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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 4

1.
Retrieval of carbon monoxide content in the atmosphere from high resolution atmospheric spectra

T.Yu. Chesnokova1, M.V. Makarova2, A.V. Chentsov1, Yu.V. Voronina1, V.I. Zakharov3,4, N.V. Rokotyan3, B. Langerock5
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State University, University Embankment, 7-9, St. Petersburg, 199034
3Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
4Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 620990, Ekaterinburg, S. Kovalevskaja st., 16
5Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy BIRA-IASB, 3-Avenue Circulaire B-1180 Brussels, Belgium
Keywords: монооксид углерода, атмосферное пропускание, спектроскопические базы данных, carbon monoxide, atmospheric transmission, spectroscopic databases

Abstract >>
Carbon monoxide CO is a marker of the atmosphere pollution caused by fires and combustion engines emission. The regular monitoring of the CO content in the atmosphere is needed to control the air quality. In the work, the results of CO atmospheric total content retrievals from the solar spectra recorded by Fourier spectrometers placed in Saint Petersburg (59.88N, 29.83E) and Kourovka (57.038N, 59.545E) stations, are presented. The impact of the difference in CO absorption line parameters in modern spectroscopic data bases on accuracy of the CO atmospheric content retrieval from the high resolution spectra is estimated.
																								



2.
Seasonal statistics of the vertical distribution of wind speed at the Baikal Astrophysical Observatory

L.A. Bolbasova1,2, V.P. Lukin1, A.Yu. Shikhovtsev3, P.G. Kovadlo3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: астроклимат, скорость ветра, адаптивная оптика, astroclimate, wind speed, adaptive optics

Abstract >>
Seasonal changes in the altitude distribution of wind speed in the lake Baikal region for the Baikal Astrophysical Observatory of the ISSP SB RAS are studied in connection with the task of developing an adaptive optics system of the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope. The data of NCEP/NCAR in the period 1948-2016 are analyzed. Average and median values, first and third quartiles of the wind speed profiles to an altitude of 32.5 km are calculated for each month of the year. The seasonal variations in the tropopause height are obtained from NCEP/NCAR data. A model for the wind speed profile is suggested. A feature of the model is the consideration of wind speed at 200 hPa as an indicator of the quality of astronomical images.
																								



3.
Statistical simulation of the characteristics of diffuse underwater optical communication

M.V. Tarasenkov1, V.V. Belov1,2, E.S. Poznakharev1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: подводная связь, канал связи на рассеянном излучении вне прямой видимости, метод Монте-Карло, underwater optical communication, NLOS diffuse link, Monte-Carlo method

Abstract >>
Using an algorithm of the Monte Carlo method with modified double local estimation, the impulse response of the link of non-line-of-site underwater communication on scattered radiation is simulated for base distances between the source and the receiver from 10 to 100 m at a wavelength of 0.5 mm. The received radiation power and the maximal repetition frequency of pulses transmitted through the communication link are estimated based on the impulse response.
																								



4.
Bio-optical characteristics of Sevastopol coastal waters from the beam attenuation coefficient

E.V. Mankovskaya, E.N. Korchemkina, A.N. Morozov
Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of the RAS, 2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 299011, Russia
Keywords: взвешенное вещество, растворенное органическое вещество, прозрачномер, показатель ослабления света, плюм, Черное море, suspended matter, dissolved organic matter, transparency meter, beam attenuation coefficient, plume, Black Sea

Abstract >>
A technique for processing measurements with 4- and 9-channel transparency meters developed at the Department of Marine Optics and Biophysics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute are discussed. A system of orthogonal functions for beam attenuation coefficient of coastal waters near Sevastopol was derived on the basis of new measurements with a 9-channel transparency meter. It was used to retrieve the spectral distribution of the beam attenuation coefficient in a wide spectral range from measurements in two (460 and 625 nm) spectral channels. The technique suggested was used to calculate the bio-optical characteristics from the beam attenuation coefficient measured in two expeditions of the R/V “Biryuza” in September 9-10, 2015, and September 12-13, 2016, in the coastal waters of Sevastopol. The main features of the obtained distributions of dissolved organic matter absorption and suspended matter scattering in both surveys are connected with the plume upwelling to the sea surface. The existence of the plume is a consequence of emergency state of the underwater pipe of the wastewater discharge system.
																								



5.
Control of THz radiation divergence in laser filament

D.M. Lubenko1, V.E. Prokopev1,2, S.V. Alekseev1, M.V. Ivanov1, V.F. Losev1
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: ультракороткие лазерные импульсы, ТГц-излучение, филаментация, лазерная плазма, схемы генерации ТГц-излучения, управление параметрами ТГц-излучения, ultrashort laser pulses, THz radiation, filamentation, laser plasma, optical schematics for THz generation, control of parameters of THz radiation

Abstract >>
Conditions of THz generation in laser filament from ultrashort pulses under aberrations in one- and two-color optical scheme are observed. Possibilities of controlling THz radiation pattern by electric field and aberrations in focusing beam are discussed.
																								



6.
The results of shipborne studies of the aerosol-gas impurities of the atmosphere over Lake Baikal

T.V. Khodzher1, G.S. Zhamsueva2, A.S. Zayakhanov2, A.L. Dementeva2, V.V. Tsydypov2, Yu.S. Balin3, I.E. Penner3, G.P. Kokhanenko3, S.V. Nasonov3, M.G. Klemasheva3, L.P. Golobokova1, V.L. Potemkin1
1Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
2Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: оз. Байкал, тропосферный озон, окислы азота, аэрозоль, лидар, лесные пожары, НИС В«Академик В.А. КоптюгВ», Lake Baikal, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides, aerosol, lidar, forest fires, research vessel “Academik V.А. Koptyug”

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of complex experimental studies of gas impurities and the vertical structure of aerosol in the atmosphere above Lake Baikal in July 2018 from the research vessel “Academik V.А. Koptyug”. Simultaneous observations were made at the “Boyarsky” station, located in the south-eastern part of Lake Baikal. A brief description of the equipment used in the experiments is given; some preliminary results of the analysis of the data obtained are discussed.
																								



7.
Investigations of the acoustic field produced by a supersonic jet

D.A. Marakasov1, V.M. Sazanovich1, R.Sh. Tsvyk1, A.N. Shesternin1, D.A. Gubanov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 4/1, Institutskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сверхзвуковая струя, акустическое поле, волновой фронт, частотный спектр, микрофоны, дискретные частоты, акустический шум, supersonic jet, acoustic field, wave front, frequency spectrum, microphones, discrete frequencies, acoustic noise

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of experimental studies of the acoustic field generated by a supersonic jet at the installation of the VJU ITPM SB RAS. The measurements were made with 9 microphones placed symmetrically with respect to the jet axis. The shape of the phase front of the sound wave, the spectra of broadband acoustic noise and discrete components with high temporal and spatial resolution are analyzed. It is shown that the structure of turbulence in the acoustic field is inhomogeneous and is formed by several sources.
																								



8.
Structure of wind gusts in the surface air layer

V.A. Gladkikh, I.V. Nevzorova, S.L. Odintsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: порывы ветра, приземный слой, турбулентность, wind gusts, surface layer, turbulence

Abstract >>
The structure of strong wind gusts in the surface air layer over an urban territory and a natural landscape is analyzed. Experimental data obtained with ultrasonic anemometers-thermometers at altitudes of 5 and 10 m (natural landscape) and 17 m (urban territory) above the surface have been examined. Contributions of the longitudinal and transverse components to wind gusts have been estimated. Motions to the right from the main flow and from top down have been found to predominate somewhat in wind gusts.
																								



9.
Model for estimating the transient response of the global mean surface temperature to changes in the concentrations of atmospheric aerosols and radiatively-active gases

S.A. Soldatenko, R.M. Yusupov
St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14-th Linia, VI, No. 39, St. Petersburg, 199178, Russia
Keywords: изменение климата, глобальное потепление, импульсная переходная функция, неравновестный отклик климата, стратосферный аэрозоль, climate change, global warming, impulse response function, transient climate response, stratospheric aerosols

																								



10.
Numerical simulation of the adaptive control system of the composite main mirror of a large-size space telescope

E.K. Samygina1, A.I. Klem2,3
1National Research University, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, Moscow, 111250, Russia
2N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia, 107005, Moscow, 2-ya Baumanskaya str., 5
3P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, The Astro Space Center, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: космический телескоп, составное главное зеркало, многоосевые сервоприводы, система адаптивного управления, space telescope, the composite primary mirror, multi-axis servodrives, the adaptive control system

Abstract >>
Currently, the scientific community is increasingly in demand for large-sized telescopes, which include the developed international project of the Millimetron space telescope with a composite main mirror diameter of ten meters. Creating an effective space telescope is associated with solving the problem of ensuring the high quality of observational information received by the telescope. The successful solution of this problem is largely determined by the task of ensuring high fidelity and maintaining the shape of the composite main telescope mirror (RMS 1 x 10-5 m [1, 3]) which can be solved using the adaptive control system of the space telescope. The article describes the developed mathematical model of the adaptive control system of the composite main telescope mirror, similar in characteristics to the Millimetron project, and presents the results of numerical simulation of the adaptive control system taking into account the limitations of the hardware and software implementation. According to the results of the simulation, an estimate was made of the error in maintaining the shape of the composite main mirror, confirming the applicability of the developed mathematical model.
																								



11.
Techniques for optical monitoring of oil pollution of sea waters with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles

O.A. Bukin1, D.Yu. Proschenko1,2, A.A. Chekhlenok1, D.A. Korovetskiy1
1Admiral G.I. Nevelskoy Maritime State University, Vladivostok, Verkhneportovaya street, Building 50a, 690059, Russia
2Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
Keywords: экологический мониторинг, искусственный интеллект, машинное обучение, лазерная индуцированная флуоресценция, спектроскопия, МБПЛА, environmental monitoring, artificial intelligence, machine learning, laser-induced fluorescence, spectroscopy, UAVs

Abstract >>
The results of creation of new techniques and technical means that allow the use of small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in environmental monitoring of marine areas according to the MARPOL 73/78 international convention requirements are presented. The hard- and software complex developed for an oil spill recognition system with elements of artificial intelligence is described. The results of laboratory experiments on the identification of oil spills by the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) along with the technique for recording upward solar radiation spectrum are given.
																								



12.
Verification of aircraft icing forecast based on the atmospheric radiometry remote method

V.V. Zuev1,2, D.P. Mordus1,3, A.V. Pavlinskii1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Aviamettelekoma Roshydromet, 1, Deputatskaya, Novosibirsk, 630099, Russia
Keywords: обледенения воздушных судов, предупрежденность наличия явления, успешность прогноза, формула Годске, модель Шульца-Политович, aircraft icing, phenomenon presence warning, forecast accuracy, the Godske formula, the Schulz-Politovich model

Abstract >>
The results of verification of the aircraft icing forecast based on the remote method for determining the areas of potential icing in the lower kilometer layer, are presented. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the calculation of the presence warning of the dangerous meteorological phenomenon, in this case, the icing of the aircraft. The method of calculating of the phenomenon presence warning, which corresponds to the method used in the aviation forecasting units for the calculation of accuracy, is described. The proposed method takes into account not only time but also height. The calculations showed that the proposed remote method successfully predicted aircraft icing hazard, both using the Godske formula and the Schulz-Politovich model.
																								



13.
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