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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2020 year, number 5

Zoological indication of climate change in Central Kazakhstan steppes compared to the middle of the XX century on the example of carabid and tenebrionid beetles

V. G. Mordkovich1, S. A. Khudyaev2, R. Yu. Dudko1, I. I. Lyubechanskii1
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: изменения климата, почвенный покров, жужелицы, чернотелки, Carabidae, Tenebrionidae, climate changes, soil cover, Tenebrionidae

Abstract >>
Studies of communities of ground beetles (Carabidae) and black beetles (Tenebrionidae) were conducted in Central Kazakhstan along 70°E. Investigations were made in typical, dry and deserted steppe subzones in 1976-1978 and 2018. In parallel, soil cover studies were conducted and climate indicators of the studied areas were compared. Considerable change of a climate for 50 years expressed in rise in temperatures with simultaneous increase of precipitation. The basic features of soils have not undergone essential changes, but keep or get strong potentials to salinization. The generality of local fauna of carabids in 1976-1978 was 48-62 %, in the beginning of XXI century it decreased in dry steppe to 16 %, in deserted steppe - to 7 %. In tenebrionids which are more adapted to aridity the faunal similarity decreased from 70-75 % to 37 % in the typical steppe, and increased to 87 % in dry steppe. There are more “southern” subarid species in the communities and fewer relatively “northern” boreal and polysonal species, which disappear completely in dry and desert steppes. As an integral zoo-indicator of changes in aridity of the environment, the Tencar index, expressing the ratio of the number of individuals and species of arid tenebrionids and more humic carabids, was used. In the typical steppe the index values are low and change little in the long-term dynamics and along the catena. But in the dry steppe Tencar Index values in 2018 increased by 5 times compared to the middle of the XX century, and in deserted steppe - by 2 orders of magnitude. The trigger for changes in the composition and structure of local communities of beetles is not a change in atmospheric humidity, but the rise in average annual temperatures, which exceeded the global trend values and activated salinization of soils, creating the conditions for desertification of the territory and biota.

Spatial evaluation of climatic niche in Daurian Pika

N. G. Borisova1, A. I. Starkov1, A. V. Lizunova1, S. V. Popov1, M. A. Erbajeva2
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
2Geological Institute of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
Keywords: Ochotona dauurica, климатическая ниша, Maxent, валидация, проекции в будущее и прошлое, climatic niche, validation, future and past projections

Abstract >>
Accurate predictions of species’ range shifts in response to ongoing climate change is, in our opinion, a key starting point in an assessment of a species vulnerability to climate change. In this study, we used Maxent 3.4.1 to construct a Daurian pika climatic niche distribution model using 273 species presence points throughout its whole distribution range, together with 19 bioclimatic layers, and examined the pika vulnerability to the effects of global climate change under two emission scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. It was found that the models chosen using statistical selection criteria (AUC and AIC) displayed reduced transferability to new territories, which can substitute for time in predicting climate-change effects on biodiversity. To obtain more transferable model we used cross-validation in which data were assigned non-randomly to 3 groups that were spatially distinct. The constructed model was validated using two completely independent field-collected datasets. (1) Of the three unexplored previously areas with optimal climatic conditions, only one was inhabited by the pika. Other areas were revealed to have edaphic factors unsuitable for pika living. (2) Comparison of range projections for time periods of 140-120 Ka, 21 Ka and 6 Ka with pika fossil locations in the corresponding periods showed good fitting. The climatic niche range changes in the year 2070 do not look critical for Ochotona dauurica due to the significant overlap between current and predicted ranges. However, the internal structure of species’ range is predicted to change significantly, especially pronounced in the RCP 8.5 scenario, when the largest deviation from the current distribution is expected along with an increase in fragmentation within the predicted range

Distribution of spiders (Arachnida:Araneae) in the zonal-catena matrix of the steppes of Central Kazakhstan

L. A. Trilikauskas, I. I. Lyubechanskii
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: пауки, пространственное распределение, ареал, фауна, население, засоление, аридизация, катена, spiders, spatial distribution, range, fauna, population, salinization, aridization

Abstract >>
Studies of spider communities (Arachnida: Aranei) were carried out in Central Kazakhstan along 70°E in subzones of typical, dry and deserted steppe on the catenas (drainage series), including eluvial, transitive and accumulative positions. 79 species of spiders belonging to 33 genera and 11 families were identified. The basis of the spider population is formed by wandering gnaphosid spiders - a group typical for arid zones and dry stations. A significant role in the population of the study area is also played by wolf spiders (Lycosidae), the most numerous on the lower, wetter positions of the catenas. In the direction from typical steppes to desert ones, there is an increase in the proportion of Salticidae species in spider faunas and taxonomic diversity of this family. In contrast to the species richness of the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae), which decreases from north to south, the number of spider species increases, and thus it is similar to the species richness of tenebrionid beetles. At the latitudinal gradient from north to south at the upper positions of the catenas there is a decrease in the spider abundance, while the ecological diversity of taxa of spiders is increasing. Usually, positions of catenas being similar in faunistic composition, are similar in the structure of spider population. When moving from typical steppes to desert, there is a decrease in the number of wide-area species with subboreal distribution and an increase in the number of species typical of steppe, semi-desert habitats and salt marshes.

Extrazonal steppe phenomena in the mountains of Southern Siberia: features of spatial organization, centers of the latest speciation and coenogenesis

B. B. Namzalov
Buryat Research Institute of Agriculture, Ulan-Ude, Russia
Keywords: виды и сообщества растений, степоиды, ландшафты, степные убуры, типы растительности, высотная поясность, Южная Сибирь, species and plant communities, stepoids, landscapes, steppe uburs, vegetation types, altitudinal zonation, Southern Siberia

Abstract >>
The steppes occupy an important place in the vegetation of the mountains of Southern Siberia. However, they significantly differ in the mountains of various climatic facies, these features are especially pronounced in the spatial and phytocenotic structure of extrazonal steppe phenomena - on the ecotones in adjacent altitudinal belts. In the geography of Inner Asia, these steppe manifestations in landscapes entered under the concept of “uburs” meaning warm insulated slopes. The expositional combinations of forest and steppe communities in the vegetation of the mountain forest-steppe belt are the most complex, the structure of this transitional belt is differentiated into two categories of sub-belts: “peristeppe” and “periforest”, with the differentiation into lower and upper variants. The role of the steppes in the structure of vegetation of expositional forest-steppe in the mountains of a semi-humid climatic facies is not limited to the boundaries of the “peristepppe” and “periforest” sub-belts, steppe communities as extrazonal phenomena penetrate deep into the forest belt in the form of mosaics of steppes, stepoids on the insolate slopes. The participation of the steppes during forest domination is very insignificant (from 20 to 5 % or less). They include both the formed steppe communities and steppe groups with the inclusion of forest shrubs, subalpine and mountain-tundra species. The imposition of gradients - high-altitude and expositional displays in the specificity of the species and coenotic diversity of the steppes, in the spatial structure. In these original ecotones of the mountain steppes, processes of speciation are intensely manifested, often combined with populations of relict plant species.

Petrophytic vegetation patterns on moisture gradient in the Southern Urals and adjacent territories

A. Yu. Korolyuk1, S. M. Yamalov2, M. V. Lebedeva2, N. V. Zolotareva3, N. A. Dulepova4, Ya. M. Golovanov2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden of SB RAS
2South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of UFRC RAS, Ufa, Russia
3Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of UB AS, Ekaterinburg, Russia
4Central Siberian Botanical Garden of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: петрофитная растительность, степи, индикаторные виды, экологические факторы, увлажнение, каменистые местообитания, Южный Урал, petrophytic vegetation, steppes, indicator species, environmental factors, moisture, rocky habitats, Southern Urals

Abstract >>
The Southern Urals is a unique region of Eurasia with high variety of flora and vegetation. Mountain relief predominates in the steppe and forest-steppe landscapes. Stony habitats and petrophytic vegetation are widespread here. It is characterized by a high diversity of flora and numerous endemic, rare and endangered plants. The dataset of 3,614 relevés of forb and shrub communities from the territory of the Southern Urals and adjacent regions was analyzed. Formalized methods of cluster analysis, assessment of moistening using ecological indices of plants, and definition of indicator species were used. Change patterns in petrophytic communities species composition along the moistening gradient were determined. It was found that with moisture increasing, the number and cover of petrophytic species in communities on rocky habitats decreases. On the contrary, the proportion of indifferent species is growing. Five groups of species indicating different gradient segments were determined. Based on the cluster analysis results, 4 large units of petrophytic vegetation were identified. Desert-steppe communities have the greatest floristic originality among vegetation on rocky habitats. In their diagnostic combination obligate petrophytes predominate, many of which grow on limestone outcrops. These communities are found in the south of Orenburg region mainly in the dry steppe landscapes of the Southern Urals. Dwarf semishrub-bunchgrass steppes are widespread within the steppe landscapes and are common in the forest-steppe of the Urals. Forbs-bunchgrass petrophytic steppes are widely represented in the northern part of the steppe zone and in the southern forest-steppe regions, as well as in the forest-steppe landscapes of the Middle Urals. Meadow petrophytic steppes are found in forest-steppe and forest landscapes.

Halophytic vegetation on the west Caspian lowland

I. A. Goryaev, A. P. Korablev
Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: Прикаспийская низменность, степная зона, пустынная зона, галофитная растительность, солонцы, солончаки, общая сумма солей, формации, Caspian lowland, steppe zone, desert zone, halophytic vegetation, solonetzs, solonchaks, total amount of salts, formations

Abstract >>
Halophytic vegetation is typical for the west of the Caspian lowland. It is confined to solonetzs and solonchaks, occupying a fairly large area in the region. The phytocenotic diversity of halophytic vegetation depends on environmental factors such as the total amount of salts in the soils, as well as on soil moisture. According to literature sources and our research, halophyte communities in the region belong to 21 formations, of which 9 are widely distributed (Artemisieta pauciflorae, Artemisieta santonicae, Camphorosmeta monspeliacae, Leymeta ramosi, Halocnemeta strobilacei, Salsoleta dendroidis, Salicornieta perennantis, Suaedeta salsae, Petrosimonieta oppositifoliae). Communities of 12 formations are rare (Anabaseta salsae, Halimioneta verruciferae, Kochieta prostratae, Limonieta suffruticosi, Salsoleta laricinae, Frankenieta hirsutae, Petrosimonieta triandrae, Petrosimonieta brachiatae, Climacoptereta crassae, Spirobassieta hirsutae, Salsoleta sodae, Puccinellieta distantis). Some of these formations are located on the western or north-western border of their areas. In the steppe zone is dominated solonetzs. Communities are associated with them euhalophytes dwarf semishrubs Artemisia pauciflora , Artemisia santonica , Camphorosma monspeliaca and rhizome cereals Leymus ramosus are common on solonetzs. Solonchaks are not so common, they are marked with communities: Salicornia perennans , Spirobassia hirsuta , Suaeda salsa , Petrosimonia oppositifolia . In the desert zone, solonetzs occupy small areas only in the north. Dominated by solonchaks, which are confined community hyperhalophytes dwarf semishrubs ( Halocnemum strobilaceum , Salsola dendroides ); and annuals saltwarts ( Salicornia perennans , Suaeda salsa , Petrosimonia oppositifolia ). Halophytes communities are characteristic of fallows and pastures on light chestnut saline soils, along irrigation channels, pipelines, and around artesian wells.

Application of data on thermic conditions of soils for differentiation of vegetation in exposure-related forest-steppe of Transbaikalia

O. A. Anenkhonov1, D. V. Sandanov1, H. Liu2, A. Yu. Korolyuk3, C. Xu2, W. Guo2,4, A. A. Zverev3,5, B. B. Naidanov1, D. G. Chimitov1
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
2Peking University, College of Urban and Environmental Science, Pekin, China
3Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk, Russia
4University of California, Merced, USA
5Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: экология растительных сообществ, температура почв, увлажненность местообитаний, экологические шкалы, экспозиция склонов, лесостепь, Забайкалье, ecology of plant communities, soil temperature, habitat humidity, plant indicator values, slope aspect, forest-steppe, Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
Results of long-term monitoring (from 2008 till 2018) of thermic conditions have been applied to assessments of eco- and topological differentiation of vegetation in exposure-related forest-steppe of Transbaikalia. As a result significant differences were revealed between thermic conditions at northern and southern slopes as well as between different kinds of forest-steppe along the aridity and continentality gradients. The temperature conditions at the southern slopes are relatively unified and this is a basis for the vegetation of the only steppe class of Cleistogenetea squarrosae occurred there. Despite, the temperature conditions at the northern slopes are more heterogeneous that result in plant communities of different classes are developed, namely steppe of Cleistogenetea squarrosae , and forests including the hemiboreal class Rhytidio-Laricetea and boreal class Vaccinio-Piceetea . Additional contribution to soil temperature differences is inputted by the size of forest patches in forest-steppe.

Influence of the systematic position at the family level on steppe plant leaf traits

P. K. Yudina1,2, L. A. Ivanov1,2, D. A. Ronzhina1,2, O. A. Anenkhonov3, L. A. Ivanova1,2
1Institute Botanic Garden, Ural Branch of RAS, Tyumen, Russia
2Tyumen State University
3Institute of General and Experimental Biology of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
Keywords: экология таксонов, аридность климата, структура листа, мезофилл, размеры клетки, хлорофиллы, ecology of taxa, climate aridity, leaf structure, mesophyll, cell size, chlorophylls

Abstract >>
The significance of the systematic position for the traits of the leaf, mesophyll, chloroplasts, and pigment complex in steppe plants of the three main families Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Rosaceae from different geographical regions of Russia and Mongolia was examined. The species belonging to a particular family affects, first of all, the parameters of the whole leaf - the thickness and density of the leaf, as well as the size and number of mesophyll cells. In contrast, mesophyll parameters as well as pigment content independent of the taxon and both reflected the convergent response of plants from different taxa to climate.

Predictive mapping of the spatio-temporal dynamics of ecosystems with multidirectional trends in climatic humidification in subarid conditions

1V. S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: прогнозное картографирование, пространственно-временная динамика, изменение климата, цифровые модели рельефа, SRTM, predictive mapping, spatial dynamics, climate change, digital terrain models

Abstract >>
The approach to modeling spatial dynamics of forest-steppe ecosystems under climate change is proposed. It based on using morphometric analysis of the digital elevation model (SRTM). The forecast is grounded on the analysis of the geological and geomorphological ecosystems framework. At the same time the functional significance of landforms and their impact on the static and dynamic properties of ecosystems are considered. The obtained results show flat areas are the most resistant to climate change, while lake areas are vulnerable to intensification of humidification or aridification. Predictive mapping based on GIS and RS confirm the existing ideas about the discrete mosaic character of changes in the forest-steppe of Western Siberia under different climate trends.