

E.S. Savelieva, V.V. Zuev
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: polar vortex, Arctic sea ice, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, planetary waves

Abstract >>
The Arctic stratospheric polar vortex usually forms in autumn, reaches its peak intensity in mid-winter, and decays in spring. The polar vortex strength and persistence in the winter-spring period play an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion with the return of solar radiation in late winter. In this study, we investigated the causes of the unusual weakening of the Arctic stratospheric polar vortex in winters 1984/1985, 1998/1999, and 2012/2013. The unusually early (from late December to early January) splitting of the Arctic polar vortex in those years was observed in mid-winter, after which the polar vortex did not recover for at least a month or until next autumn. We showed that such vortex dynamics was caused by an unusually prolonged increase in the activity of vertically propagating planetary waves for more than two weeks in the first half of winter in the lower stratosphere as a result of a record decrease in sea ice area and a corresponding increase in surface temperature in those years in the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the Central Arctic in November.