Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2020 year, number 6

1.
FOREST SEED REGIONS OF SCOTS PINE BASED ON GROWTH ASSESSEMENT IN THE PROVENANCE TRIAL IN SIBERIA

S. R. Kuzmin1,2, N. A. Kuzmina1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
2Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest seed zoning, climatic ecotype, tree mean height, growth success

Abstract >>
The purpose of the work is definition of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seed transfer range in Siberia on the basis of growth success of 40 year-old provenance trial established in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk region. In the provenance trial 83 climatic ecotypes are studied in different growth conditions. More than 40 % of climatic ecotypes originally are from Siberia. Long-term observations of complex of traits (survival, height and diameter growth, stock of timber, plant pathology conditions and form of tree trunk) in the provenance trial allowed making analysis of rank stability of climatic ecotypes. Analysis of climatype stability in selection indexes was conducted in different ecological and climatic conditions. Perspective climatypes within each experimental plot were revealed and differences between plots were shown. Average index of complex of traits was obtained. This index is a final assessment of growth success at the present age and the basis of comparative analysis of similarity and difference of climatypes. Recommendations of seed transfer and highlight of forest regions were suggested on the basis of comparative analysis. Seed transfer in latitudinal and longitudinal directions are recommended in definite limits, direction of worlds sides must be taken into account during creation of forest plantations. Five forest regions are recommended for practical usage within definition of forest seed zoning of Scots pine and for forest stations involved in growing of forest plantations on the territories of Krasnoyarsk region, Khakasia, Tuva and Irkutsk region instead of eleven active in present time, their borders are presented in the map in present paper.
																								



2.
CLIMATE GRADIENTS OF Quercus spp. FOREST BIOMASS IN EURASIA

V. A. Usoltsev1,2, I. S. Tsepordey1
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: regression models, stand biomass, biomass structure, climate change, average January temperature, average annual precipitation

Abstract >>
Human economic activity has led to significant global changes in the functioning of the biosphere, and the observed warming of the climate has a significant impact on the vegetation cover of the planet. Due to the species-specific responses of forest ecosystems to climate change and the complexity of their morphostructure, changes in biological productivity within biomes and continents are modeled using compiled databases of empirical data on individual tree species, taking into account their morphostructure. At the same time, priority is given to changing the biomass of forest ecosystems under the influence of annual temperatures and precipitation. However, the results of modeling responses of forest biomass to global changes in temperature and precipitation are contradictory and are characterized by significant uncertainties in the forecasts of climate-related dynamics of forest cover. This article is devoted to the study of transcontinental climate-related trends in the structure of forest biomass formed by species of the genus Quercus spp. Based on the database of 663 sample plots established from France to Japan and China, statistically significant changes in the structure of forest stand biomass associated with shifts in winter temperatures and average annual precipitation are revealed. When the temperature is expected to increase, the biomass of total, aboveground and stems may be increasing, but the biomass of foliage, branches and roots increases only in regions of sufficient moisture, but when there is a lack of precipitation, it may be decreasing. If precipitation is expected to increase at a constant temperature, the total, aboveground, underground and stem biomass may decrease, but the biomass of foliage and branches will decrease only in cold regions, and in warm regions it may increase by up to 20-30 %.
																								



3.
INFORMATION SECURING FOR EXTINGUISHING LARGE FOREST FIRES

V. A. Savchenkova1, N. A. Korshunov1, R. V. Kotelnikov2, A. V. Perminov1
1All-Russian Research Institute of Forestry and Forestry Mechanization, Pushkino, Russian Federation
2The Center of Forest Pyrology, Development of Forest Ecosystem Conservation, Forest Protection and Regeneration Technologies - Branch of the All-Russian Research Institute of Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest, fire, communications, management, automated systems

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the assessment of the interaction and communication system for extinguishing large fires in order to create a more effective system for managing the forces and means of extinguishing and ensuring a reliable quality control system for decisions and work performed. Research on the state of the issue described in the article is planned to be used to prepare methods for managing forces and strategy in large fires, this technique can be adopted normative legal acts of the corresponding Federal state Executive bodies. Most of the Russian Federations forest resources are located in remote and inaccessible areas. This leads to the fact that some forest fires turns into large ones. Despite the fact that large forest fires in the Russian Federation account for only about 8-18 % in number, the total area covered by fire is about 90 %. Improving the effectiveness of fighting large forest fires is of primary importance and the amount of annual damage to the budget of our country will depend on the correct organization of this work. To date, timely and reliable formation of scientific and analytical information for making operational management decisions in the organization of extinguishing large forest fires is extremely important. The article is based on the results of evaluating information support for extinguishing large forest fires based on the analysis of the use of the most effective technological solutions in the field of managing the forces and means of extinguishing that are used in the elimination of large forest fires. This made it possible to make sure that modern effective models of decision support systems (both in the military and civil sectors) are available in Russia and they can be successfully adapted to the tasks of fighting large forest fires. Modern capabilities of Rosleskhoz should be actively used in the Russian decision-making system for predictive modeling of the spread of a large fire and the presentation of other actual and calculated parameters.
																								



4.
KAZAKHSTAN ALTAI: VEGETATION FIRE PROTECTION OF LARCH FORESTS

A. V. Volokitina1, A. A. Kalachev2, M. A. Korets1, T. M. Sofronova3
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
2A. N. Bukeykhan Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestmelioration, Shchuchinsk, Republic of Kazakhstan
3V. P. Astafev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest fire protection, vegetation fuels, prediction of vegetation fire behavior

Abstract >>
Possibility is considered for improvement of fire protection in larch forests of the Kazakhstan Altai. It is proposed to predict the occurrence of fires and their behavior based on vegetation fuel maps using the computer program for predicting vegetation fire behavior, including fire spread rate, development, immediate effects and assessment of manpower and means to suppress the fire. The vegetation fuel maps (VF maps) are based on the pyrological description of forest types and other categories of sites, as well as on the VF classification developed at the V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch. Vegetation of the Kazakhstan Altai has never been described this way before. For the first time, the larch forest types of this region have been analyzed in terms of the types of primary fire carriers (PFC types), thus making it possible to predict flammability of vegetation plots taking into account weather dynamics. The PFC types in the Kazakhstan Altai larch forests have been identified by analyzing regional descriptions of forest types present in the forestry inventory plan. There is a brief description of the computer programs for making VF maps (PGM) and for predicting fire spread rate, intensity, development and effects (PGM2). A performance test is given to both programs on the example of the Markakolsky Forestry District: examples of VF maps for different periods of the fire season are given and behavior of a conditionally specified surface fire is analyzed. The use of these developments in practice will significantly increase the efficiency of firefighting equipment and financial means, as it will contribute to making optimal decisions in cases of several fires being active and insufficient fire suppression means and manpower available. In some cases, behavior prediction of active fires may prove that there is no need to immediately suppress them.
																								



5.
DEHYDRINS IN THE ADAPTATION OF COMMON PINE AND SIBERIAN SPRUCE TO GROWING CONDITIONS DURING VEGETATION PERIOD

N. E. Korotaeva, M. V. Ivanova, G. G. Suvorova, G. B. Borovskii
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: needles, proteins, seasonal adaptation

Abstract >>
The role of stress proteins in the formation of plant adaptability to environmental conditions has not yet been fully revealed. To identify the role of dehydrins (DH) in the strategy of biochemical adaptation in species occupying different ecological niches, we compared the amount and seasonal dynamics of DH in coniferous Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. and the Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. during the growing season. Weather conditions during the study period were favorable for photosynthetic activity of conifers. Based on the total monthly intensity of CO2 uptake, the physiological activity of both species did not differ from the average values of this indicator for these species. The quantitative ratio of the constitutive DH content of 72 and 55 kD, which varies depending on the season, as well as the accumulation of «unique DH for each species, which were located in the high- and low-molecular area of pine and in the medium-molecular area of spruce, turned out to be different in pine and spruce conifers. The obtained results suggest that the occurrence of Scots pine in more arid vegetation conditions, and Siberian spruce in wetter but colder conditions may be associated with the accumulation of certain DH. The ability of Scots pine and Siberian spruce to occupy different habitats may be related to the increased accumulation of constitutive proteins DG 72 and 70 (in pine) and 55 kD (in spruce), but not differences in the composition of DH.
																								



6.
ALGAE AND EPILITIC MOSSES ASSOCIATIONS OF THE Hedwigia P. Beauv. GENUS IN MOUNTAIN TAIGA OF THE KHENTEY UPLANDS (ZABAYKALSKIY KRAI, RUSSIA)

I. N. Egorova, M. S. Konovalov, O. V. Shergina, N. V. Dudareva, G. S. Tupikova
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: association of bryophytes and algae, Cyanoprokaryota, epilithes, South of Siberia

Abstract >>
For the first time, information is provided about algobryophytic associations common in mountain taiga regions. The environment-forming organisms these associations are representatives of the genus Hedwigia P. Beauv. (Bryophyta). The research was conducted in the Sokhondinskiy state biosphere reserve (Zabaykalskiy Krai, Russia). We selected algobryophyte communities in the mountain taiga, these associations are function on stones in the forest, stony placers, remnant rocks, rock outcrops, and pebbles. Precipitation is the only source of moisture here. It was found that in moss-carpet of the Hedwigia at higher humidity, the average temperature was 0.6 C lower than at the same time on the exposed surface of the substrate. In the sod of moss formed on rocks under the forest canopy, compared with open spaces of stony placers, it was warmer by 1-4 C, and the relative humidity is 4-8 % higher. Representatives of Hedwigia growing on acidic mountain breed are characterized by an acidic reaction of the pH. In all investigated samples of bryophytes discovered epiphytic algae. A total of 68 species from the Chlorophyta (40 species), Cyanoprokaryota (13 species), Streptophyta (8 species), Ochrophyta (4 species), Bacillariophyta (3 species) departments have been registered. Most registered of algae species are typical inhabitants of various terrestrial biotopes. A number of algae genera found are known as lichen symbionts. In the associations were dominated by cyanoprokaryotes-diazotrophs from the Nostoc Vauch. ex Bornet et Flahault and Stigonema C. Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault genera. Significant fluctuations in their numbers in time and space were found. Diazotrophs associated with Hedwigia can serve as a source of nitrogen for this moss. It has been shown, that Hedwigia accumulates 0.7-1.5 (2.2) % of mineral nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen comparable to Hedwigia accumulates one of the dominant moss cover in taiga ecosystems of southern Siberia Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb. This species also forms associations with dominance of the Nostoc Stigonema . The content of mineral nitrogen in the free-living epigenic and epilitic cyanoprokaryotes of the Nostoc and Stigonema genera can be up to 2-3 times higher than that in the studied mosses.
																								



7.
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNOGENIC FORESTRY

L. I. Milyutin, L. N. Skripalschikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest ecosystems, technogenic forests and forestry, recreational forests

Abstract >>
A brief overview of studies of technogenic impacts on industrial botany and forest ecosystems is given. A list of the leading Russian scientific schools conducting research in technogenic impacts on forest ecosystems in different regions is demonstrated. The main objects of their studies are named. Schematically in the field of technogenic forestry several groups of research objects have been identified: 1. Forests near output sources of techchnogenic pollution. 2. Forests of green areas around large cities and industrial centers. 3. Urban forests and forest parks; 4. Cultivated forest stands in geographically non-forest areas (steppe, forest-tundra and so on). The necessary generalized of the results their studies and separate these into the branch of biology - technogenic forest science is proved. Also discussed is functioning of recreational forests. These forest stands are included in the structures of forests of green zones, suburban and urban forests, forest parks. In these forests it is important to maintain a positive balance between the excessive anthropogenic load of the residents and their full rest. It is noted, that forest stands, firstly urban forests and forest parks are of reference to regional or governmental authorities, which can and does not rely do it. It is confirmed that the most universal and effective direction for the theory and practice of protection of nature and man is general technogenic forest science.
																								



8.
GENOMIC SELECTION IN TREE BREEDING

A. L. Fedorkov
Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Syktyvkar, Russian Federation
Keywords: genomic prediction, DNA-markers, wood quality traits, growth traits, breeding value

Abstract >>
The literature review concerning genomic selection in forest tree breeding is given. Genomic selection is based on relationships between phenotypic traits and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Using genomic selection it is possible to get genomic estimated breeding value of plus tree without long tree progeny testing in field and selection cycle is significantly shortened. Tree breeding programs with genomic selection for Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., lodgepole pine P. contorta Douglas ex Loudon, maritime pine P. pinaster Aiton, loblolly pine P. taeda L., Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst., white spruce P. glauca (Moench) Voss, black spruce P. mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., hybrid spruce P. glauca (Moench) Voss. × P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm., Douglas spruce Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. (Franco), eucalypt Eucalyptus LHr. and chestnut Castanea Mill. realized in Sweden, Canada, France, United States, Brazil and New Zealand are shortly described. It is shown that genomic selection is applied mainly for growth traits (height and diameter), quality traits of wood (microfibril angle, wood elasticity and density), as well resistance to fungal diseases and insects. The literature data about optimal number of DNA-markers on the accuracy of genomic prediction are presented. In general estimates of genomic prediction for traits studied were high enough. Taken together these estimates and high economic efficiency due to shortening of breeding cycle it is possible to conclude about prospects of genomic selection in forest tree breeding. The lack of progeny field tests established by full-sib families is limiting factor to apply genomic selection in our country, but clonal archives of plus trees can be used.
																								



9.
FOREST VECTOR OF THE SIBERIAN INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION

G. S. Mironov1, I. M. Danilin2
1Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Siberian Forest Institute, Siberian Institute of Forest Engineering, Siberian Institute of Technology, Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Technology, Siberian State University of Technology, Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, history of foundation and development, 90 anniversary, Krasnoyarsk

Abstract >>
90-year history of the creation and development of the first forestry higher educational institution in Krasnoyarsk Krai - the Siberian Forest Institute / Siberian Institute of Forest Engineering / Siberian Institute of Technology / Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Technology / Siberian State University of Technology, currently - Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology. Information is presented on the main stages of the formation of the university, the directions of training forest specialists, and conducting scientific research.