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The journal "Ateroskleroz"

2019 year, number 3

1.
GUIDELINE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL: TOP 10 TAKE-HOME MESSAGES TO REDUCE RISK OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE THROUGH CHOLESTEROL MANAGEMENT

S.M. Grundy1, N.J. Stone1, A.L. Bailey1, C. Beam1, K.K. Birtcher1, R.S. Blumenthal1, L.T. Braun1, S. De Ferranti1, J. Faiella-Tommasino1, D.E. Forman1, R. Goldberg1, P.A. Heidenreich1, M.A. Hlatky1, D.W. Jones1, D. Lloyd-Jones1, N. Lopez-Pajares1, C.E. Ndumele1, C.E. Orringer1, C.A. Peralta1, J.J. Saseen1, S.C. Smith Jr.1, L. Sperling1, S.S. Virani1, J. Yeboah1
AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA, USA

																								



2.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA copy numberS IN MYOCARDIAL TISSUE IN sudden Cardiac AND NON-Cardiac DEATH

V.N. Maksimov1,2, A.A. Gurazheva3, P.S. Orlov3, S.K. Malyutina1,2, A.A. Ivanova3, S.V. Maksimova4, I.A. Rodina5, O.V. Khamovich5, V.P. Novosyolov4,5
1Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1, 630091, Novosibirsk, Krasny av., 52
2Novosibirsk State Medical University of Minzdrav of Russia
3Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
4Novosibirsk State Medical University of Minzdrav of Russia, 630091, Novosibirsk, Krasny av., 52
5Novosibirsk Regional Clinical Bureau of Forensic Medicine, 630087, Novosibirsk, Nemirovich-Danchenko str., 134
Keywords: количество копий митохондриальной ДНК (мтДНК), фактор риска, атеросклероз, ИБС, инфаркт миокарда, внезапная сердечная смерть (ВСС), популяция, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, risk factor, atherosclerosis, IHD, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death (SCD), population

Abstract >>
The aim of the work is to compare the number of copies of mtDNA in myocardial tissue in persons who died of sudden cardiac and non-cardiac death. Material and methods. Group of sudden cardiac death (SCD, 150 samples): the autopsy material was collected from those who suddenly died outside the medical and preventive treatment facilities of persons who underwent a forensic medical examination according to a standard protocol. As a control group (n = 150), a sample of individuals (selected by gender and age) was used, which, according to the conclusion of the forensic medical examination, died suddenly from other causes (SD). The study of the number of copies of mtDNA was performed in DNA samples isolated from myocardial tissue by the method of phenol-chloroform extraction, using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results. In both studied groups, there are no significant correlations of the number of copies of mtDNA with age in both men and women. In the general regression analysis, with the introduction of age into the model, the difference between the SCD and SD groups was obtained in the number of copies of mtDNA (p = 0.01). When divided by sex in the group of women, there are no differences between SCD and SD in the number of copies of mtDNA (p = 0.089). In men, differences in the number of copies of mtDNA persist between SCD and SD (p = 0.023). High variability in the number of copies of mtDNA in the myocardium was noted even within the same group in individuals of the same sex and of comparable age compared to the variability in the number of copies of mtDNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (according to the literature). This is probably due to the heterogeneity of the groups on the etiology and pathogenesis of sudden death. In men, the decrease in the number of copies of mtDNA in the group with SCD, compared with those who died suddenly from other causes, is more pronounced at the age of 50 years and older. Conclusion. The number of copies of mtDNA in myocardial tissue in men who have died of SCD is lower, compared with men who died suddenly from other causes (especially over the age of 50 years).
																								



3.
Diagnosis of insulin resistance in patients at high cardiovascular risk: focus on peptide hormone ghrelin

E.V. Belik1, O.V. Gruzdeva1,2, Yu.A. Dyleva1, T.R. Dolinchik3, A.A. Kuz’mina1, E.E. Bychkova2
1Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Disease, 650002, Kemerovo, Sosnovy blvd., 6
2Kemerovo State Medical Academy of Minzdrav of Russia, 650029, Kemerovo, Voroshilov str., 22А
3Kemerovo Regional Clinical Cardiology Clinic named after Academician L.S. Barbarash, 650002, Kemerovo, Sosnovy blvd., 6
Keywords: инфаркт миокарда, инсулинрезистентность, грелин, свободные жирные кислоты, myocardial infarction, insulin resistance, ghrelin, free fatty acids

Abstract >>
The aim of the research: to determine the diagnostic value of ghrelin in patients with myocardial infarction. Material and methods. 200 patients (130 men and 70 women) were examined whose average age was 61.4 ± 1.12 years with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) with an ST segment elevation. On the 1st and 12th day of the development of MI in the blood serum, the content of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acids and ghrelin was determined. Results. Insulin resistance (IR) is a fairly common and characteristic phenomenon for patients with high cardiovascular risk. The presence of insulin resistance in people with MI was associated with more pronounced disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism compared with patients in whom MI was without signs of IR. Ghrelin levels were significantly reduced in patients with MI during the entire period of hospitalization. It was established that ghrelin was the most sensitive and specific marker of IR, especially in the early stages of MI. The determination of ghrelin in combination with free fatty acids increases their diagnostic significance in relation to IR. Conclusion: ghrelin deficiency is one of the significant factors for the presence of IR in myocardial infarction. The results of the study indicate the potential suitability of ghrelin as a new diagnostic marker of metabolic disorders in cardiovascular diseases.
																								



4.
PILOT STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION OF TRPA1 AND TRPV1 GENE POLYMORPHISMS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

P.S. Orlov1,2,3, V.N. Maksimov1,2,3, S.V. Mikhaylova2, D.E. Ivanoshchuk1,2,3, S.K. Malyutina1, M.I. Voevoda1,2,3,4
1Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 10
2Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akademik Lavrentiev av., 10
3Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogov str., 2
4Federal Research Center for Fundamental and Translational Medicine, 630117, Novosibirsk, Timakov str., 2
Keywords: инфаркт миокарда, TRPA1, TRPV1, rs222747, rs13268757, myocardial infarction, TRPA1, TRPV1, rs222747, rs13268757

Abstract >>
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of SNPs in the TRPA1 (rs13268757) and TRPV1 (rs222747) genes with myocardial infarction. Material and methods. Myocardial infarction (MI) (200 individuals) and control (420 individuals) groups were formed as a part of international HAPIEE project. Genotyping the groups for the studied rs13268757 and rs222747 polymorphisms was performed by a real-time PCR on a StepOnePlus device (Applied Biosystems, USA) using TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems, USA) according to a standard protocol. Intergroup comparison of the allele/genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms was calculated using Fisher’s exact test and the SPSS 11.0 program. The correspondence of genotype frequencies to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested using the χ2 method. The relative risk of MI for a particular allele or genotype was calculated as an odds ratio (OR) using Fisher’s exact two-sided test and Pearson chi-square test. Differences were considered statistically significant with a significance level p <0.05. Results. The frequency of the homozygous AA genotype for the TRPA1 gene rs13268757 polymorphism differed significantly in patients with MI as compared with the control, AA vs GG + AG OR = 2.621 (95 % CI 1.112-6.175; p = 0.034). No statistically significant results were shown for the TRPV1 rs222747. Conclusion. The association of the TRPV1 gene rs222747 and TRPA1 gene rs13268757 polymorphisms with MI was for the first time checked in Russia. The association with MI was shown for the TRPA1 gene rs13268757 polymorphism.
																								



5.
HEMOSTASIS AND LIPID PROFILE FEATURES IN THE NORTH

A.A. Gromov1, M.V. Kruchinina1,2, V.N. Kruchinin3
1Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine - Branch of Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of SB RAS, 630089, Novosibirsk, Boris Bogatkov str., 175/1
2Novosibirsk State Medical University of Minzdrav of Russia, 630091, Novosibirsk, Krasny av., 52
3Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akademik Lavrentiev av., 13
Keywords: система гемостаза, липидный профиль, Север, адаптация, механизмы, hemostasis system, lipid profile, North, adaptation, mechanisms

Abstract >>
The reviews analyzed the research data of recent decades, as a result of which the features of the hemostatic system and lipid profile in the North were studied, which allows us to look at development under conditions of successful adaptation to adverse conditions, as well as from the standpoint of inadequate reactivity of the system leading to the development of pathology. The results of meta-analyzes according to the association of the “Eskimo diet” with a hemostasis system, which analyzes the mechanisms of the antiplatelet effect of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are described in detail, a new physiological phenomenon of adaptation in the North is described - the reaction of the transformation of the inflammatory response, illuminated by new groups of physiological mediators (resolvines, maresins, etc.). Peculiarities of polymorphism of hemostasis factor genes that provide adaptation to the conditions of the North are noted. Affect the hemostatic system, adaptation mechanisms of the newcomer population.
																								



6.
MODERN APPROACHES TO RISK ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

V.A. Poltaranina1,2, V.V. Kashtalap1,3, A.S. Vorobyev1, R.R. Suleymanov1,4, L.V. Kovalenko1, A.V. Satinov2, I.A. Urvantseva1,4
1Surgut State University, 628412, Surgut, Lenin str., 1
2Nizhnevartovsk Regional Clinical Hospital, 628609, Nizhnevartovsk, Lenin str., 18
3Research Institute of Complex Problems of Cardiovascular Diseases, 650002, Kemerovo, Sosnovy blvd., 6
4Center for Diagnosis and Cardiovascular Surgery, 628400, Surgut, Lenin str., 69/1
Keywords: острый коронарный синдром, факторы риска, прогноз, повторные коронарные события, acute coronary syndrome, risk factors, prognosis, recurrent coronary events

Abstract >>
The aim of the study was to investigate modern approaches to risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome, based on the analysis of literature data of Russian and foreign authors, clinical guidelines. Material and methods. Analysis of literature in databases: Scopus, PubMed, CyberLeninka, etc. over the last 15 years is made. Results. The modern scales and markers allowing to estimate the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome with the characteristic of each of them are described based on the literature review. For convenient use in practice, the presented models are divided into two groups, taking into account the assessment of the prognosis for the nearest and remote periods from the onset of the disease. The urgency of searching for a universal model of prognosis assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome is indicated.