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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2019 year, number 6

Landscape-ecological trends of spatial changes in the bird communities of Central Siberia

L. G. Vartapetov1, A. A. Romanov2, A. G. Larionov3, N. N. Egorov3, E. V. Shemyakin3
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Biological Problems of Cryolithozone of SB RAS, Yakutsk, Russia
Keywords: население птиц Средней Сибири, плотность населения, видовое богатство, биомасса, фаунистический состав, ярусное распределение, bird communities of Central Siberia, population density, species richness, biomass, faunal composition, tier distribution

Abstract >>
Population density, species richness and total biomass of birds in Central Siberia are increasing in the southern direction. In terrestrial natural landscapes, the greatest values are noted: the total abundance of birds - in the southern forest type of the communities, species richness - in the meadow-field type, and total biomass - in the subarctic plain-tundra type. In the industrial-technogenic and southern residential types, the density and biomass of the bird communities increase, and the species richness decreases in comparison with natural ornithocomplexes. In aquatic habitats, the total abundance of birds and their species richness are decreasing and biomass is increasing compared to terrestrial ones. The representation of the types of fauna in the bird communities (by the number of individuals) is determined by the zones of their landscape preference, which have ecological similarity with the areas of their formation. Since birds actively choose tiers with the most favorable thermal, trophic and protective conditions, their vertical biotopic distribution to some extent does not correspond to the tier structure of their habitats.

Ecological division into districts of soils the Lake Baikal Basin

L. L. Ubugunov1,2, I. A. Belozertseva3,4, V. I. Ubugunova1, A. A. Sorokovoy3
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
2Buryat State Agricultural Academy, Ulan-Ude, Russia
3Institute of Geography named after V. B. Sochava of SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
4Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: бассейн оз. Байкал, экология, почвы, почвенный покров, экологическое районирование, Lake Baikal basin, ecology, soil, soil cover, ecological zoning

Abstract >>
Soil-ecological division into districts is a new approach to the study of soils, which allows consider soil cover as a holistic ecological system. On the basis of many years of research in Russia and Mongolia, the authors ranked the same type of territories according to the structure of the soil cover and soil forming factors combination. The squares of the areas were established. All data were unified, using a single for two countries methodological and classifying approach. Soil groups with relatively similar bioclimatic factors (M. Budyko’s dryness index, the sum of biologically active temperatures, type and productivity of vegetation) were combined into soil-ecological provinces (9), which are dominant in soil forming. Soils with the similar lithology and geomorphology features (rocks, relief) were grouped into districts (28) with the regional level. The presented soil-ecological map is a kind of integrated information source, which reflects exogenous factors of soil formation: climate, relief, rocks, vegetation.

Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration in cryolithozone: quantifying the contributions and methodological approaches (the case of soils of the north Western Siberia)

O. Yu. Goncharova, G. V. Matyshak, M. V. Timofeeva, A. R. Sefilian, A. A. Bobrik, M. O. Tarkhov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: корневое дыхание, микробное дыхание, торфяники, сосняки, метод интеграции компонентов, метод регрессии, метод затенения, root respiration, microbial respiration, palsa, pine forests, component integration method, regression method, shading method

Abstract >>
In the course of research conducted in the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zone of the north of Western Siberia, the values of autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) soil respiration and their ratio for typical ecosystems of the area were estimated. The data were obtained on the basis of a complex of field, laboratory and calculation methods: shading; root exclusion method (comparing emissions at similar sites with and without vegetation); method of components integration or separate incubation; regression method. For soils of plateau palsa, the root contribution to total soil respiration was 16-30 % by shading method and 14 ± 6 % by the components integration method. For soils of shrub-green moss pine forests, the contribution of root respiration was 60 %, for lichen pine forests - 30 %. It can be assumed that in forest ecosystems of the studied area the contribution of root-derived respiration is even higher, which is due to undercount in some methods tree roots respiration and / or rhizomicrobial microorganisms respiration and priming effect. The contribution of root respiration in soils of mound palsa averaged 40 %. For tundra with frost boil ecosystems, the variation of the contribution of root respiration was 15-70 %, depending on the location on the cryogenic micro-relief (boils, inter-boils). All used methods have disadvantages, some assumptions. These require additional studies to clarify or correct the results. The interpretation of the results are not always obvious. When using different techniques, similar results were obtained with a large number of replications of experiments over several seasons. The paper also presents data on the absolute values of the specific roots respiration for different species and size fractions, the value of the root biomass and the microbial respiration of the soils of different permafrost landscapes.

The main factor determining the dynamics of the lake ecosystem under excessive nutrient loading (a case study on the Naroch Lakes)

T. I. Kazantseva1,2, B. V. Adamovich3, A. F. Alimov1, T. M. Mikheeva3, T. V. Zhukova3, R. Z. Kovalevskaya3, V. N. Solntsev2
1Zoological Institute of RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia
2Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia
3Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus
Keywords: озерные экосистемы, многолетняя динамика, устойчивость, трофический статус, метод главных компонент, метод SSA, интерпретация главного фактора, Нарочанские озера, lake ecosystems, multiannual dynamics, ecological stability, trophic state, Principal Components Analysis, Singular Spectrum Analysis, main factor interpretation, Naroch Lakes

Abstract >>
The system of the Naroch Lakes, including eutrophic lake Batorino, mesotrophic lake Myastro and oligo-mesotrophic lake Naroch, served as a model object for the study of the factors which initially influence the state of particular lake ecosystem affected by variable nutrient loading. During the 1970s - 2000s, these lakes have been going through the stages of anthropogenic eutrophication, de-eutrophication and bentification. The set of continuous data based on the seasonal means of the eight parameters form each lake for the period 1978-2015 had been analyzed by Principal Component and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, or “Caterpillar”). In addition, we considered the dynamics of the trophic index of each lake, which had been calculated earlier at the same data set. The first main component contributed to the condition of the lakes Batorino, Myastro and Naroch on 63 %, 65 % and 43 % respectively. Comparison of all results allowed us to interpret the first main component as the stability of the lake ecosystem under variable nutrient loading, which is inversely related to the water body trophic state.

Current levels of organochlorine pesticides in marine ecosystems of Russian Far Eastern Seas

V. Yu. Tsygankov1,2, O. N. Lukyanova2,3
1School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia
2School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia
3Pacific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO-Center), Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: хлорорганические пестициды, ГХЦГ, ДДТ, морские экосистемы, Охотское море, Берингово море, Японское море, organochlorine pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, marine ecosystems, the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea

Abstract >>
In the review information about the main organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which were widely used in world agriculture in 1940-60 and continue to be used in some developing countries, are presented. The patterns of their distribution in the environment, toxicity, metabolism and degradation are described. The distribution in ecosystem components of different regions of the World Ocean and, specifically, in the Far Eastern seas of Russia (the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea) in the period 2000-2016 is shown. In the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, the content of OCPs in marine organisms is lower than in other regions of the world ocean, and, in particular, in the Sea of Japan. The results show that a background of pesticides has formed on the planet. OCP concentrations in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea can be considered background, while the Sea of Japan is affected by countries using these substances in agriculture.

Dynamics and relationships of plankton organisms in lithorals of a large equal water reservoir in the beginning of the vegetation period

E. V. Kuznetsova1, D. B. Kosolapov1,2, N. G. Kosolapova1, E. G. Sakharova1, A. V. Krylov1
1Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of RAS, Borok, Russia
2Cherepovets State University, Cherepovets, Russia
Keywords: фитопланктон, зоопланктон, микроорганизмы, литораль, Рыбинское водохранилище, phytoplankton, zooplankton, microorganisms, littoral, Rybinsk reservoir

Abstract >>
In April - June, the dynamics and interrelationships of planktonic algae, bacteria, protozoa, invertebrates and viruses were studied in different types of coastal shallow water zones of the Rybinsk reservoir (Upper Volga). The features of seasonal succession of different components of the littoral plankton community are revealed. The spring peak in the development of phytoplankton, caused by diatoms and cryptophyte algae, is poorly expressed in coastal shallow waters. An increase in the number of bacteria, development of protozoa and zooplankton in the littoral occurs earlier than in the open part of the reservoir. Accordingly, the «pure water phase» comes earlier and has a shorter duration. An important role in the nutrition of the littoral zooplankton, in addition to phytoplankton, is played by heterotrophic protozoa and bacteria, developing through the use of both auto and allochthonous organic substances.

Microbial communities of thermal lake Umkhei (Baikal rift zone) in the zone of discharge of groundwater

E. V. Lavrentyeva1,2, T. G. Banzaraktsaeva1, A. A. Radnagurueva1, S. P. Buryukhaev1, V. B. Dambaev1, O. A. Baturina3, L. P. Kozyreva1, D. D. Barkhutova1
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology of SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
2Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia
3Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: зона разгрузки подземных вод, термальное озеро, таксономическое разнообразие микробного сообщества, функциональная активность, Байкальская рифтовая зона, zone of discharge of groundwater, thermal lake, taxonomic diversity of the microbial community, functional activity, Baikal rift zone

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The diversity and functional activity of the microbial community in the zone of discharge of groundwater of the thermal lake Umkhei (Barguzinskaya depression, Baikal rift zone) was examined. It is shown that the lake waters are thermal hydrocarbonate-sulphate-sodium type and belong to the Kuldur type of mineral waters. Lake sediments were distinguished by higher temperatures and greater microelements saturation. A comparative analysis of the species richness of the microbial community of water and bottom sediments showed high indices of diversity in all layers of sediments, the diversity in water was lower. Analysis of taxonomic diversity revealed the domination of representatives of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi in the community of water and bottom sediments. The presence of bacteria with various metabolic pathways of substance and energy transformation, both in production and in destruction processes, was established. Sequences belonging to the genus Hydrogenophaga of the β- Proteobacteria class, which is an indicator of the deep geochemical processes of hydrogen formation, were found in the lower layers of sediments. The functional activity was studied and the rates of microbial processes of photosynthesis, dark assimilation of CO2, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined. It is established that the main part of the organic matter production in water occurs as a result of the activity of chemolithoautotroph prokaryotes. The producers of the microbial community synthesize organic matter by using volcanogenic carbon dioxide enriched in the ᵟ13C heavy isotope. Analysis of the terminal processes rates shows that the main process is sulfate reduction.

Variability of chemical elements and biologically active polyphenols in Lonicera caerulea subsp. altaica (Caprifoliaceae) plant organs along an altitudinal gradient

I. G. Boyarskikh1,2, A. I. Syso2, T. I. Siromlya2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Lonicera caerulea, высотный градиент, макро- и микроэлементы, флавонолы, флавоны, гидроксикоричные кислоты, Lonicera caerulea, altitudinal gradient, macroelements, trace elements, flavonols, flavons, hydroxycinnamic acids

Abstract >>
Variability of macro- and trace elements’ content and fractions of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in organs of the honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea subsp . altaica plants collected from indigenous populations in the Mountain Altai (Seminsky Ridge), Russia, was examined. Statistically significant positive correlations with the plant growth site altitude were found for Cu content in leaves, Ca, Zn and Cd in stems and K and Na uptake rate by leaves. Physiologically important ratio of some biophylic elements, such as Fe/Mn in leaves, were found to decrease with increasing altitude. The main polyphenolic components of L.caerulea subsp. аltaica leaves showed the following altitudinal range: 1176-3216 mg/100g for hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (chlorogenic and dicoffeylcinchonic acids), 1176-3216 mg/100g, 342-1442 mg/100g for phlavonols (quercetin glucosides), 757-1988 mg/100g for flavons (luteoline and apigenine glucosides). Flavons’ content displayed positive correlation with the growth site altitude. The flavonols’ content, on the contrary, decreased with increased altitude. The flavons’ and flavonols’ accumulation levels were oppositely correlated with Cu content in leaves, Ca, Zn and Cd in stems, as well as K/Na in leaves and K/Ca in stems. The hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were correlated with Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Mn, Sr and Cd accumulation rates as well as ratios K/Ca, Ca/Na and Cu/Zn in leaves.

Nesting of the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca Pall.) in the south-east of Western Siberia

B. D. Kuranov, O. G. Nekhoroshev, S. P. Gureev, S. V. Kilin
Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: мухоловка-пеструшка, Ficedula hypoleuca, численность, репродуктивные показатели, влияние ландшафта, Западная Сибирь, pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, abundance, reproductive indices, landscape influence, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
The natural quantity of Pied flycatcher in deciduous, mixed and coniferous forests and reproductive parameters in deciduous and mixed stands of subtaiga forests at south-east of Western Siberia was studied comparatively. The natural quantity of the species at nesting period is greater in mixed and deciduous forests. Nesting density, clutch size, volume of eggs, success and productivity of reproduction in nests boxes are higher in deciduous forest. The natural quantity of pied flycatchers at nesting period in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests of subtaiga of Western Siberia does not differ from similar indices in Europe part of Russia. In pine and mixed stands of Western Siberia this parameter is higher. The nesting density, clutch size and number of fledglings for a successful breeding attempt in nest boxes in deciduous and mixed forests of Western Siberian are larger than those in European part of the area. Breeding success in Europe and Western Siberia differ slightly. Number of fledglings per breeding attempt in deciduous forests more in Western Siberia, in mixed forests this parameter differs slightly.

Factors of formation of communities with Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on the periphery of the mass distribution zone

L. A. Arepieva
Kursk State University, Kursk, Russia
Keywords: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L, сообщества, дифференциальные и доминирующие виды, экошкалы, ординация, экологические факторы, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L, communities, different and dominant species, ecological scales, ordination, ecological factors

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The aim of this work is to identify the main environmental factors of the formation of plant communities with Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on the periphery of the mass distribution zone in the Central Chernozem region. 4 types of communities with Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. were identified in the study area. Their ecological determination is demonstrated as a result of the analysis of different species and species with the greatest activity, by identifying differences in ecological regimes of habitats and DCA-ordination of relevs. Habitat disturbance is a leading factor in the formation of studied phytocenoses. The degree of habitat disturbance affects the abundance of Ambrosia artemisiifolia . Monodominant communities with this species are formed on severely disturbed sites with sparse vegetation cover. In ruderal phytocenoses with denser herbage, ambrosia is not abundant, but can be present in them for a long time due to their periodic disturbances. Moisture of soils and substrates is the second strongest influenced factor on the differentiation of communities. The studied communities are formed on a rather wide gradient of this factor. In the study area, we identified not only xerophytic communities common in many regions of Central and Eastern Europe, but also communities emerging in coastal ecotopes with variable moisture regimes. These phytocenoses are formed in sites disturbed both under human influence and under the influence of natural factors such as river spills, heavy rains. As a result, along with xerothermic technogenic ecotopes, banks of rivers are habitats of phytocenoses with high density of Ambrosia artemisiifolia .