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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2020 year, number 7

1.
Rotational dependence of line half-width for the fundamental band 00 0 11 - 0 0 001 of CO2 confined in nanoporous aerogel: new measurements

A.A. Solodov1,2, T.M. Petrova1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1, A.M. Solodov1, A.S. Shalygin3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: CO, аэрогель, Фурье-спектроскопия, aerogel, FTIR spectroscopy

Abstract >>
The absorption spectra of carbon dioxide confined in aerogel sample with pore sizes of 60 nm have been recorded at a room temperature in the 2250-2400 cm-1 region using a Bruker IFS 125HR FTIR spectrometer. Parameters of spectral lines of CO2 are derived; their dependence on rotational quantum numbers are shown. The results are compared with data available in literature.
																								



2.
Disturbance of the stratosphere over Tomsk in winter 2017/2018 using lidar and Aura MLS/OMI observations

O.E. Bazhenov, A.A. Nevzorov, A.V. Nevzorov, S.I. Dolgii, A.P. Makeev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лидар, спутник Aura, стратосферный аэрозольный слой, озон, внезапное стратосферное потепление, солнечное освещение, возмущение, lidar, Aura satellite, stratospheric aerosol layer, ozone, sudden stratospheric warming, solar illumination, disturbance

Abstract >>
Lidar observations at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N; 85.0°E) showed the presence of stratospheric aerosol layers over Tomsk during winter 2017-2018, signs of descending air masses, and deficit of ozone. Aura OMI/MLS observations indicated that in December-January 2017/2018 the total ozone (TO) content and NO2 content in the stratosphere over the Northern Eurasia, as well as the temperature in the stratosphere, were significantly lower than normal. Analysis of back trajectories and integrated (over profile) TO showed that the dynamic disturbance of the Arctic stratosphere in December 2017 led to extrusion of cold air masses with excessive reactive chlorine (in view of NO2 deficit) beyond the Arctic circle and their intrusion into the stratosphere of Tomsk. Seemingly, in the Tomsk stratosphere they were exposed to solar radiation and, staying chemically isolated, evolved into chemically disturbed state, similar to the state of springtime Arctic stratosphere, where ozone is intensely destroyed until the final warming.
																								



3.
Hydrooptical signals of an airborne polarization lidar for sensing the homogeneous sea water depth

V.S. Shamanaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лидарное зондирование оптически плотных сред, поляризационный самолетный лидар, гидрооптика, светорассеяние, lidar sensing of optically dense media, airborne polarization lidar, hydrooptics, light scattering

Abstract >>
The special features of hydrooptical signals of an airborne polarization lidar are theoretically and experimentally analyzed in the case of sensing of homogeneous water mass under controllable conditions. The results obtained expand the possibilities of interpretation of lidar return signals, especially in complex and ambiguous situations. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the depth profiles of hydrooptical signals of airborne polarization lidars operated under conditions of homogeneous water depth are presented.
																								



4.
Light scattering on spherical particles for lidar applications

V.A. Shishko1, A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, N.V. Kustova1, D.N. Timofeev1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University
Keywords: рассеяние света, сферические частицы, лед, вода, лазерное зондирование, лидар, light scattering, spherical particles, ice, water, laser sensing, lidar

Abstract >>
The solution to the problem of light scattering by spherical particles is presented, adapted for the interpretation of lidar signals for applied problems. The solution was obtained for typical wavelengths used in laser sensing 0.355, 0.532, 0.905, 0.940, 1.064, 1.55, 2.15, and 10.6 mm within the Mie scattering theory for water and ice. The inherent high-frequency oscillations in the backscattering direction are smoothed out by means of a moving average, which allows one to construct fast and efficient algorithms for particle size distributions observed in the atmosphere.
																								



5.
Correlation between the dynamics of atmospheric composition and meteorological parameters near Tomsk

P.N. Antokhin, O.Yu. Antokhina, V.V. Antonovich, V.G. Arshinova, M.Yu. Arshinov, B.D. Belan, S.B. Belan, D.K. Davydov, N.V. Dudorova, G.A. Ivlev, A.V. Kozlov, D.A. Pestunov, T.M. Rasskazchikova, D.E. Savkin, D.V. Simonenkov, T.K. Sklyadneva, G.N. Tolmachev, A.V. Fofonov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, аэрозоль, воздух, газ, диоксид азота, диоксид серы, диоксид углерода, метан, мониторинг, озон, оксид азота, оксид углерода, состав воздуха, atmosphere, aerosols, air, gas, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methane, monitoring, ozone, nitrogen oxide, carbon oxide, air composition

Abstract >>
The interrelationships between the variations in CH4, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and SO2 concentrations and the aerosol number density and such meteorological quantities as air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, global solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation in the range 295-320 nm, relative humidity, and partial pressure of water vapor are studied. For that, we used data on monitoring the air composition (for the period 1993-2018) performed at the TOR-station of IAO SB RAS located in Tomsk.
																								



6.
The analysis of OCO-2 satellite measurements of CO2 in the vicinity of Russian cities

A.A. Nikitenko, Yu.M. Timofeev, I.A. Berezin, Ya.A. Virolainen, A.V. Polyakov
Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: пространственно-временные вариации содержания СО, спутник ОСО-2, вариации ХСО, ансамбль данных индекса качества В«0В», ансамбль данных индекса качества В«1В», spatial-temporal variability of carbon dioxide, OCO-2 satellite, XCO variations, XCO data with a quality flag “0”, XCO data with a quality flag “1”

Abstract >>
CO2 spatial and temporal variability in five Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of OCO-2 satellite measurements (more than 300 days during 4.5 years, more than 50 000 measurements). The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) allows measurements of CO2 content with a high accuracy (0.25-0.5%) (for data with a quality flag “0”), a high horizontal resolution (1.29´ 2.25 км2), and a spatial coverage along paths of ~ 10 km. That makes it possible to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 column-averaged dry-air mole fractions (XCO2). XCO2 OCO-2 data with quality flag “1” has lower measurement accuracy, but the number of such measurements is 5-10 times greater than that with quality flag “0”. XCO2 satellite measurements with quality flag “0” in the vicinity of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Magnitogorsk, and Norilsk (circles with a radius of 100 km from the city centers) have been analyzed. Comparisons of the meaurements in different cities and regions show that XCO2 datasets with a quality flag “0” are homogeneous, the amplitude of XCO2 variations amounts to 5-6%, root mean square variations are less than 1%. The maximum values of XCO2 spatial variations totals 2-4%, which differs significantly from the results of the analysis of OCO-2 XCO2 data with quality flag “1”.
																								



7.
Investigation of the spatial distribution of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over Western Siberia using a mobile platform

M.Yu. Arshinov, B.D. Belan, D.K. Davydov, A.V. Kozlov, A.V. Fofonov, V.G. Arshinova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: состав атмосферы, парниковые газы, пространственное распределение, atmospheric composition, greenhouse gases, spatial distribution

Abstract >>
The results of a large-scale investigation of carbon dioxide and methane distribution carried out in Western Siberia in 2018-2019 using a Picarro G4301 portable gas concentration analyzer are presented. The analysis of the obtained data enabled the spatial distribution of background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to be retrieved with a high resolution. The revealed inhomogeneities in the CO2 and CH4 distribution is a result of both the effect of ecosystem features in different regions of West Siberia and the characteristics of their seasonal cycles.
																								



8.
Retrieval of crosswind velocity based on the analysis of remote object images. Part 3. Experimental test

A.L. Afanasiev1, V.V. Dudorov1, A.S. Nasonova1, A.P. Rostov1, Yu.T. Mikhailov2, S.O. Shestakov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Research and Development Company of the Republic of Belarus in Optolelectronics, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: скорость ветра, турбулентная атмосфера, некогерентное изображение, wind velocity, turbulent atmosphere, incoherent image

Abstract >>
The passive technique for crosswind velocity retrieval from a video series of incoherent images, developed in previous works, has been tested. The technique is based on the visualization of air-drifted turbulent air inhomogeneities which distort optical images recorded. The results of retrieval of the crosswind velocity by the technique suggested are compared with anemometer measurements at paths of up to 1 km in length.
																								



9.
The alignment technique and quality check of the large mirror of the Siberian lidar station

S.M. Bobrovnikov, E.V. Gorlov, V.I. Zharkov, D.A. Trifonov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: мегалидар, комбинационное рассеяние, лазер, атмосфера, Сибирская лидарная станция, megalidar, Raman scattering, laser, atmosphere, Siberian lidar station

Abstract >>
The alignment technique and quality check of the large mirror of the Siberian lidar station (SLS) with the diameter of 2.2 m is considered. The results of computer simulation of the field aberrations of the large mirror are presented and the area of the coma-free region is determined. The spot diagram of the large SLS mirror is measured by estimating the image size of stars passing through the zenith are presented. The numerical simulation of the lidar signal using ray tracing in the optical CAD ZEMAX is carried out taking into account the influence of a real scattering circle of the receiving optical system. The shape of the experimentally registered and ray tracing simulated lidar signal is compared.
																								



10.
Validation of AGCMs ECHAM using laser spectrometer data obtained at two Arctic stations

N.Yu. Denisova1,2, K.G. Gribanov1, M. Werner3
1Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia
2N.N. Krasovskii Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia
3Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
Keywords: модель общей циркуляции атмосферы, изотопологи воды, atmospheric general circulation model, water isotopologues

Abstract >>
To validate the atmospheric general circulation models ECHAM5-wiso and ECHAM6-wiso with embedded water isotopic modules, the simulation with nudging to known fields of temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction obtained from retrospective climate analysis was performed. The simulation results were compared with data on the isotopic composition (dHDO and dH218O) of water vapor in atmospheric air near the surface obtained at two monitoring stations: in Labytnangi (66.660N, 66.409E) and in Igarka (67.453N, 86.535E). An unambiguous conclusion about the superiority of the newer model ECHAM6-wiso could not be made, because the simulation results with its use demonstrate a better agreement with the values observed in Igarka, while the model ECHAM5-wiso shows a better agreement with the values observed in Labytnangi. The simulation results can be used as an a priori ensemble for solving inverse problems of remote sensing of the atmosphere in Western Siberia.
																								



11.
Determination of phase velocities from optical images of the sea surface

A.S. Zapevalov1,2
1Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of the RAS, Sevastopol, Russia
2Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia
Keywords: оптическое изображение, волнографические измерения, дисперсионное соотношение, фазовая скорость, optical image, wave measurements, dispersion ratio, phase velocity

Abstract >>
The contradiction between the results of determining the phase velocities of sea waves from optical images of the sea surface and data of in situ measurements by an array of wave sensors is analyzed. The phase velocity estimates obtained from optical images well correspond to the theoretical values derived from the linear dispersion relation for gravitational waves. For in situ waveform measurements, the phase velocities exceed the theoretical values. It is shown that the excess is caused by the fact that when in situ measurements are made, the contribution to the phase spectrum is given by waves that come from different directions and have different projections of the phase velocity in the direction in which it is determined.
																								



12.
Water vapor absorption of 266 nm laser nanosecond pulses with linear and circular radiation polarization

G.Yu. Golubiatnikov1, A.N. Kuryak2, B.A. Tikhomirov2
1Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: поглощение УФ-излучения, водяной пар, диссоциация, анизотропия акустического импульса, absorption of UV radiation, water vapor, dissociation, acoustic pulse anisotropy

Abstract >>
An increase of 50% in the amplitude of the photoacoustic signal generated when water vapor absorbs pulses of laser radiation at 266 nm with circular polarization, relative to the signal for radiation with linear polarization, is reported. The effect observed is associated with different dissociation efficiency of H2O molecules as a result of one- and two-photon absorption of radiation with linear and circular polarization.