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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2020 year, number 2

Estimation of absorption cross section of forbidden vibrational band of hydrogen in nanoporous aerogel

B.G. Ageev, Yu.N. Ponomarev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрогель, нанопора, водород, газометрия, поглощение, aerogel, nanopore, hydrogen, gasometric, absorption

Abstract >>
The results of the measurements of H2 molecules concentration into aerogel (SiO2) nanopores with diameter 20 nm are presented. The standard gasometric method was used. The experimental data on H2 molecule concentration together with the data on integral intensity of H2 collision induced absorption band 0-1 were applied for estimation of the absorption cross section at the band maximum.

Study of the H2O polarisability vibrational dependence by the analysis of rovibrational line shifts

V.I. Starikov
Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: молекула НО, поляризуемость, уширение и сдвиг спектральных линий, water molecule, polarisability, broadening and shift of spectral lines

Abstract >>
The study of the vibrational dependence of H2O polarisability α is based on the comparison of experimental and calculated line shifts induced by argon, nitrogen, and air pressure in different H2O vibrational bands. The dependence of a on the bending vibration is expressed as a power series in the displacement Δθ of the coordinate θ of large amplitude bending motion. The coefficients of the power series were selected in the way which gives the best agreement of calculated matrix elements <ψn|α(θ)|ψn> with the values of the polarizabylity α(n) obtained in the analysis of experimental line shifts in n × ν2 H2O bands perturbed by nitrogen, oxygen, air and argon pressure. The rotational contributions in the effective polarizability of H2O is obtained and discussed. The comparison of obtained α(θ) with ab initio calculations is carried out.

Spectral density of stationary random processes with a power structure function

V.A. Fedorov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: стационарный случайный процесс, случайный процесс со стационарными приращениями, структурная функция, спектральная плотность, stationary random process, random process with stationary increments, structure function, spectral density

Abstract >>
The conditions for a function to fall in the class of structure functions for stationary random processes are formulated. In the spatial domain, this corresponds to a homogeneous and isotropic scalar field. It is shown that the power function can be a structure function only if the power index is no larger than unity. The relation of spectral densities of stationary and random processes to stationary increments is demonstrated. The oscillating character of the behavior of spectral density of stationary processes is shown. Analytical equations are derived for their description with the analysis of accuracy characteristics. They are recommended for wide practical application.

Numerical analysis of wave front reconstruction under conditions of “strong" atmospheric turbulence

V.V. Lavrinov, L.N. Lavrinova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: датчик волнового фронта Шэка-Гартмана, турбулентные искажения оптического излучения, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, turbulent distortion of optical radiation

Abstract >>
The reconstruction of a wave front of optical radiation which contains turbulent distortions is carried out on the basis of the Hartmann method by approximating the wave function with Zernike polynomials based on estimates of local inclinations and is analyzed for high-intensity turbulent distortions. Based on the results of statistical analysis of information on phase distortions of radiation using a Hartmannogram formed in the plane of the receiving device, methods have been identified that allow reducing the residual reconstruction error caused by the presence of “strong” turbulence along a radiation propagation path.

Biooptical characteristics of lake Issyk-Kul upper layer waters using data of operative sensing from board a vessel with the optical passive complex EMMA

V.V. Rostovtseva1, I.V. Goncharenko1, B.V. Konovalov1
Southern Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Gelendjik, Russia
Keywords: оптическое пассивное дистанционное зондирование, гиперспектрометр, природные компоненты морской и озерной воды, поглощение и рассеяние света водой, концентрации фитопланктона, окрашенного органического вещества и взвеси, optical passive remote sensing, hyperspectrometer, natural sea/lake water constituents, light absorption and scattering in water, concentration of phytoplankton, colored organic matter and suspended matter

Abstract >>
Data of optical characteristics of lake Issyk-Kul measured with the complex for passive remote sensing Ecological Monitoring of Marine Areas (EMMA) from board a vessel as well as measurement data obtained for water samples allowed us to develop and validate a new technique for oligotrophic water content estimation. This technique is the third part of the method for remote estimation of the main natural constituents concentration in sea or lake waters using light absorption spectrum of pure sea water. The method was suggested by us earlier for mesotrophic and eutrophic waters. Using this technique the estimates of concentration of phytoplankton, colored organic matter, and suspended matter and their distribution over the lake during the three-day experiment in July, 2018, were obtained.

The application of atmospheric chemical transport models to the validation of pollutant emissions in Moscow

N.A. Ponomarev1, N.F. Elansky1, A.A. Kirsanov2, O.V. Postylyakov1, A.N. Borovski1, Y.M. Verevkin3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
3Dalhousie University, Canada, Nova Scotia
Keywords: megacity, atmospheric composition, trace gases, emissions, numerical modeling, air quality

Abstract >>
According to long-term observations at the network of “MosEcoMonitoring” stations operating since the beginning of 2000s, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 emissions from urban sources and their spatial distribution and temporal variability were calculated. The resulting emission matrix was used in the SILAM chemical transport model to assess air quality in the Moscow megacity. Based on the comparison of the calculations with the observation data using correlation relations and Student's criterion, the emission matrix was corrected. To optimize the spatial distribution of sources and the magnitude of emissions in the Moscow megacity, air pollutant fields for the summer and winter months were calculated using two chemical transport models SILAM and COSMO-ART, as well as calculated emissions and those taken from the TNO inventory database. Comparison of the calculation results for the two models using two emission matrices allowed us to reduce the uncertainties of air quality assessment in the Moscow region.

Development of optical parameters of volcanic cloud models for remote sensing of Earth from space

A.A. Filei
Far-Eastern Center of State Research Center for Space Hydrometeorology В«Planeta», Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: вулканический пепел, объемный коэффициент ослабления, альбедо однократного рассеяния, яркостная температура, спутниковые данные, volcanic ash, volume extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, brightness temperature, satellite data

Abstract >>
The principle of creating models of optical parameters of volcanic clouds for use in problems of remote sensing is presented. The models are developed for a wide range of different volcanic rocks and their combinations with drops of water, ice crystals, and drops of aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. The following issues are considered: the principle of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with aerosol components of a volcanic cloud; mixing aerosol components of a volcanic cloud; the use of optical parameters to simulate radiation intensity at the top of the atmosphere. It is found that the choice of model directly affects the calculation mass and microphysical characteristics of volcanic ash.

Seasonal and long-term variability of the energy balance components of the Earth's climate system and their impact on global temperature

G.M. Kruchenitsky1,2, K.A. Statnikov2
1Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow Region, Russia
2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Region, Russia
Keywords: альбедо, сезонная и долговременная изменчивость, деформация фотосферы, флуктуации солнечной постоянной, тренды, приливные колебания, параметрический резонанс, климат, albedo, seasonal and long-term variability, photosphere deformation, solar constant fluctuations, trends, tidal oscillations, parametric resonance, climate

Abstract >>
Seasonal and long-term variability of energy balance parameters of the Earth's climate system: albedo and solar irradiance is analyzed. It is shown that the parametric resonance of the Earth's climate system with long-period tidal oscillations, as well as the deformation of the solar photosphere under the influence of giant planets and, in addition, small fluctuations of the solar constant can lead to long-term changes in global temperature observed from the middle of the century before last. The periods of slow oscillations leading to such changes are investigated and physically justified. It is shown that the oscillatory model of long-term changes in global temperature is significantly more effective than the trend one. In addition, it is shown that random fluctuations, more than an order of magnitude inferior to those observed in the experiment with high probability can form a seeming (diffusion) trend of global temperature, not inferior to the assumed in the framework of the anthropogenic version of the so-called "global warming".

Long-term changes in atmospheric circulation over Siberia

N.V. Podnebesnykh
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: территория Сибири, приземные синоптические карты, циклоны, антициклоны, характеристики барических образований, Siberia, surface synoptic maps, cyclones, anticyclones, characteristics of baric formations

Abstract >>
The long-term (1976-2018) variability of such characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones as the number, average long-term pressure at the centers of baric formations (hPa), and average long-term duration (day) is studied in Siberian (50-70°N; 60-110°E) based on surface synoptic maps. An increase in the number of cyclones and anticyclones, a decrease in the pressure at the centers of cyclones and its increase at the centers of anticyclones in the second half of the period under study have been ascertained, that is, cyclones became deeper and anticyclones more intense. At the same time, duration of cyclone and anticyclone decreased, and the anticyclonic weather occurred more often than the cyclonic weather during the year over the territory of Siberia.

Optical cell cooled by liquid nitrogen to study absorption spectra at a Fourier spectrometer

V.I. Serdyukov, L.N. Sinitsa, A.A. Lugovskoi, N.M. Emel'yanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Фурье-спектроскопия, спектр поглощения, метан, Fourier spectroscopy, absorption spectrum, methane

Abstract >>
A low-temperature 17.5 cm long vacuum cell with removable quartz, ZnSe, and KBr windows was designed for working with the Bruker IFS 125M high-resolution Fourier spectrometer. The cell provides a threshold absorption sensitivity of about 10-6 cm-1. The cell makes it possible to record the absorption spectra of gases in the region 1000-20000 cm-1 in the temperature range from 108 to 298 K with an error of ± 0.1 K. The 12CH4 absorption spectra in the range from 9000 to 9200 cm-1 at a pressure of 300 mbar and a spectral resolution of 0.03 cm-1 were recorded using an IFS 125M Fourier spectrometer at 298 and 108 K. The empirical values of the lower state energy levels were obtained from the ratios of line intensities measured at different temperatures.

Characteristics of Cb with waterspout over Ladoga Lake derived from remote measurements

A.A. Sin'kevich, V.B. Popov, Yu.P. Mikhailovskii, M.L. Toropova, Yu.A. Dovgalyuk, N.E. Veremei, D.S. Starykh
The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: водяной смерч, поляризационный радиолокатор, алгоритм классификации гидрометеоров, восходящие потоки, индексы неустойчивости, частота молний, waterspout, polarimetric radar, hydrometeor classification algorithm, updraft, instability indices, lightning frequency

Abstract >>
Characteristics of the thunderstorm with a waterspout over Ladoga Lake obtained with the help of C-band radar, lightning detection system, and radiosonde data are studied. The analysis of instability indices shows low and moderate probability of developing intensive convective processes. The hydrometeor classification and the updraft identification algorithms are used for the first time for the DMRL-C radar and are based on processing of polarization measurements. These algorithms made it possible to detect the appearance of big ice particles when lightning began and to extended updraft associated with the waterspout. The correlation analysis of the frequency of lightning and cloud characteristics, obtained by radar, was carried out. It showed the closest correlation of the frequency with the number of big ice particles, characterized by supercooled part of the cloud (above the 0 °C level) with the reflectivity higher than 50 dBZ.