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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 3

1.
Contribution of the errors in line parameters to retrieval of the water vapor continuum absorption within 0.94 and 1.13 Ојm bands

A.A. Simonova, I.V. Ptashnik
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: континуальное поглощение, водяной пар, параметры спектральных линий, полосы поглощения, ближний ИК-диапазон частот, continuum absorption, water vapor, spectral line parameters, absorption bands, near-IR spectral range

Abstract >>
The retrieved continuum absorption spectra in pure water vapor within near-IR bands 0.94 and 1.13 mm (10600 and 8800 cm-1) are investigated. The continuum was determined as a difference between the water vapor absorption spectra measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and absorption spectra of the water monomers calculated using the HITRAN2016 database. The work is aimed at estimation of the maximum error in retrieval of the continuum absorption coefficient, which is caused by uncertainty in spectral line parameters in HITRAN2016. It is shown that the calculated errors exceed other types of errors within the absorption bands under studied.
																								



2.
Automatic analysis of Fourier transform spectra using algorithms for image recognition

L.N. Sinitsa, A.P. Shcherbakov, A.D. Bykov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: Фурье-спектроскопия, спектры поглощения водяного пара, центры спектральных линий, интенсивности спектральных линий, молекула НО, уширение, сдвиг линий, Fourier transform spectroscopy, water vapor absorption spectra, line position, line strength, molecule НО, broadening, shift

Abstract >>
The WxSpe software package is presented, which automatically analyzes and reconstructs the parameters of spectral lines based on the multispectral approach. The software package developed uses the methods of the theory of pattern recognition and is a taught. The package allows one to automatically process large amounts of information, find lines in the spectra solve the inverse problem - determine the intensity, centers, and coefficients of broadening and shift of spectral lines or groups of overlapping lines. In the package, calculations with various model shape of the contour are performed. The numerical analysis of a typical situation is carried out, when the width of the apparatus function of the spectrometer turns out to be comparable or even larger than the line width. As a practically important example, measurements and analysis of the absorption spectra of pure water vapor and a mixture with nitrogen in the spectral range of about 0.59 mm are made; the comparison with the results of previous measurements and calculations is presented.
																								



3.
Algorithm of retrieving microphysical properties of cirrus clouds from Mueller matrices

V.A. Shishko1, I.D. Bryukhanov2, E.V. Nie2, N.V. Kustova1, D.N. Timofeev1, A.V. Konoshonkin1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: матрица обратного рассеяния света, ледяные кристаллы, перистые облака, метод физической оптики, поляризационный лидар, light backscattering matrices, ice crystals, cirrus clouds, physical optics approximation, polarization lidar

Abstract >>
The paper presents the algorithm of interpreting the light backscattering matrices (BSM) that were obtained by the unique high-altitude polarization lidar of NR TSU while sounding cirrus clouds. The microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, i.e., size, spatial orientation, shape, and percentage of different particles based on BSMs calculated within physical optics approximation were estimated.
																								



4.
Estimation of microphysical characteristics of contrails from polarization lidar data: Theory and experiment

I.V. Samokhvalov1, I.D. Bryukhanov1, V.A. Shishko2, N.V. Kustova2, E.V. Nie1, A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, O.Yu. Loktushin1, D.N. Timofeev2
1National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: конденсационные следы самолетов, поляризационный лидар, матрица обратного рассеяния света, contrails, polarization lidar, backscattering phase matrix

Abstract >>
The technique for detecting and studying the optical and microphysical characteristics of aircraft condensation trails using the unique altitude polarization lidar of the National Research Tomsk State University (NR TSU) is described. The microstructure parameters of the ensembles of crystalline particles were estimated by comparing the elements of the backscattering light matrices (BSLM) obtained theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the contrail appeared behind an aircraft formed in the atmosphere in 30-40 minutes after the emission of fuel combustion products from engines consists of small randomly oriented particles of ice, mostly columnar.
																								



5.
Effect of atmospheric aerosol on the ground-based observation results of the upper atmosphere radiation

A.V. Mikhalev1, M.A. Tashchlin1, S.M. Sakerin2
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str.
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, АОТ, излучение верхней атмосферы Земли, atmospheric aerosol, AOD, airglow

Abstract >>
The study results of the atmospheric aerosol effect on the registered Earth’s airglow are presented. We used data from CIMEL CE-318 automated solar photometer, which is a part of the global terrestrial network (AERONET), and observational data of atomic oxygen emission lines [OI] 557.7 and 630 nm in the Geophysical Observatory of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Fhysis SB RAS (52°N, 103°E). The nonlinear dependence of the 557.7 and 630 nm emissions intensity on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was revealed. An increase in the correlation coefficients was obtained for small AOD values (up to 0.5), and a decrease, for large turbidity. An observation interval with a high positive correlation between the 557.7 and 630.0 nm emission intensities and AOD, which is supposedly associated with extensive areas of forest fires, was identified.
																								



6.
Evaluation of absorption coefficient of conservative yellow substance from the regression between hydrooptical characteristics (a version)

V.I. Mankovskiy
Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of the RAS, 2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 299011, Russia
Keywords: консервативное и неконсервативное желтое вещество, показатели поглощения, рассеяния и ослабления, спектральная изменчивость, хлорофилл, conservative and non-conservative yellow substance, absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients, spectral selectivity, chlorophyll

Abstract >>
A method for evaluation of the absorption coefficient of conservative yellow substance (CYS) from regression between hydrooptical characteristics is discussed. Estimates of CYS absorption in different waters are obtained. The parameter of spectral selectivity of CYS absorption is determined. The ratio of CYS absorption to total yellow substance absorption in waters with different concentrations of chlorophyll is calculated.
																								



7.
Statistics of outer turbulence scales in the surface air layer

V.A. Gladkikh, I.V. Nevzorova, S.L. Odintsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: ветер, внешний масштаб, приземный слой, температура, турбулентность, wind, outer scale, surface layer, temperature, turbulence

Abstract >>
The outer scales of temperature turbulence and wind vector components in the surface air layer over an urban territory and a natural landscape are calculated. Monthly average values of the outer scales and their daily mean dynamics in different months are considered. A technique for calculation of the outer turbulence scale based on the results of parameterization of the structure functions of parameters under study is briefly described.
																								



8.
The impact of atmospheric blocking in Western Siberia on changes in carbon dioxide and methane concentrations in winter

P.N. Antokhin1, O.Yu. Antokhina1, M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, D.K. Davydov1, A.V. Kozlov1, A.V. Fofonov1, M. Sasakawa2, T. Machida2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, 305-8506, Tsukuba, Japan
Keywords: атмосферное блокирование, метан, углекислый газ, концентрация, JR-STATION, зимний период, высота пограничного слоя, приземное давление, atmospheric blocking, methane, carbon dioxide, concentration, winter period, JR-STATION, height of the boundary layer, surface pressure

Abstract >>
The paper proposes a mechanism for the influence of atmospheric blocking on the gas and aerosol composition of the surface layer of the atmosphere in the winter period. According to the mechanism proposed, an increase in the concentrations is observed in the cyclonic part of the blocking formed by the advection of polar air masses and more often localized in southern regions of Western Siberia. The increase in the concentrations occurs due to a decrease in the height of the boundary layer and the formation of inversion. To confirm the mechanism proposed, the variability of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations was studied in background regions of Western Siberia (JR-STATION - Japan-Russia Siberian Tower Inland Observation Network) during periods of atmospheric blocking. A total of 12 blocking periods were analyzed. It turned out that during the blocking period, the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 increase in most of the events for the stations located in the south of Western Siberia. The average difference in the CH4 concentrations between the blocking periods and the periods preceding the blockings was 133 ppb (range of variability is from 50 to 370 ppb), for CО2, 9.5 ppm (range of variability is from 4 to 17 ppm). The average growth rate of the concentration during the blocking periods was 48 ppb/day for CH4 (the maximum is 182 ppb/day, the minimum is 12 ppb/day), and for CO2, 3 ppm/day (the maximum is 9 ppm/day, the minimum is 1 ppb/day). The average increase for CH4 was 268 ppb, and for CO2, 17 ppm.
																								



9.
The turbulence formation at Astronomical observatories of the Southern Siberia and the North Caucasus

V.V. Nosov, V.P. Lukin, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: когерентная турбулентность, неколмогоровская турбулентность, астроклимат, когерентная структура, coherent turbulence, non-Kolmogorov turbulence, astroclimate, coherent structure

Abstract >>
Main characteristics of the astroclimate (the turbulent fields structure and the formation conditions) are studied in a number of Russian astronomical observatories in the Southern Siberia and the North Caucasus: Sayan Solar, Baikal Astrophysical, Special Astrophysical, Kolyvansky Ridge Observatory, Center of Laser Atmosphere Sensing of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS. The experimental results have been reached from long-term astroclimate observations (expeditions 2006-2017) using a small-sized ultrasonic weather station; theoretical results - by numerical solving of various boundary value problems for the Navier-Stokes equations. Presence of regions with coherent (non-Kolmogorov) turbulence over the observatories has been established, the formation of which is caused by the terrain and the uneven heating of the underlying surface. Large vortical coherent structures and the coherent turbulence have been registered inside dome rooms. Numerical simulation allows to analyze of the influence of design features and temperature regimes of the telescope elements, as well as to test the telescope optical characteristics, including the minimization of the influence of external and under-dome turbulence. The article has the character of a review of the authors' own researches. The introduction contains a brief historical overview of the origin and evolution of the concepts "coherent structure" and "coherent turbulence", based on the world scientific literature.
																								



10.
Operation features of a brightness amplifier in the bistatic scheme of a laser monitor

N.A. Vasnev1, M.V. Trigub1, G.S. Evtushenko2,3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow, Vavilov Str., 38
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: лазерный монитор, бистатическая схема лазерного монитора, активная фильтрация, визуализация, усилители яркости, коэффициент усиления, удаленные объекты, laser monitor, bistatic scheme of a laser monitor, active filtration, imaging, brightness amplifiers, gain, remote objects

Abstract >>
The effect of the brightness amplifier operation mode on images obtained by means of a bistatic laser monitor, an active optical system with a two laser active elements, is investigated. The possibility of imaging the remote objects (more than 5 m) by means of this scheme of laser monitor has been evaluated. It is shown that a change in the concentration of the active substance (copper bromide) of the amplifier significantly affects the amplification of the input signal. The active substance temperature rise in the range from 480 to 550 °C leads to an increase in the gain over the entire input level range. A further increase in the temperature (570 °C) increases the gain at a relatively small input signal (less than 100 mW). The resulting amplification characteristics of the active optical system are described and compared with the parameters of the images (distortion, brightness).
																								



11.
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