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The journal "Ateroskleroz"

2019 year, number 4

1.
GUIDELINE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL

S.M. Grundy1, N.J. Stone1, A.L. Bailey1, C. Beam1, K.K. Birtcher1, R.S. Blumenthal1, L.T. Braun1, S. De Ferranti1, J. Faiella-Tommasino1, D.E. Forman1, R. Goldberg1, P.A. Heidenreich1, M.A. Hlatky1, D.W. Jones1, D. Lloyd-Jones1, N. Lopez-Pajares1, C.E. Ndumele1, C.E. Orringer1, C.A. Peralta1, J.J. Saseen1, S.C. Smith Jr.1, L. Sperling1, S.S. Virani1, J. Yeboah1
AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA, USA

																								



2.
ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS RS61999948, RS7172856 WITH SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH

A.A. Ivanova1, V.N. Maksimov1, S.K. Malyutina1, V.P. Novoselov2, I.A. Rodina2, O.V. Hamovich2, M.I. Voevoda1
1Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
2Novosibirsk Regional Clinical Bureau of Forensic Medicine, 630087, Novosibirsk, Nemirovich-Danchenko str., 134
Keywords: sudden cardiac death, single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7172856, rs61999948, genome-wide allelotyping

Abstract >>
The aim of the research is to verify the association with sudden cardiac death (SCD) of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7172856 and rs61999948, identified as new molecular genetic markers of SCD in the own genome-wide pooled allelotyping. Material and methods. Case-control study. The SCD group is formed using the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology from the DNA bank of suddenly deceased residents of the Oktyabrsky district of Novosibirsk (n = 437, average age - 53.1±9.0 years, men - 73.5 %, women - 26.5 %) The control group (n = 405, average age 53.2±9.2 years, men - 70.0 %, women - 30.0 %) is formed from the DNA bank of participants of MONICA and HAPIEE projects. DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction from myocardial tissue in the SCD group and venous blood in the control group. Genotyping was performed by the PCR-RFLP method. Results. No statistical significance was found in allele and genotype frequencies of rs7172856 between groups, even in separating in sex and age (p > 0.05). The proportion of male carriers of the TT genotype rs61999948 in the SCD group (6.3 %) is statistically significantly less than the proportion of male carriers of the TT genotype rs61999948 in the control group (12.6 %) (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.26-0.85, p = 0.011). The identified significance is reserved in the group under 50 years old (p = 0.007) and in the group of men under 50 years old (p = 0.002). The proportion of carriers of the CC genotype rs61999948 is statistically significantly higher in the SCD group (59.0 %) compared with the control group (42.5 %) (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI 1.21-3.12, p = 0.006) for people under 50 years old. The identified association of the CC genotype with the SCD is reserved in the group of men under 50 years old (p = 0.001). Conclusions. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs7172856 is not associated with SCD. The TT genotype of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs61999948 is associated with a protective effect against SCD and the CC genotype of rs61999948 is associated with an increased risk of SCD for men under 50 years old.
																								



3.
STATE OF TARGET ORGANS IN YOUNG PEOPLE WITH HIGH-NORMAL ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND UNTREATED ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

O.N. Antropova1, I.V. Osipova1, S.B. Silkina1, I.L. Markina1, T.L. Smyshlyaeva2, T.V. Meshkova3
1Altai State Medical University of Minzdrav of Russia, 656038, Barnaul, Lenin ave., 40
2Diagnostic Center of Altai Krai, 656000, Barnaul, Komsomolsky ave., 75a
3Regional Clinical Hospital, 656024, Barnaul, Lyapidevskogo str., 1
Keywords: prehypertension, target organ damage, high normal blood pressure

Abstract >>
Objective of the study was to assess hypertension-mediated organ condition in young people with high normal blood pressure (HNBP) and with hypertension. Material and methods. The study included 112 patients with HNBP or hypertension, aged 25-44. The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated according to the CKD-EPI formula for serum creatinine (eGFRcre) and cystatin C content. Microalbuminuria was established in a daily urine sample. Patients underwent echocardiography and dopplerography examination, duplex scanning of the brachiocephalic arteries. Results. eGFRCre in the range of 89-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was observed in 37.1 % patients. There were no cases of a decrease eGFRCre less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Renal hyperfiltration (eGFRcre) was detected in 10.3 % examined persons. eGFR by cystatin C content allowed to determine 23 % (p = 0.02) more cases of decreased renal function within 89-60 ml/min/1.73 m2, than eGFRcre. Also, patients with eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 were identified. Renal hyperfiltration was found to be 2 times more (p = 0.002) in patients with HNBP than in patients with hypertension, and frequency of decreasing eGFR below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was 11 % less (p <0.050). Microalbuminuria more than 30 mg/day was detected only in patients with hypertension. It was found concentric remodeling was more common in patients with hypertension (p = 0.02), a concentric type of left ventricular hypertrophy was detected only in patients with hypertension, patients did not differ in the frequency of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with HNBP and arterial hypertension had a comparable frequency of increasing arterial thickness. Conclusion. Young patients with high normal blood pressure have signs of organ damage, often hyperfiltration and an increase in the thickness of arteries. Revealed changes indicate the need to identify this category of people and develop preventive and/or therapeutic practices.
																								



4.
SOMATIC MOSAICISM AND STRUCTURAL VARIABILITY OF GBP3 GENE IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS

A.A. Sleptsov1, M.S. Nazarenko1,2, A.V. Zaitseva2, A.N. Kazantsev3, N.N. Burkov3, O.L. Barbarash3, V.P. Puzyrev1,2
1Research Institute of Medical Genetics of Tomsk National Research Medical Center of RAS, 634050, Tomsk, Naberezhnaya reki Ushayky, 10
2Siberian State Medical University of Minzdrav of Russia, 634050, Tomsk, Moskovsky path, 2
3Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, 650002, Kemerovo, Sosnovy blvd., 6
Keywords: copy number variation, atherosclerosis, GBP3, ddPCR, somatic mosaicism

Abstract >>
The goal of the study was to analyze copy number variation (CNV) in the GBP3 gene between white blood cells and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with carotid atherosclerosis. The material was both blood samples and atherosclerotic plaques obtained from the same patients with carotid atherosclerosis (n = 94). Assessment of CNV was performed using digital droplet PCR. As a result, it was shown that among 94 patients with carotid atherosclerosis, the CNV frequency was 44 % in the GBP3 gene in leukocytes. Deletion was detected in 5 (5.3 %) patients, and loss in 36 (38.3 %) patients. The gain was identified in one patient. Somatic mosaicism was found in 12 (13 %) of patients, comparing DNA samples of atherosclerotic plaque tissue and white blood cells from the same patients. Mosaic copy number losses predominantly were detected in white blood cells, in contrast mosaic copy number gains were identified in atherosclerotic plaques. Somatic mosaicism of the GBP3 gene is widespread in atherosclerosis. Different ratio of mosaic clones carrying certain type of CNV in GBP3 gene is presented.
																								



5.
NUTRITION AND OVERWEIGHT IN ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF EARLY PREVENTION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

D.V. Denisova, I.P. Berezovikova, A.K. Kuntsevich, L.V. Shcherbakova, T.I. Batluk
Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
Keywords: adolescents 14-18 years old, nutrition, overweight, obesity

Abstract >>
Objective of the study was assessment of nutrition of adolescents in Novosibirsk as a whole and in groups with normal weight and overweight. Material and methods. In April-May 2019, a cross-sectional population survey was conducted on a random representative sample of schoolchildren aged 14-18 years of both sexes, 612 people were examined: 249 boys (40.9 %), 360 girls (59.1 %). Diet recall was taken in 537 persons. The survey program included a standard questionnaire, anthropometry, examination of blood lipids, and an assessment of diet using 24-hour dietary recall (537 persons). Results. Disturbances in the structure of nutrition were revealed both in the studied sample of adolescents in general, and in the group of boys and girls with overweight and obesity. Quotas of fat energy in general, saturated fatty acids, easily digestible sugars exceed recommended levels. The fiber content was below the recommended level by more than 2 times. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Novosibirsk was 21.1 % in boys and 14.4 % in girls. According to the main indicators of the nutritional value of the diet, differences between groups of adolescents of both sexes with underweight, normal, overweight and obesity have not been established. Conclusions. The results show that both adolescents with overweight and obesity, as well as with normal indicators of physical development, need to optimize nutrition.
																								



6.
FEATURES OF ATHEROGENIC DYSLIPIDEMIA IN ADOLESCENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

S.V. Mustafina, D.V. Denisova, V.I. Alferova, V.S. Shramko, L.V. Shcherbakova
Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
Keywords: adolescents, overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia

Abstract >>
Aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents and to identify the features of dyslipidemia in excessive weight. Materials and methods. In 2019 a cross-sectional population survey of a random representative sample of schoolchildren aged 14-18 (612 persons, 249 boys (40.9 %). 363 girls (59.1 %)) was conducted. The program included standard questionnaire, anthropometry, and determination of blood lipids. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Novosibirsk in 2019 was 17.5 %, among boys - 22.1 % (overweight - 16.8 %, obesity - 3.6 %, extreme obesity - 1.7 %) and 14.4% among girls (overweight - 11.9 %, obesity - 1.9 %, extreme obesity - 0.6 %). Underweight was more often recorded among girls, overweight and obesity - among boys. In boys with overweight and obesity higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterolemia, hypo-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia were detected than in the group with normal weight. In girls with overweight and obesity prevalence of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia was significantly more often than in girls with normal weight. Conclusion. In boys, overweight and obesity were more often recorded, and their lipid profile had more atherogenic properties than in girls.
																								



7.
A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS - WAY TO REDUCE MORTALITY FROM ATHEROSCLEROSIS - ASSOCIATED DISEASES

O.D. Rymar, A.O. Shchetinina
Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
Keywords: 3P-MACE, type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular composite end point, 3P-MACE

Abstract >>
The purpose of this review is to inform healthcare professionals that the combination of several risk factors (RF) has a serious effect on the progression of atherosclerosis, the development of cardiovascular (CV) diseases and death in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Each of the factors, as a rule, enhances the effect of the other, and if the patient has several of them, then combining them with diabetes is deadly for him. Only an integrated approach to the treatment and effects on RF can improve the prognosis for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is shown that in the treatment of modern classes of hypoglycemic drugs, complex metabolic control is important. Prevention of CV disease is, therefore, a goal of treatment of T2DM as important as glycemic control. The use of drugs with proven cardiovascular benefits is recommended as part of of glucose-lowering therapy. The data of international studies of preparations of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) various links in the pathogenesis of complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) reduce the risk of CV events. Based on the original trial results healthcare professionals should the use of antidiabetic drugs that have been proven to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality.
																								



8.
BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUE CALCIFICATION

N.A. Maslatsov, Yu.I. Ragino
Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
Keywords: arterial calcification, atherosclerotic plaque, potential biomarkers, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, osteonectin, osteocalcin

Abstract >>
The literature review highlights the results of foreign and Russian studies of recent years, devoted to the study of biochemical factors and potential biomarkers of calcification of the vascular wall, as well as atherosclerotic plaques of the coronary and carotid arteries. The results of the studies allow to clarify and to supplement the known mechanisms of calcification of the vascular wall. To date, the four most studied biomarkers of vascular calcification are most studied - osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, osteonectin and osteocalcin.
																								



9.
DYSLIPIDEMIA IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

M.S. Troshina, D.V. Denisova
Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
Keywords: blood lipid profile, dyslipidemia, adolescents, drug therapy, prevention

Abstract >>
Prevention of adult diseases from childhood is one of the most important goals in modern medicine. This is especially true talking about cardiovascular diseases, which take first place in the structure of mortality in the world, including in the Russian Federation. The initial manifestations of atherosclerosis may be formed in early life period. Lipid disorders - dyslipidemia - precedes the appearance of atherosclerosis. 40-55 % of children with dyslipidemia are more likely to have lipid disorders in adulthood too. This review presents data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia, on the causes and therapy features in childhood.