Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2020 year, number 2

1.
THE NEED FOR CHANGING PRIORITIES IN LOGGING SUCCESSIONAL KOREAN PINE-BROADLEAVED FORESTS OF THE FAR EAST

A. P. Kovalev, A. U. Alexeenko, E. V. Lashina, T. G. Kachanova
Far East Forestry Research Institute, Khabarovsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: кедр корейский Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc, динамика лесов, запас древесины, естественное возобновление, параметры рубок, эксплуатация кедрово-широколиственных лесов

Abstract >>
The analysis of the condition and the use of Korean pine Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.-broadleaved forests of the Far East is given. The dynamics of the Korean pine stands under the influence of industrial exploitation are shown taking into account subsequent felling practices and the successful restoration of stands. The reproduction of the Korean pine forests without specific silvicultural measures can extend for a long period with the change of the main forest-forming species, that is connected with the heterogeneity and age structure of the components of tree stands. The prohibition of industrial logging in the Korean pine-deciduous forests of the Far East, which was the result of the intensive depletion of this formation, did not completely remove the severity of the problem and did not provide stabilization of the Korean pine forests. Subsequent harvesting of wood in the successional post-cutting forests continues to lead to degradation of the Korean pine stands and does not contribute to its restoration within the boundaries of its range. Final felling of all commercial trees up to a smaller trees leads to a degradation, depletion of the species composition of forest stands and decrease in its environmental and industrial significance. This is especially evident when felling hardwood species involved in almost all types of the Korean pine-broadleaved forests. To preserve the structure and stability of the stands during logging operations, it is necessary to clearly regulate the intensity, repeatability and felling-tree diameters when appointing Manchurian ash Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Mongolian oak Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb., small-leaved maple Acer mono Maxim., and yellow birch Betula costata Trautv. trees. Based on the assessment, logging and the characteristics of the newly formed stands, the most optimal techniques and basic organizational and technical parameters of industrial logging for specific forest formations of coniferous-broadleaved forests formed on the site of the Korean pine growing conditions are proposed.
																								



2.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF PROTECTING FORESTS FROM FIRES

M. A. Sheshukov, A. P. Kovalev, A. M. Orlov, V. V. Pozdnyakova
Far East Forestry Research Institute, Russian Federation
Keywords: горимость лесов, причины пожаров, пожарные последствия, совершенствование лесопожарной службы России, forest combustibility, causes of fires, fire consequences, improvement of the forest fire service of Russia

Abstract >>
Forest combustibility rate in Russia is extremely high-thousands of forest fires occur annually. The area covered by fires is measured in millions of hectares, fire consequences and the costs of fire-fighting amount to tens of billions of rubles. Reducing forest combustibility is an urgent task not only for forestry, but also for the whole society, since the taiga burns mainly due to human impact - over 90 % of fires arise from man-made fire sources. The main natural factor that drastically affects the current fire danger in forests is weather conditions, under the influence of which fire hazards can change significantly. Temporal variability of weather conditions, their range and scale are very large, from heavy and prolonged precipitation, often accompanied by devastating floods, to abnormally dry seasons with a period up to 2 months. Fire danger and forest burning, respectively, also vary widely, from complete absence of fires to the extreme and catastrophic wild fires. In this regard, for timely detection and suppression of forest fires and reasonable regulation of the work of the forest fire service, a reliable assessment of the current fire danger in forests (in real time) depends on weather conditions. The characteristics of forest fires in Russia and the damage caused by forest fires over a 5-year period (2014-2018) are discussed in the article, the causes of fires are considered, the system of organizational measures for the development and improvement of forest protection from fires is proposed. An improved by the Far Eastern Forestry Research Institute formula, developed by Professor V. G. Nesterov, is proposed, which is the basis for determining the complex indicator, reflecting the degree of fire danger in forests, depending on weather conditions.
																								



3.
SPECIFICS OF STRESS PROTEINS-DEHYDRINS OF BIRCH Betula L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF CRYOLITHOZONE

T. D. Tatarinova, A. A. Perk, A. G. Ponomarev, I. V. Vasilieva
Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Yakutsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: береза, органы, ткани, низкие температуры, устойчивость, многолетняя мерзлота, Якутия, birch, organs, tissues, low temperatures, resistance, permafrost, Yakutia

Abstract >>
The compositional features of stressful dehydrin proteins of some species of Betula L.: silver birch B. pendula Roth, dwarf bog birch B. fruticosa Pall., dwarf birch B. nana L., growing under extreme climate conditions in the cryolithozone of Central Yakutia were studied using specific antibodies. The composition of birch dehydrins hanging from regions differing in more moderate climatic indices (South Yakutia and Pribaikalye) was studied for comparison. The composition of dehydrins in different species of birch under the conditions of cryolithozone has significant similarities. Low molecular weight dehydrins, mainly 17 kDa from two groups of identified dehydrins in the range with mol. m. 15-21 and 56-73 kDa, regardless of the species characteristics of birch, are subject to the greatest seasonal changes. These proteins in shoots and buds, as well as in the tissues of the bark and xylem of silver birch, have a high level during winter dormancy at the lowest negative temperatures, when frost resistance of plants reached maximum values, while they almost disappeared in the summer period. Dehydrins in the region of 15-21 kDa in birch shoots and buds were characterized by more pronounced intraspecific polymorphism in the conditions of Central Yakutia, their content, predominantly 17 kDa of dehydrin, significantly exceeded that of birches of the South Yakutia and Irkutsk populations. The middle molecular weight dehydrins of birch 66-69 kDa are presented round whole year at almost the same level. These dehydrins in leaves, male inflorescences, pollen and seedlings from silver birch seeds were observed during the growing season, although they were found in smaller quantities. Significant similarities in the composition and representation of dehydrins in the organs and tissues of the studied birch populations may indicate their important role in the general mechanisms of the formation of the low-temperature resistance of Betula L. plants to the conditions of Northeast Eurasia.
																								



4.
COMPONENTIAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF WOOD GREENERY OF Juniperus communis L. IN THE SUBARCTIC REGION OF RUSSIA

N. A. Samsonova1, M. A. Gusakova1, K. G. Bogolitsyn1,2, N. V. Selivanova1
1Academician N. P. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
2Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: можжевельник обыкновенный, мужские и женские растения, хроматомасс-спектрометрия, common juniper, male and female trees, chromato-mass spectrometry

Abstract >>
Common juniper Juniperus communis L. is one of the most valuable raw material sources of essential oils in the Subarctic region of Russia. It is obligatory dioecious species, found in the underbrush in almost all forest types on the northern border of its range. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from wood greenery of male and female trees of common juniper, growing in the natural biocoenoses of the northern taiga subzone is presented in the article. The results showed variations in the yields of juniper essential oils depending on the gender of trees (3.95 % (v/w dried materials) from male trees and 4.65 % from female trees in the initial growing season). Twenty eight terpene compounds with content of more than 0.1 % were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most representative fraction of the essential oil of male and female juniper trees is monoterpene hydrocarbons, 67.98 % (of the total essential oils) in male trees and 60.95 % in female trees. The essential oil of male trees is characterized by the highest total yield of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the highest content of oxygen-containing derivatives of terpenes is noted for the essential oil of female trees. According to the quantitative composition data, the Common juniper essential oils contain a wide range of biologically active substances that exhibit a variety of pharmacological properties. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils of both female and male trees junipers was evaluated against 3 bacteria: colibacillus Escherichia coli Migula ATCC 25922; goldish staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach ATCC 6538; blue pus organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula ATCC 27853, by the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils of Common juniper showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated the perspective of using wood greenery juniper like a pharmaceutical substance for obtaining essential oils as components of plant compounds and natural products with antibacterial properties.
																								



5.
TURNOVER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN THE ECOSYSTEM OF NATIVE HERBACEOUS-BILBERRY SPRUCE FOREST IN THE MIDDLE TAIGA SUBZONE (KOMI REPUBLIC)

K. S. Bobkova, E. A. Robakidze, N. V. Torlopova
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Syktyvkar, Russian Federation
Keywords: ель сибирская Picea obovata Ledeb, фитомасса, продукция, опад, азот и зольные элементы, атмосферные осадки, почвенные воды, водная миграция минеральных элементов, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb, phytomass, production, leaf waste, nitrogen and ash elements, atmospheric precipitation, soil waters, water migration of mineral elements

Abstract >>
The contents of the paper aim at issues on native spruce forests in the taiga zone. It includes assessments of chemical elements local cycles in the ecosystem of middle-taiga of different ages of different herbaceous-bilberry spruce forest Piceеtum herboso-myrtillosum on podzols soils. It shows the structure of organic and mineral plant matter from of different tiers is shown. It revealed the regularities processes of consumption and return of chemical elements in the soil-vegetation system. The tree stand plays a major role in formation of the structural composition of organic matter annual production and fall in the ecosystem of old-aged spruce forest. The renewal process was marked as successful under the canopy forest. The plant phytomass accumulates 2298 kg ∙ ha-1 elements of mineral nutrition. High accumulation capacity is demonstrated by Ca, N, K and Si. To form its annual production, spruce forest tolerate 144.1 kg ∙ ha-1 mineral elements. The biological cycle rate of nutrients for spruce forest equals 7.3 years. The annual leaf waste provides the soil surface with 104.5 kg ∙ ha-1 nitrogen and ash elements. Destruction annually releases 23 kg ∙ ha-1 mineral elements from leaf fallen waste. Forest litter is the main source of nutrients. The reserve of chemical elements in organic soil layer is 1044.9 kg · ha-1. Precipitations annually enrich the soil with additional 24.5 kg ∙ ha-1 mineral elements. Transportation of mineral elements outside the limits of root layer (0-30 cm) within surface soil waters is 59.2 kg ∙ ha-1 a year.
																								



6.
WINTER HARDINESS AND DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF WILD ROSE SPECIES IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

A. S. Solomentseva
Federal Scientific Centre of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation, Volgograd, Russian Federation
Keywords: род Rosa L, интродукция, адаптация, защитное лесоразведение, озеленение населенных пунктов, Rosa L. genus, introduction, adaptation, protective afforestation, greening of settlements

Abstract >>
Species of the Rosa L. genus belong to the extensive Rosaceae family, with a very wide area, which makes this genus promising for the use in plantations of various species. The aim of the research was to assess the introduced representatives of the Rosa genus and the selection of promising species for forest reclamation and landscaping in arid conditions. The objectives of the research were to determine the ratio of different Rosa species to limiting environmental factors-drought and frost by field and laboratory studies with subsequent statistical processing of data. Of the species introduced and naturally distributed in the Lower Volga region, the following can be distinguished: R. rugosa Thunb., R. canina L., R. beggeriana Schrenk, R. spinosissima L., R. ecae Aitch, R. pomifera Herrm., R. cinnamomea L., R. acilularis Lindl. The climate of the Lower Volga region is continental, arid, moisture regime - unstable, which greatly limits the development and growth of plants, as well as the success of their adaptation. When transferring Rosa species from their natural habitat to a new one, an important issue is the degree of their adaptation to new environmental conditions. In materials research comparative evaluation of winter hardiness of species of wild roses, and also presents data on the study of water deficit and relative yield of electrolytes, the ranking of species according to the degree of distinction of parameters of leaf plates. In the process of studying the species of rosehip, it was found, that with prolonged exposure to cold and drought, the studied samples undergo adaptive changes aimed at improving the water balance and adaptive capabilities. According to laboratory and field studies identified the most promising species for the use in protective afforestation and landscaping settlements of the Lower Volga region, drought-resistant species as: R. ecae , R. beggeriana , R. spinosissima , R. canina, and winter hardy species as: R. acicularis , R. pomifera , R. spinosissima and R. canina .
																								



7.
SEED ZONING OF SCOTS PINE IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE

A. L. Fedorkov
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Syktyvkar, Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, географические культуры, перемещения лесных семян, Pinus sylvestris L, geographical crops, forest seed transfer

Abstract >>
The issues concerning Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seed transfers in northern Europe are discussed. The official rules regulating transfers of Scots pine seeds in the Russian Federation are described. The recent Russian and foreign literature about the geographical variation of main adaptive traits of pine in northern conditions are analyzed. The importance of geographical cultures as main method to study the geographical variation is shown. The differences of limits to transfer in northern Russia and adjacent countries with boreal climate as Sweden and Finland are shown. Based on literature the approach to modeling of seed transfer to survival and height growth of Scots pine plantations are described. The models recently jointly developed in Sweden and Finland are presented and data obtained in the geographical and test cultures of pine for their construction are characterized. The climate parameters used for modeling are briefly specified. The models developed are also valid for genetically improved material. Joint practical recommendations on choosing the optimal source of seeds for reproduction of forests in these two countries are considered. The web tool for optimal choose more suitable material to establish high-productive Scots pine cultures. The official rules regulating Scots pine seed transfers in northern Russia do not fully correspond to patterns of geographical variation of this species. The relevance to develop the seed transfer models for northern Russia and to change seed zoning rules is stressed.