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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2019 year, number 1

1.
Adaptation Features of Diapause Duration of the Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar (L.) from Populations of Different Latitudinal Origination

V. I. PONOMAREV1, G. I. KLOBUKOV1, A. V. ILYINYKH2, I. M. DUBOVSKIY3
1Institute Botanic Garden, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 marta str., 202а
2Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
3Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Novosibirsk, Dobrolyubova str., 160
Keywords: Lymantria dispar (L.), сумма эффективных температур, диапауза, оцепенение, отрождение, gypsy moth, diapause, quiescence, sum of effective temperatures, eclosion

Abstract >>
The analysis of influence of the sum of effective temperatures (SET) that gypsy moth embryos receive in midsummer-autumn period until overwintering on diapause duration and SET of eclosion, and the assessment of the effect of short-term temperature rising during dormancy period on eclosion duration and diapause strength have been performed. The effect of the midsummer-autumn SET on diapause duration and on the SET of spring eclosion subject to conditions of diapause and following quiescence was found. We showed that short-term rising of temperatures over the development threshold led to proportional decrease of eclosion duration in case the SET of eclosion was lower than 200 degree days. If the SET of eclosion was higher than 200 degree days, the effect of this exposure had either no effect on the eclosion duration, or led to stronger dormancy. The short-term temperature rising led to increased mortality of the embryos which received low midsummer-autumn SET (about 400-450 degree days with threshold about 7 оC). The embryos that received high midsummer-autumn SET (about 1300-1500 degree days with threshold about 7 оC) showed no increased mortality. Based on these results, we suggest that the populations of south origination have stronger diapause due to the adaptation to the short term casual temperature risings above the embryo development threshold in winter-spring period, that can lead to the untimely eclosion of gypsy moth larvae.
																								



2.
Distribution of Myodes rutilus (Pallas, 1779) in Western Siberia

A. A. KISLYI1, Yu. S. RAVKIN1,2, I. N. BOGOMOLOVA1, S. M. TSYBULIN1, V. P. STARIKOV3, V. V. PANOV1, V. A. YUDKIN1,4, L. G. VARTAPETOV1, S. A. SOLOVYOV5
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
2Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin ave., 36
3Surgut State University, 628412, Surgut, Lenin avе., 1
4Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogov str., 2
5Dostoevsky Omsk State University, 644077, Omsk, Mira ave., 55-A
Keywords: красная полевка, Myodes rutilus, Западная Сибирь, распределение, среда, кластерный анализ, факторы, оценка связи, distribution, West Siberian Plain, Altai, Kuznetsk-Salair mountainous terrain, cluster analysis

Abstract >>
The biotope distribution of Myodes rutilus in the zonal and provincial aspects based on materials collected in the second half of summer for the period from 1954 to 2015 in the plain and mountains of Western Siberia was analyzed. The previously noted preference for plain and mountain forests containing dark coniferous species within the taiga zone of the plain, the Northeast Altai and the Kuznetsk Alatau was confirmed. On the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of similarity of coefficients of abundance indices the classification of habitats of northern red-backed vole by the degree of optimality of environmental conditions (favorability) for this species was made. The subtypes of habitats characterize an abundance to a lesser extent than types. According to the classification and the structural graph the dependence of abundance is tracked on the zonal-subzonal affiliation of habitats, provincial differences in mountain areas, and also on the vegetation types, altitude zonation in the mountains, the degree of afforestation, the composition of forest-forming species, flooding, swampiness and plowing. The highest correlation between the distribution of the northern red-backed vole and habitats in Western Siberia is traced to warmth and humidity (zoning and subzoning on the plains and altitudinal belts in the mountains). Our research on the distribution of Myodes rutilus clarifies the results of the analysis conducted by previous researchers and gives a more detailed picture of its distribution in habitats.
																								



3.
The Population of Small Mammals in the Vicinities of Torey Lakes (Southeast Transbaikalia) During the Dry Climatic Phase: Dynamics and Connection with Precipitation

Yu. A. BAZHENOV
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology of SB RAS, 672014, Chita, Nedorezov str., 16a
Keywords: степные экосистемы, динамика численности, количество осадков, Даурская степь, метод ловчих канавок, steppe ecosystem, population dynamics, precipitation, Daurian steppe, method of trap grooves

Abstract >>
Population and number dynamics of small mammals in the vicinities of Torey lakes (South-Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia) were characterized between 2008 and 2017. The monitoring was carried out against the backdrop of the complete drying out of these some of the largest lakes in the region. The stability of the fauna of small mammals was revealed over an 80-year period, although the structure of communities rearranged itself significantly as a result of changes in moistening of the territory. Xerophilous species of mammals had an advantage in the period of studies in the dry climate phase. Correlation analysis showed a possible link of population dynamics of some common species of small mammals with precipitation of current and previous years or with the sum of precipitation of some spring (in one case, winter) months.
																								



4.
Social Structure and Vocal Behaviour of Shikatan Voles (Myodes sikotanensis) in Experiment

M. V. RUTOVSKAYA
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071, Moscow, Leninskiy ave., 33
Keywords: social behavior, acoustic behavior, rodents, bank voles, Shikotan voles, социальное поведение, акустическое поведение, грызуны, лесные полевки, шикотанская полевка

Abstract >>
The intraspecific relationships between individuals in experimental conditions of two populations of Shikotan vole Myodes sikotanensis from Sakhalin and Shikotan islands were described. We studied the interactions and acoustic activity of voles in groups consisting of 4 males and 2 females. We observed in groups of both populations aggressive and friendly behavior. However, voles from the Shikotan Island were more active and showed more friendly behavior, which is characteristic of the grey voles. Voles from the Sakhalin Island population had mainly aggressive interactions and among them hierarchical relations of domination-subordination were formed which is characteristic of the bank voles. The alarm sound was represented mainly by the squeaks emitted by the voles in the home protection, or in other interactions by the individual experienced discomfort. Acoustic signals do not play an essential role in the formation of relationships in the groups of Shikotan voles.
																								



5.
Carbon Dioxide and Water Exchange Between Spruce and Atmosphere in the Spring-Summer in Different Weather Conditions

S. V. ZAGIROVA, O. A. MIKHAILOV, V. V. ELSAKOV
Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Branch of RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: еловое насаждение, атмосфера, средняя тайга, нетто-обмен диоксида углерода, гросс-фотосинтез, экосистемное дыхание, эвапотранспирация, метод микровихревых пульсаций, spruce forest ecosystem, atmosphere, middle taiga, ecosystem net exchange of carbon dioxide, gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, evapotranspiration, eddy covariance measurements

Abstract >>
The results of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide and water fluxes above spruce forest in the middle taiga subzone from April to August in 2013 and 2016 are presented. The ecosystem of spruce forest turned from source to sink of CO2 at average daily air temperatures below zero in late March and early April, in 2016 it was two weeks earlier than in 2013. The maximum net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 was recorded at the end of June and the beginning of July. In 2016 the average daily NEE of spruce forest decreased at high air temperature and a low amount of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season, and turning from the sink of CO2 to the source was observed in early August. Net exchange of CO2 between spruce and the atmosphere from April to August in 2013 reached -327 g C/m2, and in 2016 -174 g C/m2. Seasonal evapotranspiration of spruce forest in those years was 239-247 mm / m2, and the average value of the water use efficiency (WUE) for photosynthesis in the season was 2.3-3.3 g C/kg H2O. WUE was relatively constant during the growing season as a result of a close relationship between the exchange of CO2 and water, the main processes ensuring the production of organic matter in the spruce forest ecosystem.
																								



6.
Soil Nematode Communities under Crowns of Trees Introduced in Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden

D. S. KALINKINA1, A. A. SUSHCHUK1, E. M. MATVEEVA1, I. V. ZENKOVA2
1Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
2Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems of the Kola Science Centre of RAS, 184209, Apatity, Akademgorodok, 14A
Keywords: почвенные нематоды, древесные интродуценты, ботанический сад, структура сообществ, нематоды-паразиты растений, Мурманская обл, soil nematodes, introduced trees, botanical garden, community structure, plant-parasitic nematodes, Murmansk region

Abstract >>
Nematode communities were studied in the root-inhabited soil layer under trees introduced in the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden of Kоla Scientific Centre, RAS in Murmansk region. Nematodes of 48 taxa were found under introduction; bacterial feeders and plant parasites showed the greatest diversity (56 and 21 % of the total number of taxa, respectively). Tendency of genera number decreasing was shown in series “deciduous tree - coniferous tree - natural biocoenosis”; and similar regularity was obtained for plant-parasites. There were found phytoparasitic taxa rare for North-West of Russia. An adaptive mechanism related to delay in egg laying by female and further intra-uterine development of juveniles was found in the populations of Rhabditis producta Schneider, 1866 (bacterial feeding nematodes). This mechanism is very important for offspring survival in unfavorable environmental conditions in the North. The study allows to establish reliable correlation between taxonomic diversity of nematodes and majority of investigated soil properties (pH, ash content, N, P): relative abundance of omnivorous and associated with plants nematodes correlates with content of organic matter, organic carbon, C : N ratio; and relative abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes shows a correlation with vegetation cover.
																								



7.
Features of Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Populations of Tuberoid Orhids

M. B. FARDEEVA, N. A. CHIZHIKOVA
Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, Kremlevskaya str., 18
Keywords: пространственно-временная структура, флюктуационная и однонаправленная динамика, микролокусы, микросайты, миграции, spatial and age structure, fluctuational and directional dynamics, microlocus, microhabitat, migration

Abstract >>
The features of the long-term fluctuational dynamics of the populations of tuberoid orchids ( Neottianthe cucullata and Dactylorhiza incarnаta ) growing in various phytocoenotic and climatic conditions are presented as the realization of the mechanism of population stability under conditions of a heterogeneous habitat. The work shows ability of populations to take advantage of microsites favorable for their existence, the conditions in which are determined by the temporal dynamics of climatic factors, the abiotic environment and interspecific interactions. It is established that the unidirectional dynamics of the populations of tuberoid orchids, determined by demutative-digressive successions in plant communities under the combined effect of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic impacts, leads not only to a decrease in abundance and density, but also to the destruction of the spatial distribution and the population life stage structure. The relationship between species abundance and climatic factors is assessed using a correlation coefficient which is significant for adult reproductive plants of forest species ( N . cucullata ) and for juvenile plants of meadow species ( D . incarnаta ).
																								



8.
Ecological Сoenotic Variations and Demographic Peculiarities of Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill s.l. (Ranunculaceae) Coenopopulations in Kirov Region

N. Yu. EGOROVA1, T. L. EGOSHINA1,2, O. E. SUSHENTSOV3
1Professor Zhitkov Russian Research Institute of Game Manаgement and Fur Farming, 610000, Kirov, Preobrazhenskaya str., 79
2Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, 610017, Kirov, Oktyabrskiy ave., 133
3Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of RAS, 620130, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202A
Keywords: Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill s. str, ценопопуляция, эколого-фитоценотическая приуроченность, плотность, генеративность, Кировская обл, coenopopulations, ecological-phytocoenotic restriction, density, generativeness, Kirov Region

Abstract >>
The authors estimated habitats’ ecological conditions and demographic parameters of Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill s.l. in 10 coenopopulations in Kirov Region. The study states that within the investigated area the species is present in pine communities of green moss and herbaceous types with prevalence of anthropophobic species. Large proportion of anthropotolerant species is typical of communities significantly suppressed by human activity. P. patens s.l. is a hemistenobiotic species whose ecological space amplitude in Kirov Region does not exceed the limits of Tsyganov’s scale ecological range [1983], but soil humidity scale values are approaching the maximum limit and scales of humidity variability - near the minimum. Discomfort index calculated with phytoindication data allows determining the level of favour. We have determined that conditions of mixed herbs - gramineous meadow with bracken coincide with optimum ecological parameters for the species growth. The least favourable conditions for P. patens s.l. development are formed in cowberry-green moss pine forest and herbaceous pine forests where maximum discomfort indices are marked: 1.09 and 1.01, respectively. The coenopopulations studied are of low density and generativity, which demonstrate the decrease tendency on an ecological conditions gradient.
																								



9.
Significance of the Xenogamy in Development of the Life Strategies for Fragaria vesca L. in Western Siberia

S. O. BATURIN
Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, Academician Lavrentyev ave., 10
Keywords: Fragaria vesca, ксеногамия, автогамия, система размножения, биотоп, жизненная стратегия, патиенты, виоленты, эксплеренты, Западная Сибирь, xenogamy, autogamy, breeding systems, biotope, life strategy, violents - competitors, patients - stress tolerants, explerents - ruderals, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
The Fagaria vesca L. seed reproduction in natural populations is characterized by a combination of xenogamy and autogamy. To determine the proportion of xenogamy, a field experiment was conducted. During flowering, inbred line N 08-2 was planted with native wild strawberry populations at two different biotopes. The inbred line is marked with a recessive allele c with a light yellow color of the berry. Plants from native population form berries with only red coloring - a dominant trait. Seeds from the plants of line No. 08-2 were collected after the flowering period. Genetic analysis of these seedlings was carried out on the genetic marker “berries coloring”. In case of autogamy realization, the seedlings had a light yellow color of the berries. If xenogamy was carried out, the plants had red berries. It occurred as a result of insects transfering of pollen with dominant allele C from native plants F. vesca . Significant differences in the ratio of systems of crossing - autogamy and xenogamy among a number of experimental plants after genetic analysis were shown. However, the integral value of xenogamy, realized in the seed progeny, in both natural populations of F. vesca was similar and amounted to 21 %, and the average share of autogamy was 79 %. This ratio of crossing systems for F. vesca population, is optimal for maintaining the heterogeneity of population and realizing life strategy in conditions of natural growth. With xenogamy, a certain proportion of heterozygous heterozygotes is maintained in the population capable of mastering new habitats, while the strategy of explerents is implemented. Autogamy contributes to an increase in the proportion of inbred genotypes - patients. Thus, under the conditions of the environmental heterogeneity of Western Siberia for F. vesca , due to xenogamy, there are conditions for implementing any of the three types of strategies: violents, patients and explerents, depending on the conditions of plant existence.
																								



10.
Assessment of Soil Water Composition Dynamics in the North Taiga Forests at Reduction of Industrial Air Pollution by Emissions of Copper-Nickel Smelters

V. V. ERSHOV1, N. V. LUKINA2, M. A. ORLOVA2, L. G. ISAEVA1, V. E. SMIRNOV2,3, T. T. GORBACHEVA1
1Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems of the Kola Scientific Center, RAS, 184209, Apatity, Akademgorodok, 14а
2enter for Forest Ecology аnd Productivity of RAS, 117997, Moscow, Profsoyuznаya str., 84/32, build. 14
3Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, M. V. Keldysh Branch of IAM, RAS, 142290, Pushchino, Professor Vitkevich str., 1
Keywords: хвойные леса, техногенные дигрессии, атмосферные выпадения, почвенные воды, тяжелые металлы, сульфаты, химические индикаторы, пространственное варьирование, многолетняя динамика, coniferous forests, industrial air pollution, pollution-induced digression, atmospheric deposition, soil waters, heavy metals, sulfates, spatial variation, many-year dynamics

Abstract >>
This work is aimed at assessing the dynamics of the composition of soil water in coniferous forests subjected to air pollution from copper-nickel smelters “Severonickel” in the Murmansk region. Objects of investigations were the most common in boreal zone spruce forests with dwarf shrubs + green mosses and pine forests with dwarf shrubs + lichens. The obtained results showed a significant intra- (below the crowns and between the crowns) and inter-biogeocoenotic (spruce and pine forests) variation in the composition of atmospheric deposition and soil waters in forests under pollution. Atmospheric deposition of pollutants and leaching their compounds from all soil genetic horizons were tens (sulfates) and hundreds (copper, nickel) times higher than in reference sites, and their fluxes below the crowns were usually more intense than between the crowns. Long-term dynamics (from 1993 to 2012) demonstrated reliable trends in reducing concentrations and leaching sulfates and heavy metals from the soil. The molar ratio of basic cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil waters from all soil horizons did not drop to the critical level, whereas for mineral nitrogen the lowest critical level (0.2 mg/l) was exceeded in waters from all horizons at all stages of digression. It has been shown that for early detection of exceedances of critical level for mineral nitrogen in soil waters an evaluation of their composition is necessary not only between the crowns but also below them.