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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2020 year, number 1

1.
20th CENTURY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS ON THE LATE NEOLITHIC OF THE WEST AMUR REGION

S.V. KOVALENKO
Center for Preservation of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Amur Region, Uralova prosp., 5/2, 675000, Blagoveshchensk
Keywords: , , , , , , West Amur Region, historiography, late Neolithic, Osinoozerskaya culture, chronology, ceramic complex, tool set

Abstract >>
The territory of the West Amur Region is a heterogeneous geographical area, where an original and unique cultural center has been formed since the Stone Age. The history of studying the late Neolithic era in the region dates back more than a century and is divided into several stages on the level of knowledge. According to historiography, each stage is characterized by a certain level of the material accumulation, processing and understanding, as well as a certain scientific concept. The studies began in the second half of the XIX century. Since then, the source base has been broadening. A new stage in systematic and gradual study of the Stone Age of the Far East is related to the Far Eastern expedition led by A.P. Okladnikov that carried out first works in the territory of Priamurye in 1935. The research of the Stone Age in the region carried out in the 1950s was of great importance for the future reflection of the late Neolithic. During this period of time, a number of locations with elements of late Neolithic material culture were discovered on the Upper Amur. The turning point in studying the late Neolithic period in the region was 1961, when the Far Eastern expedition began systematic studies in the territory of the West Amur Region. A new late Neolithic culture, called Osinoozerskaya, was identified based on the materials received from a number of sites during research in the 1960-70s. It helped to highlight cultural and chronological characteristics of the settled population which lived in semi-subterranean dwellings and engaged mainly in hunting and fishing. The obtained archaeological data allowed the researchers to draw a preliminary conclusion about the presence of argiculture rudiments in this culture. Then there was a 30-year break in studying the late Neolithic in the region. In fact, before the new millenniums start, there was no information in the archaeological literature about new complexes that could expand sites number of the Osinoozerskaya culture. The view of it reflected the level of the source base established by the mid-1970s.
																								



2.
EARLY NEOLITHIC OF KAMCHATKA PENINSULA

I.YU. PONKRATOVA
North-Eastern State University, 13 Portovaya str., Magadan, 685000, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , , , Kamchatka, early Neolithic, tools on blades, grinded tools, ceramics, weaving, small sculptures

Abstract >>
30 archaeological sites and locations had been discovered in the continental and coastal regions of Kamchatka by the beginning of the XXI century, for which seventeen 14C dates were obtained. Using stratigraphic, tephrochronological, radiocarbon analysis data and radiocarbon dates calibration, the chronological frameworks of the period were determined as 7800-4500 years ago. The period criteria were identified based on the materials of the most studied sites of Ushki I, II, V, Avacha I and others, as well as findings of artifacts. The author revealed that the Early Neolithic objects were located at the river banks, lake or sea coasts, ridge spurs. There were typical sites with rounded dwellings settled during the short- and long-term periods; burials, sites-workshops and utility pits. The strategy of the society life support was aimed at hunting, fishing and gathering during the period. The stone industry was based on the primary splitting technique based on the reduction of conical and prismatic cores. The dominant products of splitting are small and medium-sized blades, which used to make the tips of throwing tools, knives, cutters, and scrapers. Bifacial tools are represented by leaf-shaped knives, arrowheads with rhombic, triangular sections. The combination of blade and bifacial technologies can be a marker of the technique of making stone tools for Early Neolithic of Kamchatka. Chopping tools (adzes, axes with an intercept butt) are various in size, shape, and design methods. Products with fully polished sides (axes, adzes) indicate a well-developed grinding technique. Obsidian, flint, basalt, sandstone, quartzite, and jasper were the raw material base for making stone tools. Ceramics and weaving were the most important innovations of this period. Small plastic items, as an individual type of finds, illustrate the spiritual and everyday culture of society and can be characteristic features of the Early Neolithic of Kamchatka. Materials of the Early Neolithic of Kamchatka correlate with archaeological complexes of the Mesolithic - Middle Neolithic of Yakutia and Chukotka, the Middle Neolithic of Primorye, the Early Neolithic of the Middle and Lower Amur, and Sakhalin Island.
																								



3.
SUBJECT-FIGURATIVE CERAMICS IN BURIAL COMPLEXES OF KOREAN PENINSULA AND JAPANESE ISLANDS (III-VI)

A.L. NESTERKINA, I.S. GNEZDILOVA, E.A. SOLOVYEVA, A.I. SOLOVYEV
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , - , , , , , , Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands, subject-figurative ceramics, haniwa, kofun, Gaya, funeral ritual, burial mound

Abstract >>
A significant amount of subject-figurative ceramics having analogues among haniwa has been recently discovered in the southern Korean Peninsula. The study objective is to consider specific forms of subject-figurative ceramics of the Korean Peninsula and Japanese Islands, to compare artistic, technological and functional features, to identify similar mythological basis. The similarity of the discovery context and functions of subject-figurative ceramics of Korea and Japan raises the question about the place of origin and local features of further development of such objects manufacturing tradition. Comparison of figures and contexts revealed such common forms as houses, boats, waterfowl birds, and deer looking around. Studying mythological subjects and ancient literature made it possible to conclude that houses and boats are related to the existence and transportation of the dead peoples souls to another world; waterfowl images in burial complexes is associated with their mission to accompany these souls. The penetration of the continental myth of an archer hunting a deer, which looks around, explains the appearance of this type of images. An argument in favor of this conclusion is finding the figure of the archer with a bow in combination with a deer. The image similarities, variants of manufacturing, the context of finding are not accidental. They show the presence of constant and prolonged contacts between the population of the Korean Peninsula and Japanese Islands. The distribution area of figures confirms the existing hypotheses about the routes of resident movements in these territories. Korean samples are vessels placed on supports; Japanese ones are connected with vessels by their origin; they could not be functionally used this way. The subject-figurative ceramics often encountered at the Japanese Islands is much more due to the availability of raw materials. The similarity of mythological representations characteristic of both territories with mythological subjects of the mainland population confirms the concept of trans-Eurasian migration.
																								



4.
DAGGER WITH TWO-EDGED BLADE FROM THE TALAS VALLEY OF KYRGYZSTAN

YU.S. HUDYAKOV1,2, A.YU. BORISENKO2
1Insitute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentiev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State University, 1 Pirogov str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , " ", -, , iron dagger, weapons collection, Talas Valley, "Manas Ordo" museum, Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan

Abstract >>
Among the complex of armament objects of ancient and medieval nomadic warriors in the territory of Tian Shan and Semirechie including the Talas Valley, a definite part of hand-to-hand and close combat objects of armament belonged to iron two-edged daggers. The article analyzes quite a rare finding of iron dagger with unusual two-edged blade in section, that is kept at the present time as a part of archaeological collection of «Manas Ordo national museum complex created in honour of the Kyrgyz people heroic epos and its lead heroic character, distinguished warlord and baghatur Manas. The museum complex is situated in the Tash-Aryk village, the Talas Valley, the Kyrgyz Republic. In scientific literature there is information about similar archaeological findings related to objects of short blade weapons. These findings include short swords-acinaces whose blades have similar design characteristics. They were in armaments of the ancient Sacae nomads inhabited mountain and steppe regions of Central Asia during historical period of the Early Iron Ages. In previous decades, the Sacae swords-acinaces were detected by domestic archaeologists during burial mound excavations of the Sacae in the Pamir Mountains. The Sacae swords-acinaces had metallic predominantly iron straight two-edged short blades, that were intended for targeting jabbing motions against adversaries during hand-to-hand and close combats. Quite possibly, that dagger with straight two-edged blade from the Talas Valley of the Kyrgyz Republic in «Manas Ordo museum,s archaeological findings collection is originated in some archaeological monuments of the Sacae nomad ancient culture of the Early Iron Age located in this territory, where there are many ancient burial mounds and settlements, tupical of this cultural commonality of early nomads. Daggers of such construction with straight two-edged blades can be related to chronological period of the Early Iron Age. This rare finding could be included in the archaeological collection of «Manas Ordo museum complex as a result of its quite good conservation of metal it was made of.
																								



5.
UBINSKY PAS: LOCATION AND PLANIGRAPHY

S.V. GOROKHOV
Institute of Archeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: (), , , , .. , , , , , , , Ubinsky Pas (forpost), Novosibirsk region, Ubinsky distict, Ubinskoe Lake, I. G. Gmelin, fence, ditch, chevaux de frise, block obstacles, barracks

Abstract >>
The study objective encompasses two components: to determine an initial location of Ubinsky Pas (outpost) and reconstruct its fortifications including planning of the fortress internal space. The research source base is represented by the travel diary of I. G. Gmelin who visited the outpost in June 1741 on his way from Tomsk to Tara. The article includes an authors translation of the itinerary text related to Ubinsky Pas as this work has not been published in Russian. The researchers have repeatedly referred to I. G. Gmelins itinerary as an information source to determine its location, layout of fortifications and plan of the fortress yard. However, the location determination was limited to general indications, which considerably distorted the source data. The same is true for characteristics of the fortress wall structure and buildings in the outpost territory. Ubinsky Pas location was determined by searching for landmarks specified in the itinerary, on modern maps and ensuring alignment thereof. The fortifications were reconstructed in strict accordance with the source text by interpreting it through the lens of modern historical and archeological data on homogeneous objects located in Siberia and the Far East. The reconstruction of the fortification inner yard plan was carried on based on I. G. Gmelins description, by reconciliation of the objects planigraphic dimensions and garrisons size. The study showed that Ubinsky Pas used to be located (till its translocation in 1746) on the Menshikov Isle, in the moorland, at south-western margin of the Ubinskoe Lake, two kilometers south of Kreshchensky town. The exact location can be determined only during archeological exploration. The author made graphical reconstruction of the outposts fortifications and its plan.
																								



6.
THE ACCESSION OF THE AMUR AND MARITIME REGIONS TO RUSSIA (MID-XIX CENTURY) AS EVALUATED BY THE ENGLISH- AND GERMAN-LANGUAGE RESEARCHERS

D.A. ANAN'EV
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , .. -, 1858 , 1860 , Western historiography, Russian Far East, Amur Region, Maritime Region, N.N. Muravyov-Amursky, Treaty of Aigun (1858), Convention of Peking (1960)

Abstract >>
The paper provides an overview of key works of English- and German-language researchers who wrote about the territorial acquisitions of Russia in the Far East in the 1850s; evaluates their contribution to the study of the topic. It is established that in the second half of the XIX - early XX century Western scholars analyzed the issues of Russias expansion in the Far East in the context of international (above all, Russo-British) rivalry (E.G. von Ravestein, A. Krausse, C. von Zepelin). In the XX century historians-emigres significantly contributed to the study of Russian-language materials associated with the topic. In their works Western researchers used theories and concepts of «Russian eastward expansion (F.A. Golder, R.J. Kerner, T. Lin); «colonization and «colonialism (Yu.N. Semyonov, J.Stephan, J.Gibson); methods of «new cultural history (M. Bassin, C. Weiss). Diplomatic aspects of the history of Russias expansion to the Amur region were studied by P. Tompkins, R. Quested, S. Paine; military aspects - by J. Stephan, J. Grainger, A. Rath. Investigating the reasons for which Russia entered the Amur region, historians noted the empires constant urge to the sea (A. Krausse, T. Lin); wrote about dominant political reasons related to the imperial expansion (E.G. Ravenstein, D. Dallin, S. Paine etc.), the necessity of expanding the merchant ties (F.A. Golder, R.J. Kerner, T. Lin, M. Mancall, H. Salisbury, J. Gibson). Military and strategic reasons were described by E.G. Ravenstein, A. Krausse, J. Stephan, J. Grainger. Historians commend the role of various participants of the Amur venture such as A.F. Middendorf (D. Landgraf), G.I. Nevelskoy (A.A. Lobanov-Rostovskiy), N.P. Ignatyev, A.M. Gorchakov (R. Quested), however, most researchers believe that the most significant role was played by the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, Count N.N. Muravyov-Amursky. Evaluating consequences of acquisition of the Amur and Maritime regions provided by the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, Western authors believe that such vast territorial gains eventually helped turn Russia into a Pacific power; changed the vector of its Far Eastern policy from the North-Eastern to the South-Eastern direction. However, they also made international ravalry more acute, which finally led to the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905.
																								



7.
CRIMES IN THE FAMILY LIFE OF MILITARY PERSONNEL OF THE 18th CENTURY RUSSIAN ARMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE HISTORY OF EVERYDAY LIFE

A.V. DMITRIEV
Novosibirsk State University, 1 Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , XVIII , , , , , Russian army, 18th century, everyday life, servicemen, family life, military courts

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to studying the representations and legal rules that were the base of the family life of Russian empires regular army servicemen in the 18th century. The sphere of family life is one of the most important types of social practices, which are necessary to research the problems of everyday lifes history. Due to limited source base for this period the author considered it possible to bring for consideration materials from judicial investigative cases of soldiers crimes in relation to their family members. These cases stored in the Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA) allow presenting views that guided the servicemen relationships with their wives, and how the crimes, committed by soldiers, were assessed from the current legislations point of view. The study of these archive materials led the author to the following conclusions. First, the military courts in Russia during the 18th century used the church law norms valid in previous periods in addition to the special legislation (Military Article) to verdict the family lifes crime cases. Second, not only the criminals themselves were convicted, but their victims, who turned out to be soldiers wives in the cases under consideration. Third, the guilty bore reduced sentences in comparison with the prescribed ones by laws for their committed crimes. These cases show that the rights of servicemen family members in Russia in the 18th century were poorly protected by legislative norms. Besides, we can see that even military servicemen kept traditional views about the style of family life supported and authorized at the legislative level by imperial state powers, although the regular army was used as the main tools for the transition to modern society in the country
																								



8.
FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY OF SIBERIAN JOURNALISTS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURY

I.S. CHERNOVA
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaev str, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , -, journalist, journalism, professional community of Siberian journalists, periodical press, ego-documents

Abstract >>
The second half of the XIX - early XX century was the time of formation of the journalist professional community. The latter played an important role among the educated society contributing to public education, construction of the behavioral and moral strategies of their audience. Historiography on the history of Siberian journalism of the studied period can be traditionally divided into three stages: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet ones. Studying professional practices of journalists, their identity, motives of behavior, options for communication between the subjects of the journalistic world has not been the subject of special research. The article defines the main concepts of research: profession, professional community, Siberian journalist, professional community of journalists. Journalists rarely referred themselves to journalists. Often they used broader terms like litterateur, writer. According to the authors view, Siberian journalists were people who temporarily or permanently lived in the territory of Siberia and were full time employees of local periodicals. They were joined by those journalists who lived in the European Russia and were professionally engaged in Siberian problems. The research is based on the methodological approach anthropology of professions, aimed at investigating professional practices, motives of behavior, ways of informal interaction between subjects. Following P.V. Romanov and E.R. Yarskaya-Smirnova, under the term profession the author means an activity that brings income and requires special knowledge, skills and rules of behavior. The article highlights the criteria of journalists belonging to professional community: regular cooperation with newspapers, magazines; common professional everyday life; receiving a fee for published articles; relating oneself to journalism, developing a professional identity; recognition from colleagues; communication and public skills.
																								



9.
JEWISH ECONOMIC PHENOMENON IN SIBERIA, 1880 - 1910s: REGULARITY OR OCCASION?

L.V. KALMINA
Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies SB RAS, 6, Sakhyanova str., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , , Siberia, Transbaikalia, Jews, exile, trading entrepreneurship, mobility, penetrating power, market rivalry, guild merchants, gold mining, handcraft

Abstract >>
Jews in Siberia had a status of exiles for the most part: the law prohibited the followers of Judaism to leave the boundary of a settled area. However, despite the adaption difficulties in an alien region, Siberian Jews in the second-third generation occupied strong positions in local economics taking leading roles in some industries and replenishing the ranks of local merchants. The article objective is to reveal the reasons of such fast ascent of Jews to the local economics, peak. Was it only a lucky occasion for them or the result of some regularity? The research source base includes five regional archives giving the possibility to trace the process from the exiled status to regional business elite representatives, and reference publications at the edge of the XIX - XX centuries estimating Jewish firms state in the Siberian economic space. Analyzing these material the author came to the following conclusions. Siberia changed its status during the investigated period. The concept of its economic development envisaged territorial raw material resource,s transformation into military-strategic and trade-industrial base at the Eastern imperial boundaries, for which the transfer of its economy to capitalist rails became necessary. For that reason the regional authority encouraged business initiatives independently of their origin. The exiled, including Jews, began to be regarded as a colonization resource. Having many centuries of experience of activities under the market economics, conditions, the Jews naturally integrated into transforming Siberian economic structure. Due to their ability to take into account the balance of supply and demand and establish economic relations, they quickly took the leading positions in Siberian colonial industries - trade and mining. Jewish business, inherent features, such as industriousness and entrepreneurial spirit, willingness to take risk, readiness to settle for less, at least in the beginning, allowed the former exiles to take their place among regional business elite.
																								



10.
LATE IMPERIAL COLONIZATION IN ESTIMATES OF EARLY SOVIET EXPERTS

N.G. SUVOROVA
Omsk State University F.M. Dostoevsky, 55a st. Mira, 644077, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , , , colonization experts, colonization, colonization practices, colonization, colony, planned relocation, outskirts

Abstract >>
Based on published and unpublished works of colonization experts, the article identifies and analyzes the estimates of state colonization practices at the late imperial stage. In Soviet and modern historiography, the contribution of colonization experts of the 1920s is evaluated mainly in regard to the planned relocation concepts development. However, their direct participation in the organization, implementation, scientific understanding of the pre-war period of colonization justifies the appeal to their retrospective assessments. The oppositionality, the left-liberal traditions of the officials of the resettlement department explain the critical attitude towards autocratic power. During the early Soviet stage the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the empire the colonization efforts outskirts were assessed as successful, but not completed due to external factors (revolution and wars). The effectiveness of the resettlement apparatus, the scientific feasibility of colonization programs including the priority of colonization practices over resettlement programs, the regulation of the resettlement flow explain a consistent return to the old principles and programs. Criticism of the pre-revolutionary colonization policy from the class standpoint as imperialist / colonialist Russification did not diminish the effectiveness of resettlement structures and the fruitful contribution of participants to the active resettlement matter. The main elements of criticism, as well as the set of necessary innovations (transition from resettlement to colonization, regulatingpeople elements and integrated planning, selection a quality colonizer), were proposed at the pre-war stage by experts as the completion of programs not finished due to the war. Special economic and political conditions for the implementation of early Soviet colonization projects strengthened national priorities to the detriment of regional interests.
																								



11.
FORCED ATTEMPT TO COMPREHEND (A NEW LOOK AT THE EVENTS OF THE XVII CONFERENCE OF THE ALL-UNION COMMUNIST PARTY (b))

M. A. FELDMAN
Ural Institute, 66, 8 Marta str., Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , conference, plenum, party, delegates, industrialization, workers, specialists, five-year plan, plan, turning point

Abstract >>
The absence of a systematic and detailed analysis of the materials of the XVII conference of the CPSU (b) in January - February 1932 has been and remains a common place of historical literature giving unwittingly a passing character to the event. Evaluation of the conference is largely determined by the Soviet era characteristics supported by numerous attempts to rehabilitate Stalins policy. What was the real role of the XVII conference of the CPSU (b)? The article is devoted to this problem. The article notes that at the party forum there was (often hidden and fragmentary) analysis of a yet another years results of the First five-year plan, which differed sharply from the planned ones and caused deep imbalances in the national economy of the country. The conference delegates speeches showed the reasons of failure to fulfill the plans of the first years of the five-year plan, revealed high level of product defect. It is important, these reasons were not related to the wrecking of old specialists, but to objective factors such as the preservation of primitive manual labor zones generating frequent downtime in the modern technology use, as well as the low level of mastering mechanisms due to unskilled workers predominance. The speeches of a number of heads of industries and trusts in one or another form condemned the emphasis on quantitative indicators without mentioning the name of Stalin - the initiator of such a policy. At the same time, the delegates of the conference supported all the pro-posed resolutions endorsing the Partys general line during the years of Great turning point; agreed not to discuss collectivization course and its consequences in the Soviet village
																								



12.
FEATURES OF FORMATION OF PERSONNEL POTENTIAL AT THE ENTERPRISES OF SIBERIA IN THE 1960-1980-s

A.I. TIMOSHENKO
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva str. Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , - , , Siberia, region, personnel potential, industrial development, industrial enterprises, scientific and technical progress, Soviet youth

Abstract >>
The article objective is to study the problems related to human resources formation at the Siberian industrial enterprises. The processes of personnel formation were mainly associated with scientific and technological progress, which took place at all enterprises in the Siberian region. The research task is to show the development of scientific and technological progress at industrial enterprises and demonstrate its activity. Scientific and technological progress was especially active at industrial enterprises related to mechanical engineering, energy industry, and chemical production. It was slightly less active at enterprises related to transport and construction. The next factor that influenced the problems of personnel formation in Siberia was governmental policy aimed at exploiting various natural resources of the region. The government paid particular attention to the Soviet youth participation, who took an active part both in enterprise and city construction, and in the natural resources development of the Siberian region. Organizing the educational system at various levels played an important role in training industrial personnel for Siberian enterprises. The personnel necessary for the West Siberian oil and gas complex started to prepare personnel in early 1960s. Tyumen Industrial Institute was established in 1963 by a special resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers that immediately began training personnel for the oil and gas complex. Technical and vocational school network was created in Tyumen and neighboring regions as well. The northern West Siberia enterprises staff was trained in Novosibirsk. In addition, the enterprises themselves trained skilled workers, as well as personnel professional development. The author concludes that several factors influenced the formation of human resources in Siberia at once, the main of which were: technological progress and the Soviet state policy on accelerated industrial development of the countrys eastern regions. These problems have not been adequately reflected in Siberian and Russian historiography. The article uses both general scientific and historical approaches. Priority is given to historical methods, where processes are arranged in a chronological order, as well as a comparative analysis of the situation related to industrial development in Siberias various regions.
																								



13.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIES FOR THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SIBERIA IN THE WORKS OF RUSSIAN ECONOMISTS AT THE END OF THE XX - BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURIES

N.A. KUPERSHTOKH
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , - , , , , - , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Region, strategies for socio-economic development

Abstract >>
Studying the history of Russias regions clearly puts on the agenda the issue of methodological approaches to the studying the post-Soviet period covering about three decades. The latest period of Russian history in its regional refraction is of particular relevance in terms of finding those starting points that would serve as a kind of guideline for historians in covering social and economic issues. The article investigates the history of elaborating strategic projects of the socio-economic developments main directions for Siberian region carried out by the scientists from the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production (IEOIP) of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since the early 1960s, the Institute staff has determined vectors of the main trends in the Siberian economys development in accordance with the state policy directions and regional needs. In the 1970-1980s they formulated strategic directions of the regional socio-economic development being implemented in the framework of the program Siberia. The post-Soviet period required new approaches to restore the regional economic potential and understand the role of Siberia in the state geopolitical strategy. These approaches are reflected in three documents: Strategies of Siberias Socio-Economic Development in 2002, 2005, and 2010. Experience in implementing socio-economic projects in the second half of the century was summarized, first of all, in the works by economists themselves. Some issues of the Institutes development were reflected in the works of Siberian historians. Works by A.G. Granberg, V.V. Kuleshov, V.E. Seliverstov and other describe the experience of elaborating strategic programs for Siberias socio-economic development in the XXI century. However, a comprehensive analysis of the IEOIPs activities to elaborate socio-economic programs and development strategies for Siberia has not yet become the subject of a special historiographic analysis. Therefore, the article obgective is to study IEOIPs team activities in elaborating main directions of Siberias socio-economic development in the late XX - early XXI centuries; identify the strategies main priorities for Siberias socio-economic development in 2002, 2005 and 2010 that received (in addition to the Strategy 2005 ) the status of program documents officially approved by the Government of the Russian Federation Government.
																								



14.
REGIONAL POLICY AS A FACTOR OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN URAL, 1990s-2010s: EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS

M.V. BEKLENISHCHEVA
Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 19 Mira Str., Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation
Keywords: , , « », , , , , tourism development, Sverdlovsk Region, Urals precious ring, tourist cluster, Great Ural, foreign tourists, business tourism

Abstract >>
In the context of formation of the postindustrial society, the issues of creation of tourist infrastructure and entertainment cluster attractive for tourism have become urgent. A.B. Movlaev, I.S., Kabirov, Y.S. Putrik et al. devoted their works to the problems of regional tourism development. In general, the topic, especially its regional aspect, is still waiting for its researchers. The article is intended to reflect the specifics of evolution of the regional policy on domestic and inbound tourism development focusing on the processes of regional legal framework formation and emerging problems. The key point is the regional tourism law of 1999. Over the past 20 years, four ministries have served as the executive body of the regional government in the field of tourism. Currently, the Ministry of Investment and Development of Sverdlovsk Region has the responsibility of these issues. At the Millennia turn, the volume of inbound tourism to Sverdlovsk Region was comparable to these parameters in the mid-80s of the XX century. In the early XXI century Sverdlovsk Region declared itself as a tourist center, however, the main flow of tourists in the region, including foreign ones, is still made up of visitors to business events at the federal level. In 2004, Sverdlovsk Regional government established the Council for Developing Tourism Activities, since 2007 the state targeted programs to develop tourism in the region have been adopted. Since 2011, federal budget funds have been allocated to finance the tourism activities, Sverdlovsk Region Tourism Development Center was opened. In 2018, the Strategy for the Development of Domestic and Inbound Tourism in Sverdlovsk Region up to 2035 was approved. At present, the necessary regulatory and legal framework in the tourism sphere in Sverdlovsk Region has been developed, however, a number of strategic planning documents must be adjusted with participation of representatives of the scientific and public community.
																								



15.
SOCIOCULTURAL PRACTICES OF INTERNATIONAL AND RUSSIAN LEVEL IN THE MUSEUM WORLD OF SIBERIA

O.N. SHELEGINA
Institute of History of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , , museum world of Siberia, sociocultural practices, international museological forums, the Committee of museology of Asia and the Pacific, innovations, the All-Russian scientific and practical conference “Modern trends in the development of museums and museology”, the project “Integration of Russian museums in the regional socio-cultural space”, the world museum community, integration, development of heritage

Abstract >>
The reseach is relevant because it helps to determine the regional museum world in the situation of bifurcation in the museum world in order to highlight promising trends in its development. For the first time, it gives a comprehensive analysis of the problems and the nature of participation of representatives of the Siberian museum world in the most significant museological forums at the international and all-Russian level held in 2014-2019. These forums include: XXXVII International Symposium of the Committee of Museology of ICOM New Trends in Museology (2014, France), Annual Symposium of the Museum of Museology of Asia and the Pacific Museum and Culture (2015, Taiwan), international scientific conferences World trends and museum Practices in Russia (2018, Moscow), Museum, Museology and Cultural Heritage (2019, the Republic of Kazakhstan), as well as all-Russian Scientific and Practical Conferences Modern trends in Museums and Museology Development (2014, 2017, Novosibirsk), Integration of Siberian Museums in the regional Socio-Cultural Space and World Museum Community: Science. Heritage. Society (2019, Ulan-Ude, Russia). It has been established that the decisive role in worldwide promotion of the activity results of Siberian scientists, museum employees, and teachers belongs to the Museum of Museology of Asia and the Pacific (ASPAC). A number of the Siberian museum worlds innovations (conference Modern Trends in the Development of Museums and Museology, project Integration of Russian Museums in the Regional Socio-Cultural Space) appeared at the all-Russian level due to the high level of integration of institutions of science, culture, education of the Siberian region and leading Russian institutions in the field of museology. Based on the study of the historiographic resource, empirical base, and sociocultural practices, it can be argued that the museum worlds development in Siberia and its prospects are consistent with the global sociocultural trend of developing all kinds of heritage.