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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2018 year, number 2

1.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE SAMARKA TERRANE cherts (Sikhote-Alin) AND THE SIZE OF THE ACCRETED PALEO-OCEANIC PLATE

I.V. Kemkin1,2, A.I. Khanchuk2, R.A. Kemkina1
1Far Eastern Federal University, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
2Far East Geological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia
Keywords: Геохимия, радиоляриевые кремни, седиментационные обстановки, Сихотэ-Алинь, Geochemistry, radiolarian cherts, depositional environments, Sikhote-Alin

Abstract >>
We have studied the geochemistry of Late Triassic cherts from tectonic sedimentary complexes of different structural levels of the Samarka terrane. The results show that the contents and distribution patterns of major rock-forming oxides, trace elements, and REE in the cherts of the upper and lower structural levels are somewhat different, which is due to different facies environments of chert accumulation. In particular, the contents of Al2O3, TiO2, and K2O gradually decrease and the contents of Fe2O3 and MnO increase downsection. The contents of Zr, Rb, Hf, Th, and Cr, which were supplied into the bottom sediments with a terrigenous suspension of heavy-mineral fragments, are twice to ten-fold lower than their average contents in the upper crust. In contrast, the contents of Pb, Cu, and Ni, which got into the sediments mostly with hydrothermal metalliferous solutions, are rather high and even exceed their average contents in the middle and upper crust. That is, the contents of the first-group trace elements gradually decrease and the contents of the second-group trace elements increase from upper to lower structural level. The calculated negative Ce anomaly gradually decreases from lower (0.75) to upper (0.88) structural level. The geochemical parameters altogether indicate that the cherts accumulated in the same pelagic sedimentation environment but in its different parts. The Katen complex composing the lower structural level is the most remote from the continental margin, and the Amba-Matai complex forming the upper structural level is the most proximal. Based on the geochemical and biostratigraphic data and on the time of accretion of paleo-oceanic fragments, we have established the location of each complex within the not yet subducted oceanic plate and estimated the extension of this plate. Throughout the Jurassic, about 6000 km of the oceanic lithosphere was subducted beneath the eastern margin of the Paleo-Asian continent and partly accreted to it.
																								



2.
FERROMANGANESE NODULES OF FRESHWATER RESERVOIRS OF OL’KHON ISLAND (Baikal) AND THE KULUNDA PLAIN (West Siberia)

V.D. Strakhovenko1,2, S.I. Shkol’nik3, I.V. Danilenko1
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Rususian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Геохимия, минералогия, железомарганцевые конкреции, пресноводные водоемы, Сибирь, Geochemistry, mineralogy, ferromanganese nodules, freshwater reservoirs, Siberia

Abstract >>
Morphology and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of freshwater ferromanganese nodules of Ol’khon Island (Sasa Formation) and Kulunda Plain (Lake Porozhnee) were studied. The study has shown rhythmic structures of the nodules, formed by macro- and microlayers with mineralized microflora. The layers are composed of either crystalline Mn mineral phases and finely dispersed Fe phases (Lake Porozhnee) or, on the contrary, crystalline goethite and X-ray amorphous Mn phases (Ol’khon Island). Separation of Mn and Fe mineral phases in the nodules proceeded during their formation and diagenesis. The freshwater nodules show both high (Lake Porozhnee) and low (Ol’khon Island) Mn/Fe ratios. The predominance of Fe phase in the Ol’khon nodules accounts for their high contents of REE, including Ce. The Porozhnee nodules grew, most likely, more rapidly, which is reflected in their low REE contents and Ce anomaly. The examined chemical and mineral compositions, textures, and structures of the nodules testify to the low-temperature hydrothermal source of their ore substance.
																								



3.
Formation OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BRACKISH AND BRINE GROUNDWATER IN THE TUVA DEPRESSION AND SURROUNDING AREAS

N.V. Guseva1, Yu. G. Kopylova1, Ch.K. Oidup2, K.D. Arakchaa3, K.M. Rychkova2, A.A. Khvashchevskaya1, O.D. Ayunova2
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Tuva Institute of Comprehensive Exploration of Natural Resources, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Internatsional'naya 117a, Kyzyl, 667007, Russia
3Research Institute of Medical and Social Problems and Management of the Tuva Republic, ul. Lenina 48, Kyzyl, 667000, Russia
Keywords: Солоноватые воды, химический состав, континентальное засоление, окисление, система вода, порода, Тувинский прогиб, Brackish waters, chemical composition, continental salinization, oxidation, water-rock system, Tuva depression

Abstract >>
Groundwater with high salinity is widespread in different climatic and geologic environments of the world. The formation of its chemical composition, however, is still debatable. The chemical composition of groundwater has been studied in 19 springs of the Tuva depression. In this area, hydrocarbonate, sulfate, and chloride waters with different cation compositions discharge. Their TDS value varies mainly from 1 to 6 g/L, reaching 315 g/L at only one point. The chemical composition of the studied waters is reflective of the geostructural, hydrogeologic, landscape, and geochemical conditions. The main processes determining the chemical composition of the waters are their interaction with aluminosilicate minerals, dissolution of gypsum and halite, evaporation, and oxidation of sulfide minerals.
																								



4.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF GROUND ICE, SALINE GROUNDWATER, AND BRINES IN THE CRYOARTESIAN BASINS OF THE NORTHEASTERN SIBERIAN PLATFORM

L.P. Alekseeva, S.V. Alekseev
Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Rususian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Подземные льды, хлоридные подземные соленые воды и рассолы, гидрогеохимическая зональность, стабильные изотопы, гидроминеральное сырье, водопритоки, Ground ice, chloride saline groundwater and brines, hydrogeochemical zonation, stable isotopes, hydromineral resources, water inflow

Abstract >>
We present results of a comprehensive study of ground ice, saline waters, and brines in the cryoartesian basins of the northeastern Siberian Platform. The composition of major geochemical types of ground ice is considered. The specifics of the hydrogeochemical zonation of the cryoartesian basins are the regional distribution of chloride saline waters and brines. Study of stable isotopes (18О, D, 37Cl, 81Br, and 87Sr/86Sr) led us to the conclusion that the chloride brines resulted either from the leaching of halogen rocks or from the metamorphism of bittern connate water. The drainage brine reserves (hydromineral resources) of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe in the Olenek cryoartesian basin are assessed.
																								



5.
NEOCOMIAN PALEOGEOGRAPHY, GAS HYDRATE CEMENTATION OF SEDIMENTS, AND ABNORMAL SEQUENCES OF THE BAZHENOV FORMATION (West Siberia)

V.F. Grishkevich
OOO Lukoil-Engineering, KogalymNIPINeft' Filial, ul. Respubliki 41, Tyumen, 625000, Russia
Keywords: Баженовская свита, аномальный разрез, подводный оползень, палеогеография, палеобатиметрия, газогидратная цементация, Abnormal zone, submarine slide, paleogeography, paleobathymetry, gas hydrate, cementation, Bazhenov Formation

Abstract >>
Abnormal zones of the Bazhenov Formation originated in the Neocomian as a result of protobazhenite reworking by submarine slide and slump waste wedgings. But gas hydrate (GH) cementation might restrict the rock ability for plastic deformation. The conditions for GH thermodynamic stability in protobazhenites are inferred from reconstructions of paleogeographic and paleo-oceanic environments. Joint analysis of Neocomian marine paleodepths and deep water paleotemperatures provides an explanation of the Bazhenov abnormal-zone extension.
																								



6.
JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND ORGANIC MATTER GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS (Russian Arctic)

B.L. Nikitenko1,2, V.P. Devyatov3, N.K. Lebedeva1,2, V.A. Basov4, E.A. Fursenko1,2, A.A. Goryacheva1,2, E.B. Peshchevitskaya1, L.A. Glinskikh1, S.N. Khafaeva1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Krasnyi pr. 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
4I.S. Gramberg All-Russian Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean, Angliiskii pr. 1, St. Petersburg, 190121, Russia
Keywords: Юра, мел, стратиграфия, органическая геохимия, молекулы-биомаркеры, фораминиферы, остракоды, цисты динофлагеллят, споры и пыльца, Арктика, Новосибирские острова, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Arctic, New Siberian Islands, stratigraphy, organic geochemistry, biomarker molecules, foraminifers, ostracods, dinocysts, spores and pollen

Abstract >>
The Jurassic-Cretaceous terrigenous complex of the Laptev and East Siberian seas is of considerable interest as a potential exploration target. However, the key Jurassic and Cretaceous sections of the New Siberian Islands have been poorly studied. The results of this study were used to provide a detailed micropaleontological description of these sections and substantiation of the previous lithostratigraphic subdivision. We first identified a series of Boreal standard zones in the Jurassic and Cretaceous sections, based on their foraminifers, ostracods, dinocysts, and terrestrial palynomorphs. Our results, along with the published data on ammonites, bivalves, and terrestrial palynomorphs and the results of radiometric dating, provide more precise constraints on the stratigraphic position of the identified lithostratigraphic units. The results of this study can be corroborated by seismic data to explore offshore areas of the Laptev and East Siberian seas. We also present detailed data on the geochemistry of organic matter from the Pestsovaya Formation (Hettangian-lowermost Upper Pliensbachian).
																								



7.
TOMMOTIAN (LOWER CAMBRIAN) STRATIGRAPHY AND FOSSIL FAUNA COMMUNITIES IN THE KIYA RIVER SECTION (Kuznetsk Alatau)

I.V. Korovnikov1,2, D.A. Tokarev1, N.V. Novozhilova1,2, A.A. Terleev1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Стратиграфия, археоциаты, мелкораковинная фауна, томмотский ярус, Алтае-Саянская складчатая область, Stratigraphy, archaeocyatha, small shelly fossils, Tommotian Stage, ed Altai-Sayan fold area

Abstract >>
The lower Ust’-Kundat Formation has been studied in detail in a section along the Kiya River (Kuznetsk Alatau, Altai-Sayan fold area). The section was deposited during the Tommotian stage and is a stratotype for the Lower Cambrian Ust’-Kundat sequence comprising several members of the Ust’-Kundat Formation. Member 2 contains newly discovered and previously known species of archaeocyathids near its top found stratigraphically lower than the oldest known archaeocyathan assemblage of the Nochoroicyathus mariinskii biozone. The found archaeocyaths cannot be dated precisely and may have either Tommotian or Atdabanian ages. Small shelly fossils from the same section cover a large stratigraphic range as well. The findings call for updating the age of the upper Ust’-Kundat sequence and the Tommotian upper boundary in the regional stratigraphy of the Altai-Sayan folded area.
																								



8.
ASSESSMENT OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD ON THE RUSSIAN COAST BASED ON A NEW CATALOGUE OF TSUNAMIS IN THE BLACK SEA AND THE SEA OF AZOV

A.A. Nikonov1, V.K. Gusiakov2,3, L.D. Fleifel’1
1Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. B. Gruzinskaya 10, Moscow, 123810, Russia
2Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent'eva 6, 630090, Russia
3Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent'eva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Природные катастрофы, очаги землетрясений, сейсмотектоника, цунами, исторические каталоги, цунамиопасность, цунамирайонирование, внутренние бассейны, Черное море, Азовское море, Natural disasters, earthquake sources, seismotectonics, tsunami, historical catalogues, tsunami hazard, tsunami zoning, inland basins, Black Sea, Sea of Azov

Abstract >>
We present the results of work on the compilation of a fuller and more comprehensive historical catalogue of earthquakes and tsunamis in the basin of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, an area of primary importance for the Russian Federation. In the 20th century, there were no significant tsunamis in the Black Sea; therefore, its coast was not considered tsunami-prone. A systematic search for new data sources, a revision of earlier ones, and the use of new approaches to the identification of tsunamigenic events resulted in a more than doubling of the number of known tsunamigenic events in this basin, bringing it up to 50. The total length of the new tsunami catalogue reached 3000 years, which makes it the second longest after the Mediterranean tsunami catalogue (about 4000 years). Taking into account the seismotectonic features of the Black Sea region, we processed data on historical tsunamis and analyzed the geographical and temporal distributions of their sources. For all tsunamigenic events we performed a parameterization of available information about their sources and coastal manifestations, evaluated the tsunami intensity based on the Soloviev-Imamura scale, and proposed a classification of tsunami and tsunami-like water wave disturbances based on their genesis. Tsunami run-up heights, inland penetration, and damage were estimated with regard for the newly found data. Among the identified historical events, there are devastating tsunamis with run-ups of 4-5 m, sometimes up to 6-8 m, which resulted in disastrous consequences for several ancient cities (Dioscuria, Sebastopolis, Bizone, and Panticapaeum) and many coastal settlements. Expert assessments of the most tsunami-prone areas of the coasts are given.
																								



9.
POTENTIALITIES OF ULTRAWIDEBAND GPR IN LOW-RESISTIVITY GEOENVIRONMENTS

A.A. Cheremisin1,2, Yu.V. Vasil’ev2, V.V. Olenchenko3,4, M.I. Epov3,4, R.E. Toib5, I.S. Shnipov5, S.V. Shirokov5, V.B. Boltintsev6
1Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodnyi 79/10, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
2Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railway Transport, Irkutsk State University of Railways, ul. Lado Ketskhoveli 89, Krasnoyarsk, 660028, Russia
3A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
4Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
5GeoTekhMonitoring, ul. Baumana 3, Krasnoyarsk, 660028, Russia
6Geodizond, pr. Gagarina 14, St. Petersburg, 196211, Russia
Keywords: Сверхширокополосная георадиолокация, электротомография, Ultrawideband GPR, electrical resistivity tomography

Abstract >>
We assess the potentialities of ultrawideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulse sounding of low-resistivity geoenvironments using the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system developed by us and compare the obtained results with 2D electrical resistivity tomography and standard GPR data. The research was performed in an area of Quaternary clay deposits with a resistivity of 20-50 Ohm·m. For an OKO-2 GPR antenna with a center frequency of 150 MHz, the sounding depth is 2-4 m, whereas UWB sounding provides penetration of the GPR pulse to a depth of 30-40 m. Deep UWB sounding of low-resistivity environments is possible under the following conditions: use of generators based on drift step recovery diodes (DSRDs), high matching of the UWB receiving and transmitting antennas to the environment, and an increase in the noise immunity of the recording system, in particular, due to a decrease in the intensity of air waves.