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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2017 year, number 5

1.
60 years of space era: some details

A.I. Maksimov

Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: maksimov@itam.nsc.ru


Keywords: launcher, satellite, spacecraft, launch pad, payload capability, low Earth orbit, geosta-tionary transfer orbit, successful launch
Pages: 639655
Abstract >>
The paper describes preparation and launching of the first artificial satellites of the Earth in the USSR and USA. Statistical data of successful and unsuccessful launches in 19572016 are provided. Brief information about the families of launchers created on the basis of the R-7 (USSR) and also Atlas and Titan (USA) ballistic missiles is given. The long-time evolution of rocket launchers is traced by an example of the 50 years of the Delta family (USA) based on the Thor intermediate range ballistic missile. 

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050018
																								



2.
Mathematical modeling of rotation effects on conjugate heat and mass transfer at a high-enthalpy flow around a spherically blunted cone at inci-dence

K.N. Efimov, V.A. Ovchinnikov, and A.S. Yakimov

Tomsk State National Research University, Tomsk, Russia

E-mail: yakimovas@mail.ru
Keywords: conjugate heat and mass exchange, rotation, ablation, thermal protection material
Pages: 657669
Abstract >>
Some methods of thermal regime control for three dimensional flows around a body due to the simultaneous impact of body rotation around the longitudinal axis, mass ablative surface, and heat transfer flow in the body shell material are considered. The solution to the dual formulation allows us to take into account the impact of non-isothermal shell wall on the characteristics of heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer. The effect of the body rotation and the injection of cooler gas on the characteristics of heat and mass exchange in a thermal protection material is analyzed.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431705002X
																								



3.
Features of molecular-beam mass spectrometry registration of clusters in underexpanded supersonic jets

A.E. Zarvin, V.V. Kalyada, and V.E. Khudozhitkov


Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: zarvin@phys.nsu.ru
Keywords: supersonic jet, molecular beam, condensation, cluster formation, mass-spectrometry, cluster ionization
Pages: 671681
Abstract >>
The structure of clustered supersonic underexpanded jets of molecular nitrogen and argon was measured by the method of molecular beam mass-spectrometry. Peculiarities of application of the molecular beam methods for recording the supersonic rarefied gas jets under the conditions of weak and developed condensation (i.e., in the presence of small and large clusters in jets) have been discovered, identified, and studied. An unusual shape of longitudinal and transverse cross sections of the clustered supersonic jets was revealed and explained when scanning with a molecular-beam system. It has been determined that small clusters and monomers are the sources of double-ionized monomers available near the flow axis, and dimer ions at the early stages of condensation, whereas another mechanism of such ion formation dominates, when large clusters area available in the flow. A marker for fixing the stage of formation of small clusters in a supersonic flow is proposed.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050031
																								



4.
The aspects of the numerical modeling of acoustic oscillations of the pressure at large time scales

D.I. Zaripov and N.I. Mikheev

Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia

E-mail: zaripov.d.i@mail.ru, n.miheev@mail.ru
Keywords: boundary condition, numerical scheme, circular channel, long channel, resonance, acoustic oscillations
Pages: 683690
Abstract >>
The influence of properties of first- and second-order accuracy finite-difference schemes and of the grid roughness in the computational domain on the prediction of amplitude-frequency responses of pressure oscillations is investigated within the framework of the problem of steady-state oscillations in a semi-closed channel. It is shown that Godunov-type first-order accuracy scheme underestimates the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations relative to experimental data. Second-order accuracy LaxWendroff scheme leads to qualitative coincidence of a trend of amplitude-frequency response with experimental data in terms of the harmonics number even at a relatively coarse discretization of a computational domain.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050043
																								



5.
Numerical investigation of the air injection effect on the cavitating flow in Francis hydro turbine

D.V. Chirkov1,2, P.K. Shcherbakov2, S.G. Cherny1,2, V.A. Skorospelov3, and P.A. Turuk3 

1Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

3Sobolev Institute of Mathematics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: chirkov@ict.nsc.ru, 1doffys@gmail.com
Keywords: numerical modeling, hydro turbines, cavitation, air injection, self-excited oscillations
Pages: 691703
Abstract >>
At full and over load operating points, some Francis turbines experience strong self-excited pressure and power oscillations. These oscillations are occuring due to the hydrodynamic instability of the cavitating fluid flow. In many cases, the amplitude of such pulsations may be reduced substantially during the turbine operation by the air injection/admission below the runner. Such an effect is investigated numerically in the present work. To this end, the hybrid one-three-dimensional model of the flow of the mixture liquid-vapor in the duct of a hydroelectric power station, which was proposed previously by the present authors, is augmented by the second gaseous component ¾ the non-condensable air. The boundary conditions and the numerical method for solving the equations of the model are described. To check the accuracy of computing the interface liquid-gas, the numerical method was applied at first for solving the dam break problem. The algorithm was then used for modeling the flow in a hydraulic turbine with air injection below the runner. It is shown that with increasing flow rate of the injected air, the amplitude of pressure pulsations decreases. The mechanism of the flow structure alteration in the draft tube cone has been elucidated, which leads to flow stabilization at air injection.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050055
																								



6.
An explicit algebraic model of the planetary bounda-ry layer turbulence: test computation of the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer

A.F. Kurbatskii1 and  L.I. Kurbatskaya2

1Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mails: kurbat@itam.nsc.ru, L.Kurbatskaya@ommgp.sscc.ru
Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, algebraic models of Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat flux, stable stratification, internal waves, numerical modeling
Pages: 705717
Abstract >>
An explicit algebraic model of Reynolds stresses and the turbulent heat flux vector for the planetary boundary layer in a neutrally stratified boundary layer of the atmosphere above a homogeneous rough surface is tested. The version of the algebraic model under consideration is constructed on the physical principles of the RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) approximation for describing stratified turbulence, it employs three forecasting equations, and a correct reproduction of the main characteristics of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer ¾ the components of the mean wind velocity, the wind turn angle, and the turbulent statistics is shown. Test computations show that the proposed model may be used for goal-oriented investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050067
																								



7.
Gravitational settling of a highly concentrated system of solid spherical particles

V.A. Arkhipov and A.S. Usanina

Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia

E-mail: Usaninaanna@mail.ru
Keywords: solid spherical particle, highly concentrated system of particles, gravity sedimenta-tion, settling regime, drag coefficient
Pages: 719730
Abstract >>
In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the process of gravity sedimentation of a cloud of monodispersed solid spherical particles with initial volume concentration C > 0.03, which was performed in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An analytical estimate of the settling regimes of spherical particle clouds is presented. A new method for creating a spherical particle cloud with a high concentration of particles is proposed. A qualitative picture of the settling process of a highly concentrated particle cloud under gravity is revealed. A criterial dependence for the drag coefficient of a sedimenting spherical particle cloud as an entity is obtained.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050079
																								



8.
Numerical simulation of a flat plate film cooling with a coolant supply into differ-ent shape indentations

A.A. Khalatov1,2, N.A. Panchenko1,2, and S.D. Severin1

1Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

2I. Sikorsky National Technical University of Ukraine, Kiev Polytechnic  Institute, Kiev, Ukraine

E-mail: Artem.Khalatov1942@gmail.com
Keywords: film cooling, film-cooling efficiency, surface dimples, triangular craters,, transverse trench
Pages: 731737
Abstract >>
Results of a film cooling numerical simulation over a flat plate with coolant supply into indentations of different shape are reported. The calculations were performed for the blowing-ratio changed from 0.5 to 2.0. For comparison, data for traditional film cooling scheme with one row of discrete cylindrical inclined holes were used. At small value of blowing ratio (m = 0.5), the average film-cooling efficiency is roughly identical for all indentations tested. With blowing ratio growth, the scheme with a coolant supply into the transverse trench demonstrates the best results.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050080
																								



9.
Formation of thermocapillary structures in a heated liquid film

S.P. Aktershev, E.N. Shatskiy, and  E.A. Chinnov

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: sergey-aktershev@mail.ru
Keywords: heated film, thermocapillary instability, rivulet structures
Pages: 739749
Abstract >>
The conditions of formation of a three-dimensional thermocapillary structure on the surface of a liquid film flowing along a heater with the constant temperature were studied numerically based on the derived system of equations. Formation of the thermocapillary structure was modeled by periodic perturbations in the transverse direction superimposed on the two-dimensional flow. It is shown in calculations that transversal perturbations can develop into periodic rivulet structures on the film surface if the Marangoni number exceeds some threshold value. It is revealed that the rivulet structure develops when the period belongs to a certain range, which is determined by the value of Marangoni number. The results of calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050092
																								



10.
An experimental investigation of convective heat transfer at evapora-tion of kerosene and water in the closed volume

V.I. Trushlyakov1, I.Y. Lesnyak1, and  L. Galfetti2 

1Omsk State Technical University, Omsk, Russia

2Milan Technical University, Milan, Italy

E-mail: lesnyak.ivan@gmail.com
Keywords: heat and mass transfer, fuel tanks, gasification, fuel components
Pages: 751760
Abstract >>
An evaporation of kerosene and water was investigated based on convective heat transfer in the experimental setup simulating a typical volume of the fuel tank of the launch vehicle. Basic criteria of similarity used in choosing the design parameters of the setup, parameters of the coolant and model liquids, were numbers of Reynolds, Prandtl, Biot, and Nusselt. The used coolants were gases, including air and nitrogen; in addition, at the stage of preliminary experiments, products of combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) were considered. Boundary conditions were taken for the liquid located on the plate in the form of "drop" and at its uniform film spread in the experimental model setup. On the basis of experimental investigations, the temperature values were obtained for the system "gas-liquid-wall", and areas of mass transfer surface and heat transfer coefficients of gas-liquid and gas- plate were determined for coolants (air and nitrogen) and for liquids (water and kerosene). The comparative analysis of the obtained results and the known data was carried out. Proposals for experiments using coolants based on HTPB combustion products have been formulated.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050109
																								



11.
Boiling water jet outflow from a thin nozzle: spatial modeling

R.Kh. Bolotnova1 and  V.A. Korobchinskaya1,2

1Mavlutov Institute of Mechanics, Ufa, Russia

2Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: bolotnova@anrb.ru
Keywords: thin nozzle, boiling water outflow, nucleation, mathematical and numerical modeling
Pages: 761771
Abstract >>
This study presents dual-temperature two-phase model for liquid-vapor mixture with account for evaporation and inter-phase heat transfer (taken in single-velocity single-pressure approximation). Simulation was performed using the shock-capturing method and moving Lagrangian grids. Analysis was performed for simulated and experimental values of nucleation frequency (for refining the initial number and radius of microbubbles) which affect the evaporation rate. Validity of 2D and 1D simulation was examined through comparison with experimental data. The peculiarities of the water-steam formation at the initial stage of outflow through a thin nozzle were studied for different  initial equilibrium states of water for the conditions close to chosen experimental conditions.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050110
																								



12.
Interdiffusion in lithiumlead melts

R.A. Khairulin1, S.V. Stankus1, and  R.N. Abdullaev2

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: kra@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: diffusion, melt, lithium-lead system, gamma-method
Pages: 773778
Abstract >>
Interdiffusion in lithium-lead melts containing 10.0, 15.0, 18.1, 20.0, 25.1, 30.2, 38.2, 40.1, 43.1, 46.7, 50.2, 60.2, and 70.0 at. % Pb was investigated using gamma-ray attenuation technique in the temperature range from 720 to 1030 K. It has been found that the concentration dependence of the interdiffusion coefficient has a maximum in the vicinity of 20 at. % Pb. This phenomenon is shown to relate to a tendency of formation of short-range order in liquid alloys of lithium-lead.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050122
																								



13.
Numerical evaluation of the laser-pulse modification modes of the metal surface layer in the presence of a surface-active component in the melt

V.N. Popov and A.N. Cherepanov

Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: popov@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: modification, nano-size refractory particles, impulse laser radiation, convective heat and mass transfer, numerical simulation
Pages: 779786
Abstract >>
Numerical evaluation of the laser-pulse modification of a metal layer with refractory nano-size particles was done. The modes of the laser-pulse action promoting creation of the flows for homogeneous distribution of modifying particles in the melt were determined for various amounts of the surface-active admixture in the metal.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050134
																								



14.
Methods for analysis and synthesis of technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving auxiliary problems of linear programming

A.M. Kler, A.S. Maximov, and  N.O. Epishkin

Melentiev Energy Systems Institute SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia

E-mail: maxalex@isem.irk.ru
Keywords: mathematical modeling, thermal power plants, technological scheme analysis, param-eter optimization
Pages: 787798
Abstract >>
The paper describes the developed method for analyzing technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving problems of auxiliary linear programming. This method involves solving the linear programming problems to evaluate the effect of supply and removal of heat or material flows of various sizes at different points of the technological scheme of a thermal power plant (TPP). The method effectiveness is demonstrated by the example of the coal-dust steam turbine unit with nominal electrical output of 660 MW. As a result of its application, the change of the technological scheme of the unit was found to provide reduction in electricity cost by 0.3%.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050146
																								



15.
Wave processes at outflow of water coolant with initial supercritical parameters

M.V. Alekseev1, I.S. Vozhakov1,2, S.I. Lezhnin1,2, and  N.A. Pribaturin1

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: alekseev@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: supercritical parameters, nonequilibrium phase transition
Pages: 799802
Abstract >>
Simulation is presented for the case of water coolant outflow with initial supercritical parameters after high pressure pipeline breaking. The nonequilibrium relaxation model of phase transition was developed and validated. The model describes both boiling and condensation processes.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317050147
																								



16.
Heat flux density in the region of droplet contact line on a horizontal surface of a thin heated foil

V.V. Cheverda1, 2, A.L. Karchevsky2,3, I.V. Marchuk1,2, and O.A. Kabov1,4

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

3Sobolev Institute of Mathematics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

4Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia

E-mail: slava.cheverda@gmail.com
Keywords: liquid droplet, local heating, wetting contact line
Pages: 803806
Abstract >>
The evaporating water droplets on a horizontal heated substrate were experimentally studied. The constantan foil 25 μm thick with a size of 42x35 mm2 was used as a substrate. The experiments were carried out with a single droplet or with an ensemble of two or three droplets on the foil. The temperature of the lower surface of foil was measured by an IR scanner. To determine the heat flux density at evaporation of liquid near the contact line, the Cauchy problem for the heat conduction equation was solved using the thermographic data. The results of calculations showed that the maximal heat flux density takes place in the region of the contact line and exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire surface of foil. This is explained by the heat inflow from the foil periphery to the droplet due to relatively high value of the coefficient of heat conductivity of the foil material and high evaporation intensity in the contact line region.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431705016X