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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 3

The turbulence formation at Astronomical observatories of the Southern Siberia and the North Caucasus

V.V. Nosov, V.P. Lukin, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: когерентная турбулентность, неколмогоровская турбулентность, астроклимат, когерентная структура, coherent turbulence, non-Kolmogorov turbulence, astroclimate, coherent structure


Main characteristics of the astroclimate (the turbulent fields structure and the formation conditions) are studied in a number of Russian astronomical observatories in the Southern Siberia and the North Caucasus: Sayan Solar, Baikal Astrophysical, Special Astrophysical, Kolyvansky Ridge Observatory, Center of Laser Atmosphere Sensing of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS. The experimental results have been reached from long-term astroclimate observations (expeditions 2006-2017) using a small-sized ultrasonic weather station; theoretical results - by numerical solving of various boundary value problems for the Navier-Stokes equations. Presence of regions with coherent (non-Kolmogorov) turbulence over the observatories has been established, the formation of which is caused by the terrain and the uneven heating of the underlying surface. Large vortical coherent structures and the coherent turbulence have been registered inside dome rooms. Numerical simulation allows to analyze of the influence of design features and temperature regimes of the telescope elements, as well as to test the telescope optical characteristics, including the minimization of the influence of external and under-dome turbulence. The article has the character of a review of the authors' own researches. The introduction contains a brief historical overview of the origin and evolution of the concepts "coherent structure" and "coherent turbulence", based on the world scientific literature.