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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 7

1.
Potential energy surface of SF6

I.S. Chizhmakova1,2, A.V. Nikitin1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: поверхность потенциальной энергии, SF, октаэдрическая группа, potential energy surface, ocatahedral group

Abstract >>
For the first time, a 15-dimensional analytical form was obtained and the potential energy of the SF6 molecule in the ground electronic state was found ab initio . An optimal mesh of geometries was constructed, which, taking into account the full symmetry of the molecule, unambiguously determines the potential energy surface of the sixth order. Using the MP2 method with the cc-pVTZ base set, the potential energy surface of the fourth order was calculated.
																								



2.
Rotational dependence of line half-windth for fundamental band of CO2 confined in nanoporous aerogel

A.A. Solodov1,2, T.M. Petrova1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1,2, A.M. Solodov1, A.S. Shalygin3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: CO, аэрогель, Фурье-спектроскопия, aerogel, FTIR spectroscopy

Abstract >>
The absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide confined in aerogel have been measured in the 2250-2400 cm-1 region for the first time using a Bruker IFS 125HR FTIR spectrometer. Dependence of CO2 half-widths on rotational quantum numbers was studied and compared with the data available in literature.
																								



3.
Estimation of the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer from Fraunhofer's lines with the MODTRAN atmospheric model

V.N. Ostrikov, O.V. Plakhotnikov, A.V. Kirienko
St. Petersburg Branch of JSC В«Lutch», St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: спектральное разрешение, спектрорадиометр, гиперспектрометр, видеоспектрометр, атмосферная модель MODTRAN, spectral resolution, spectroradiometer, hyperspectral, an imaging spectrometer, an atmospheric model MODTRAN

Abstract >>
The method for estimation of spectral resolution of video spectrometers on separate sections of the sensitivity scale by comparison of experimental survey results with model (calculated for the same observation conditions) Fraunhofer’s lines from a set of preset values is suggested. It is shown that both for mass-produced spectroradiometric devices and for original video spectral devices, the maximum errors of estimation by the method suggested are within 0.5 nm at the considered test lines 700 and 587 nm.
																								



4.
Simultaneous reconstruction of the complex refractive index and the particle size distribution function from the lidar data: examination of the algorithms

S.V. Samoilova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, лидар, функция распределения частиц по размерам, комплексный показатель преломления, aerosol, lidar, particle size distribution function, complex refractive index

Abstract >>
A method is suggested for joint determination of two aerosol microphysical characteristics: the complex refractive index m = m real + i × m image and the spherical-particle size distribution function U(r) from the data of the nighttime vertical lidar sensing at the wavelengths 355-1064 nm. During their simultaneous estimation it is useful to minimize the discrepancy functional F(m) in the range of the physically justified m. The principal limitations due to a wider region of the global minima of F(m) appear at m trueimage Î [0.01; 0.04] and give rise to a potential shift of the resulting values of m estreal and m estimage. A simultaneous use of several functionals gives a better estimate of m due to different sets of the respective optical characteristics. The problem in retrieving the distribution function is caused by the information content of the coarse particle measurements. The statistical regularization method offers an unambiguous estimation of U(r) for the mean radius up to 3 mm, and gives an admissible estimate for larger radii. The algorithms have been tested using 8 values of absorption, when 50 empirical models of the size distribution function are assigned to one value m trueimage.
																								



5.
The size distribution of the “dry matter” of particles in the surface air layer in suburbs of Tomsk within the empirical classification of “aerosol weather” types

M.V. Panchenko, V.V. Pol'kin, Vas.V. Pol'kin, V.S. Kozlov, E.P. Yausheva, V.P. Shmargunov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, микроструктура, коэффициент рассеяния, ореол, сажа, субмикронная и грубодисперсная фракции, В«сухая основаВ» частиц, В«фонВ», В«дымкаВ», В«смогВ», В«дымная мглаВ», aerosol, microstructure, scattering coefficient, halo, soot, submicron and coarse dispersed fractions, “dry basis” of particles, “background”, “haze”, “smog”, “smoke haze”

Abstract >>
Based on the integrated monitoring of aerosol characteristics in suburbs of Tomsk (2000-2017), a version of classification of the surface air layer state according to “aerosol weather” types is suggested. As a basis of the measurement technique, we use the principle of separate study of the variability of the “dry matter” of aerosol particles and their condensation activity. The “aerosol weather” types was carried out in the coordinates (δd; Р ), where σd is the scattering coefficient of the dry matter of aerosol (l = 0.51 mm); P is the ratio of the mass concentration of the absorbing substance to the mass concentration of submicron particles, which reflects the degree of "blackening" of the particles. The data array is divided into two classes by the value of the scattering coefficient δd = 100 Mm-1: “atmospheric haze” (sd < 100 Mm-1) and “haze” (sd > 100 Mm-1). Then the array of observational data is divided by the value P = 0.05. In each calendar season, in accordance with the parameters specified, four types of “aerosol weather” are identified, which are conventionally designated as “background” ( P < 0.05, δd < 100 Mm-1), “haze-S” ( P > 0.05, δd < 100 Mm-1), “smog” ( P > 0.05, δd > 100 Mm-1), and “smoke haze” ( P < 0.05, δd > 100 Mm-1). It is shown that the main “aerosol weather” types are reliably different in the ratio of the content of submicron and coarse particles in all seasons.
																								



6.
Interannual and seasonal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth near Tomsk (1995-2018)

D.M. Kabanov, S.M. Sakerin, Yu.S. Turchinovich
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толща, годовой ход, тренды, Сибирь, aerosol optical depth, annual behavior, trends, Siberia

Abstract >>
Seasonal and interannual variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed using multiyear (1995-2018) observations near Tomsk. The annual behavior of AOD is characterized by a minimum in November and maxima in early May and in July. Compared to the previous period (1995-2008), the annual behavior has been transformed so that the July maximum started to dominate. In the interannual variations we noted a significant negative trend of coarse-mode component and total AOD. The annually average AOD (0.5 mm) is 0.155 (0.126 without accounting for smokes) and the Ångström exponent is 1.32 for 2002-2018.
																								



7.
Total ozone content over Tomsk in 1994-2017: results of statistical analysis

O.E. Bazhenov1, A.V. Elnikov2, S.M. Sysoev2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Surgut State University, Surgut, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Ugra, Russia
Keywords: общее содержание озона, его годовой ход, распределения вариаций, автокорреляционная функция и Фурье-спектры, квазидвухлетние колебания ОСО, total ozone content, annual total ozone behavior, distributions of variations, autocorrelation function and Fourier spectra, quasibiennial ozone variations

Abstract >>
We presented the long-term (1994-2017) M-124 ozonometer observations of the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk. They were used to determine the annual behavior with the corresponding standard deviations. After the long-term (a total of 8766 points) time series was processed to remove the annual oscillations, its variations were examined for a normality of the distribution. Next, the data obtained (also after being processed to remove the periodicity) was used to calculate the autocorrelation function. A harmonic, corresponding to the annual TO variations, predominates in the Fourier spectrum. Half-year oscillations with an order of magnitude lower amplitude were also detected. However, the Fourier spectrum contained no quasibiennial oscillations, quite often mentioned in the literature. They were extracted using simpler methods of statistical analysis.
																								



8.
Taking into account of the ground effect on aircraft wake vortices when evaluating their circulation from lidar measurements

I.N. Smalikho
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, самолетные вихри, coherent Doppler lidar, aircraft wake vortices

Abstract >>
The previously developed algorithm for estimating the circulation of aircraft wake vortices from measurements by a Stream Line pulsed coherent Doppler lidar has been improved by using the model of a pair of aircraft vortices in the algorithm that takes into account the ground effect on the spatial dynamics and evolution of the vortices. In a numerical experiment, it was shown that an improved algorithm allows obtaining a result with high accuracy, while the approach used earlier overestimates the lidar assessment of vortex circulation by about 10%.
																								



9.
Mercury vapor analyzer in atmospheric air based on mercury capillary lamp with natural isotope composition

V.V. Tatur, A.A. Tikhomirov, A.I. Abramochkin, B.V. Korolev, N.G. Mutnitskii
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: анализатор, пары ртути, капиллярная лампа, естественный изотопный состав, поперечный эффект Зеемана, analyzer, mercury vapor, capillary lamp, natural isotope composition, transverse Zeeman effect

Abstract >>
A new modification of mercury vapor analyzer in atmospheric air is described. A low pressure mercury capillary lamp filled with natural isotope composition is used as a source of emission. The transverse Zeeman effect is used for the analysis. Results of the analyzer laboratory tests in various gas environments are presented. Full compensation of non-selective absorption signals is achieved. The analyzer sensitivity is estimated as ± 30 ng/m3.
																								



10.
The construction of the metal vapor active element

V.F. Fedorov1, M.V. Trigub1, K.Yu. Semenov2, D.V. Shiyanov1, V.V. Vlasov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: источники излучения, лазеры на парах металлов, конструкция активного элемента, индукционный нагрев, light sources, metal vapor lasers, active element construction, inductor heating

Abstract >>
The construction of the active element on metal vapor is presented. Functions of creating metal vapor and their excitation are devided between two different sources. Metal vapors are formed by induction heating of the dispenser which is located outside of the active zone. The excitation is carried out due to the commutation of the high-voltage pump pulse. The efficiency of the construction was investigated. The laser generation on copper atoms were obtained. Under conditions of independent heating of the dispenser, stable lasing was obtained on the lines 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm at a pumping pulse repetition rate of 15 kHz.
																								



11.
Laboratory modeling of blue jets with apokamp discharge in Hz frequency range

E.A. Sosnin1, E.Kh. Baksht1, V.S. Kuznetsov1, V.A. Panarin1, V.S. Skakun1, V.F. Tarasenko1
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: апокампический разряд, голубая струя, низкие частоты, транзиентные световые явления, apokampic discharge, blue jets, low frequencies, transient luminous events

Abstract >>
It is shown that at lower air pressure the channel of apokam discharge at low repetition frequencies (7-16 Hz) of high-voltage pulses of positive polarity and at voltage amplitudes from 26 to 35 kV is the source of the streamers. The maximum starting speed of laboratory streamers was 560 km/s. From obtained data, a hypothesis about the mechanism of the appearance of blue jets in nature was suggested. For their start, high frequencies of voltage pulses are not needed, breakdowns in the Hz range are sufficient, but the bending of the discharge channel and increased field intensity at the bending site are necessary.
																								



12.
Formation of feedback loop for phase control of a fiber laser array

V.V. Kolosov1,2, M.E. Levitskii3, T.D. Petukhov1, G.V. Simonova4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomsk Scientific Center SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
3AO "NPP "Topaz", Tomsk, Russia
4Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: волоконный лазер, оптические фазированные решетки, когерентное сложение, контур обратной связи, fiber laser, optical phased arrays, coherent combining, feedback loop

Abstract >>
Methods for phasing of an array of radiation channels for coherent combining of linearly polarized fields of narrowband fiber lasers are considered. The high efficiency of operation of the internal feedback loop based on interference of peripheral sections of radiation (Gaussian beam tails) of the phased channels is demonstrated. This method is easy to implement. It allows scaling the power of optical phased arrays and does not require massive optical elements. Equations for calculation of the optical arrangement for implementation of the feedback loop are presented along with the results of experiment on coherent combining of three beams.